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Food & Science - class closed 5/9/2012 OLD

00.00 Introduction to this Class (Food and Science)

As you work through the course, if something doesn't work correctly, feel free to contact the teacher.

There are two quarters for this class. Each of the quarters in this class is worth .25 credits. Upon completion of all requirements in both quarters, you will earn .5 elective credits. The first quarter will cover units 1-4 and is worth .25 credit. The second quarter will cover units 5-7 and is worth .25 credit. I suggest that you refer back to this page often for it will answer many of the questions that students have had as they begin and work through the course. Assignments are submitted online.

After registering for the course and you are ready to begin, go through the materials presented in Topic 1 and Topic 2 then click on Unit 01 in Topic 2 and go through the unit 1 course content. This will give you lesson information and websites to use and the instructions to complete your assignments. There may be websites or other resources available here also to help you learn the materials.

It is critical that you submit an assignment to me at least every 30 days or you will automatically be deleted from the class. I need to stress that this happens automatically, meaning... I don't do it. It will just happen if you are not actively involved in finishing the class. If you are deleted from the roll for inactivity, you will have to re-register and resubmit any work that you did.

Remember that if you ever have questions or don't understand, feel free to email me. I'll do my best to help you understand. I will get back to you as soon as possible. Also make sure that you submit an assignment at least every four weeks otherwise, the system will automatically delete you from my rolls.

Once you have covered the course content in Topic 2 for a specific lesson in a unit then read the instructions and complete the assignment in a word document. Save this to your computer so that you always have a backup. To submit the assignment to me, click on the assignment button in Topic 3. Each assignment will give you specific, detailed information on what you are to do.

You will have a quiz/test for each of the units. Be thorough in your reading/viewing of the content presented and of the information from the websites so that you are prepared to take the quiz/test. The test and quiz information comes from the course materials and assignments. You have ONE ATTEMPT for each test.

Study beforehand because there are NO RETAKES!!! You will have a set amount of time to take the quiz/test. I suggest that as you go through a unit, you may want to take some notes as you read through the information.

Once you go into the test on the computer you must complete the quiz/test at that time. If you go out of the quiz/test, it will lock it up.

There is a final comprehensive test that is given by a proctor (another person) at the end of all of the assignments and tests. Once you have completed all your work, you will be given the information you need to send to start the process of taking your proctored final. I will check to see if you have completed all of your course work and tests/quizzes. If all is completed, I submit this information to the proctor manager. You will then need to go to Topic 4 and click on "Arranging to Take my Proctored Final Test" and follow the instructions there. Study really well for this because you have to pass this exam with at least a D or 60% or you WILL NOT receive credit for the ENTIRE course. There are NO RETAKES!!!

The final test will represent 25 percent of your grade so you want to do really well. Review and study well for it.

Make sure that you keep a copy of all of the assignments you submit in the event of a computer "hiccup" which might cause information to be lost. It is your responsibility to have backups/copies of everything that you submit. Assignments will be submitted online.

There will be some food experiences throughout the class, so you will need access to a kitchen and the ingredients to make the foods required. You may need access to a digital or traditional camera. Some of the labs that you will complete may need pictorial confirmation that you actually completed the lab. These can be submitted digitally (over the computer if you know how to do this) or through the regular postal service.

If you need the credit for this course for graduation, keep in mind that you must have ALL of your work submitted to me by April 15th so that I have time to receive it, grade it, and get your information to the proctor manager. This will allow you enough time to arrange for your final proctored exam. I will continue to grade things after April 15th, but there is no guarantee that things will be processed in time for graduation.

If I have any messages that I need to send, I will send a message to all class members.

Class Objective:
To expose High School students to the area of Food and Nutrition and how foods serve a direct purpose in good nutrition and good health.

This course is designed for students who are interested in the scientific principles involved in nutrition and food science. Attention will be given to selection and preparation of food and personal health and well-being.

Grading Policies:
Grades are earned on a point system. The accumulation of points given will determine the final grade. Grades will be figured from the total possible points at the end of the class. They will be calculated as percents and follow this breakdown. Students are expected to do their own work. Cheating or plagiarism is not tolerated.

To Figure your grade:
Add up all of the points that you have earned. Add up all of the points possible. Divide the points you have earned by the points possible and this will give you a percentage. Compare the percentage with the chart below to determine what grade you have earned.

100.00 % - 93.00 % A
92.99 % - 90.00 % A-
89.99 % - 87.00 % B+
86.99 % - 83.00 % B
82.99 % - 80.00 % B-
79.99 % - 77.00 % C+
76.99 % - 73.00 % C
72.99 % - 70.00 % C-
69.99 % - 67.00 % D+
66.99 % - 60.00 % D
59.99 % - 0.00 % F

Well, I'm excited to get started, so to do this, click on the first Unit in Topic 2 section.

00.01.01 Student Software Needs


Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.


01.00 The Basics (FoodSci)

In this unit you will learn some of the basics of kitchen and food safety, proper kitchen or lab management, and review the basic nutrients. You will explore the scientific method and how measuring, reliability, etc. are very important and also a brief exposure to food physics.

01.01 Food Science Intro and Review (FoodSci)

Welcome to class!

We will be covering some basics in this unit. First you will gain an understanding of Food Science. You will usually read the informaion in the course materials and then have an assignment covering that information. There will be a few quizzes/tests along the way. You might want to take notes as you go along to be prepared for the tests. Good luck!!!

Food Science

What Is Food Science? - A study of food science crosses many branches of science: biology, botany, zoology, physiology, chemistry, bacteriology, physics, and others. Organic chemistry and physics are two that are used extensively in studying food. If you have wondered why a foods, texture, flavor, or appearance is the way it is you were asking a food physics or food chemistry question. Foods are complex chemical substances. Food science is the study of the chemical composition and structure of food and changes that take place with varying procedures.

Imagine your life without all of the convenience foods that were developed and created using food science. Pringle's potato chips are an interesting example. Getting each Pringle's potato chip the same shape took technology and engineering. Food Science was used to develop frozen microwaveable pizza and Tang was invented by NASA scientists.

Food scientists continually discover innovative ways to preserve food so that it is nutritious and safe to eat. Many foods we frequently enjoy were produced through food science. For example, an apple or orange from a vending machine has been in a controlled atmosphere made possible through food science. Many foods that used to be packaged in cans now stay fresh in aseptic packaging; i.e., pudding, juice, and milk. Some other food processes that food scientists have developed include such things as freeze-drying, flash-freezing, irradiation, dehydration, and the benefits of food additives.

Food science discoveries provide many benefits. A great challenge is to provide safe food that everyone can afford. An ever-present challenge of food science is to feed and keep healthy an expanding world population. To effectively evaluate and confront these challenges and the many other scientific discoveries in our world, people within our society need a greater understanding of science than ever before.

Five Areas of Food Science

In the area of food production, scientists have done a variety of things ranging from soil improvement to changes in growing environment and fertilization to improve the end product. Many modern-day scientists are working on the actual genetics of microorganisms, animals, and plants. Many plants and animals have gone through genetic changes as people tried to improve their yields. Often times this would cause a genetic change over time. Scientists are now using biotechnology to actually change the genetic makeup of a product to speed the process up which would take many growth cycles or generations to see a change. By changing a gene they can alter an outcome relatively quickly.

Food processing focuses on taking the food from the farm to the point of being able to market it. This is where things such as packaging, preservation, and quality control are accomplished. It is critical that food be safe for consumption once it reaches the consumer. Often times this means it has to go through some type a process to ensure that it is safe. For some foods, it might mean canning, freezing, drying, or many other processes. All of the steps along the way are monitored to meet government standards and insure safe end-products. Packaging also becomes a big concern and food labels have become standardized to help consumers better understand what the food product contains. This will be studied in more detail later in this class.

Many of us take it for granted that we can pull a ready-made casserole or even ice cream from the freezer, and yet, foods go through a lot of research and development in the processing stage to help in the preparation stage. In food preparation, studies have to be done over and over to insure that the consumer will end up with a comparable product as was achieved in the research lab. Directions on packages have to be clear and easy to read.

Just walking down a grocery store isle can be overwhelming. What should you buy? What does it cost? Will it taste as good as it looks? Does it really have the nutrition it says on the label? There are many questions that can be asked. In the area of food evaluation , food technicians and scientists refine the taste, texture, quality, and appearance of different food items so that the consumer will be more inclined to want that product. Experts are used to help evaluate or make changes. This often is done during the food processing to determine whether it is cost effective to produce the food. Convenience foods such as frozen entrees are good examples of how evaluation has caused these foods to improve from their first inception.

Studying how foods are used or food utilization is a complex process and has created many new and innovative foods. Have you ever heard of tofu? Do you know what it is made from? If you guessed soybeans, you're right. Many foods are being used for other purposes than what many would have first thought. For example, with natural resources being limited, other sources of energy are always being explored. Did you know that plastic can be made from corn starch? It can, and corn is a renewable resource. Not only are foods being used in many different food products for human consumption but also for many other alternative uses.

Basic Nutrients

A brief review of the basic nutrients is necessary at this time. You should be familiar with the basic nutrients, and these will be studied more in depth throughout this course. In particular you will come to understand how the nutrients are part of food science. Resource: U.S.O.E Food Science Curriculum Guide

Water may not seem like a nutrient, but it is, and probably our most important one. Humans can live several weeks without food but only a few days without water. Water makes up almost two- thirds of the body. It is part of every cell. Water carries all of the other nutrients to the cells and takes wastes away. It also helps regulate body temperature. Every food has some water in it.

Proteins are the building blocks of the body. That means every
tissue is made of some form of protein. Even enzymes, antibodies,
and hormones are proteins. Without a steady supply of new protein, we couldn't grow new cells. Our wounds would not heal. Worn-out cells could not be replaced. Protein can also be used for energy if the body doesn't get enough calories from carbohydrates and fats. Excess protein is changed to fat and stored. Meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, and eggs are good sources of protein. Grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes (dry peas and beans) also contain some protein.


The main function of carbohydrates is to supply energy. That's a lot to do with over 100 trillion cells in the body needing a constant supply of fuel. Even when you don't think you are doing a thing, your heart is beating and your lungs are working. In fact, every organ is busy doing something.

There are three different kinds of carbohydrates. The simplest carbohydrates are sugars such as glucose, fructose, dextrose, and sucrose. Sugars are found naturally in fruits, milk, and some vegetables such as peas. Refined sugars from sugar beets and sugarcane are used for table sugar and as sweeteners in processed foods and home recipes.

Starches are more complex carbohydrates. They are found in rice, potatoes, vegetables, breads, and cereals. Complex carbohydrates are receiving new attention because they are so essential to health. Up until now, most people thought foods rich in complex carbohydrates were only starch and should be avoided. Now we understand that these foods are important in our diets, partly because they provide other important nutrients.

Fiber is the complex carbohydrate that forms the tough cell walls in plants. Even though humans can't digest fiber, it is important because it helps keep food moving though the digestive tract. Fiber may also help keep the intestines in good working order. All plants supply some fiber, but whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are especially good sources.

Approximately a pound of carbohydrate is stored in the liver in a form called glycogen. This glycogen is used when the body needs quick energy. Any other excess carbohydrate is converted to fat and stored as fatty tissue.

Scientists recognized that there other things in foods besides the a fore mentioned nutrients and in 1913 when the unknown ingredient was finally discovered. As it turned out, it wasn't just one ingredient but several similar chemicals that we now call vitamins. Although each has a scientific name, we know them best by their letter names A,B,C,D,E, and K and a few with other names like niacin.

Foods contain small amounts of vitamins, yet, without even these tiny amounts, the cells couldn't do their jobs. Vitamins are responsible for helping to form the material that holds cells together, for helping bones and teeth to use calcium, for helping the body use energy, and for many other critical life-support activities.

Like vitamins, the minerals in foods were hard to isolate because there were so many of them doing so many specialized jobs. Minerals do such diverse tasks as building strong bones or maintaining the right amount of water inside the cells. The major minerals we need are calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride. We also need certain other minerals in very tiny amounts. Some of these trace minerals are iron, iodine, fluoride, and zinc.

Fats are the nutrients that supply the most energy-more than twice as much as carbohydrates. They also carry four important vitamins (A,D,E, and K) through the body and supply some fatty acids that are absolutely necessary for good health. The fat that is stored in the body helps insulate, cushion, and protect us. Foods such as butter, margarine, oils, shortenings, and salad dressings are easy to pick out as fats. But not all sources of fat are so obvious. Whole milk, cheeses, ice cream, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, seeds, avocados, olives, gravies, sauces, bakery foods, fried foods, and even some candies contain fats.
01.1 nutrients01.1 nutrients
Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 1-- Assignment 1. This assignment has three parts, so make sure you do all three parts and do a thorough job.

01.01.01 You Are What You Eat (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 1: You Are What You Eat

Answer the following questions. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

PART I: Credit Information
1. Where will your credit certificate be sent when you finish this class.
High School:
High School Address:

2. What year will you graduate in?

PART II: You are what you eat
3. When you have money to spend on snack foods, what do you buy?
Self's Response ?
Teacher's Response? Sun Chip Corn Chips

4. What is your favorite food?
Self's Response
Teacher's Response? Homemade bread

5. What foreign food do you like best? Mexican, Italian, Chinese, Greek, etc.
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Italian. I love pasta!

6. Not feeling well? What do you crave?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Soda Crackers

7. What uncommon or rare food have you eaten?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? - Alligator

8. What foods turn you off?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Cold French Fries

9. If you were stranded on an island for a month, what one food would you take?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? - Milk

10. What one food do you like to prepare at home when you are alone and have to fix your own food?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Grilled Cheese

PART III: Nutrient Review (Information to fill this out is found in content materials.)

11. What are the six basic nutrients?

12. Which nutrient is probably the most important?

13. What is the function of Ascorbic Acid?

14. What nutrients provide energy?

15. How does the body store excess energy?

16. If a person becomes anemic and needs iron, what foods should they eat?

17. What Vitamin should you take to help resist becoming sick?

18. What is the most concentrated energy source in the body?

19. How much of the body is made from water?

20. What should you eat if you have a hard time seeing at dusk?

01.02 Safety (FoodSci)

Unit 1.2-Safety

You will have the opportunity to explore many aspects of food science and actually perform some scientific experiments in which you will learn some of these principles. Realize that you won't be in a “traditional” science lab setting, but you must still carefully utilize safety rules in your own kitchen.

Basic Kitchen Safety
1. Read through the directions completely and get any questions you have answered before beginning.
2. Follow the directions exactly as written.
3. Locate any safety equipment in the area such as fire extinguishers before beginning.
4. Be aware basic safety and first aide procedures and have a first-aid kit handy.
5. Wash hands with soap and warm water before beginning and after finishing any lab experiments.
6. Avoid touching your face or mouth with your hands when conducting experiments.
7. If using volatile ingredients, use safety glasses.
8. Measure accurately.
9. Clean up any spills immediately.
10. Keep electrical appliances away from water and heat sources and turn off when not using.
11. Be mindful of sharp objects such as knives and broken or chipped glassware.
12. When using a flame use extreme caution.
13. Use hot pads or mitts when handling hot objects.
14. Avoid loose clothing, hair, or jewelry that might get in the way.
15. Be careful when you are using boiling hot water and wipe up all spills
16. Keep handles of pans and skillets from extending over sides of stove so they cannot be bumped
17. Use extreme care when you light the oven of a gas range. Follow directions.
18. When putting dishes and pans in and out of the oven, pull out the racks.
20. Turn off range when finished cooking.
21. If grease catches fire, turn off heat and pour generous amount of salt/dry baking soda on the blaze.
22. To avoid a steam bum, lift up the edge of the cover farthest from you.
23. Do not reach across an empty lighted burner.
24. Be careful when using sharp knives. The cook should learn to cut away from him/herself.

Handling Food Safely:

•Some foods should be washed before being used in preparation for human consumption: Fruits, Soiled Eggs, Whole Fish, Vegetables, Meats, Poultry.

•Perishable foods, leftovers, and any foods containing protein should be put in covered containers and stored in a refrigerator.

•Chlorine bleach or another sanitizer should be used on cutting boards where raw meat, fish, and/or poultry have been cut.

•A spatula or another utensil is used instead of fingers whenever possible. NEVER lick your fingers and continue with any activity without washing your hands.

•Food-borne illnesses can be caused by improper care of food. The Four F's that spread disease are: Food, Fungus, Flies, and Fleas.

•The symptoms of food poisoning: "NDV's" = Nausea, Diarrhea, Vomiting

•Food poisoning is preventable by use of good hygiene, keeping the lab sanitary and preparing, serving, and storing food properly.

Parasites from foods can become a problem when foods are not handled safely.

(Select the link "Parasites") and explore the following list of parasites on the website. Pay close attention to how humans can be infected by these specific parasites listed below.


Balantidium coli


Cyclospora cayetanensis



Diphyllobothrium latum

Giardia intestinalis



Metagonimus yokogawai



Opisthorchis felineus

Opisthorchis viverrini


Paragonimus wetermani

Taenia saginata

Taenia solium


Personal cleanliness involves the following:
-wash hands before food preparation, after sneezing, coughing, using rest room, and touching face or hair
-keep hair away from face
-wear clean clothes/apron (dirty clothing has bacteria)
-don't handle food with open cut or sore - STAPH
-avoid cooking and tasting with same spoon; licking of fingers is prohibited
-wash hands after handling raw meat/eggs

Kitchen cleanliness involves the following:
-wipe spills/remove dirty utensils
-wash cutting board that has had meat before cutting anything else
-don't wipe hands on dish towel - use separate towels so dishes don't get bacteria
-don't flip people with dish towels or use a dish towel/cloth that has been dropped on the floor. (The floor is an excellent place for staphylococcus to grow.)
-dust off cans
-wash surfaces/cutting boards with bleach periodically
-NO pets fed or wandering in kitchen and wash their bowl separately
-hot soapy water on dishes
-no food stored under sink - it becomes damp

Sanitation in food preparation and storage involves:
-keep food hot (above 140 degrees F) or cold (below 40 degrees F)
-check temperature in refrigerator and freezer periodically; freezer should be at zero degrees or below
-clean refrigerator often
-use freezer wrap, wrap meat loosely for refrigerator, leftovers stored with tight cover
-thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator not on the counter
-put foods away promptly
-refrigerate desserts made with dairy products
-never taste questionable food

Training Yourself To Be SAFE
Work habits to prevent falls
-no objects or spills left on the floor
-use a step ladder rather than a chair
-rugs must have non-skid backing

First aid for falls:
-don't move a person with broken bones unless necessary
-call medical help if head ache, dizziness, vomiting, or speech impairment results from head injury
-mild bruises/sprains need ice bag or cold water/cloths and elevation

Work habits to prevent cuts.
-keep knives sharp so you don't have to push as hard
-never catch a falling knife in mid air
-wash knives separately
-keep knives in a rack or separate from other equipment
-don't use knives for anything but cutting
-keep fingers away from mixer blades
-cut can lids completely off and throw out
-sweep up rather than pick up broken glass and wipe up tiny pieces with several damp paper towel thicknesses
-when a glass breaks in the kitchen sink, let the water out using several paper towels; then wipe out pieces with paper towels

First aid for cuts:
-stop severe bleeding with the pressure of a thick cloth; get medical help
-minor cuts - wash with soap and water, blot dry and bandage.

Work habits to prevent fire and burns.
-no flammable materials near hot appliances
-avoid loose clothing with long sleeves
-use dry pot holders not towels
-store flammable materials away from heat
-wipe off range after each use to avoid grease build-up
-to light gas range, light match first before turning on the gas
-if you smell gas don't turn on any appliances-ventilate room and call gas company
-turn pan handles in toward the back of range
-remove pan lids so steam escapes away from you
-keep appliance cords out of the way
-use both hands to remove a pan from oven
-turn off appliances/oven when cooking is finished
-lower food with spoon into fat - not fingers

In case of fire:
-turn off appliance
-use baking soda instead of water
-use a fire extinguisher
-if clothing catches on fire, drop to the ground and roll
-crawl on the ground to get out of smoke filled room

First Aid for Burns:
-cool it with cold water/prolonged ice will freeze tissue
-avoid ointments, grease and oil (contributes to the cooking process of the burn)

First Aid for Choking.
-if person can speak, cough or breath do nothing. Otherwise, do the Heimlich Maneuver procedure.

A number of work habits will prevent poisoning.
-use original containers with their labels
-securely close and lock cabinets
-store chemicals on a high shelf away from food containers
-follow antidote directions in well ventilated area if poisoning occurs
-never mix compounds such as bleach/ammonia
-use charcoal/hibachi outside only - gives off carbon monoxide

First Aid for Poisons:
-call medical help and if possible use antidote on label
-if fumes, get person to well ventilated area
-flush eyes with water if irritated

Work habits to prevent electric shock.
-keep water away from electrical appliances
-no electric cords near hot objects
-avoid octopus (one outlet with many cords)
-use heavy duty extension cord
-disconnect appliances before cleaning
-don't immerse electric appliances in liquid
-connect detachable cord to appliance first then plug it in
-don't use damaged appliances
-use only a wet/dry vacuum on wet floor
-keep metal away from the working parts of an appliance (no fork in toaster to pull out bread)

First Aid for Electric Shock:
-don't touch person connected to electricity
-turn off power, pull plug or pull person away with cloth loop
-administer CPR if qualified and call medical help

Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum Guide

Now that you have read the information on safety go to the assignment section and click on "Unit 1-The Basics" then click on "Unit 1-Assignment 2" and follow the directions for the assignment.

Be SAFE!!!

Once you have completed the assignment go to course materials and read the information on measuring.

01.02 Safety links (FoodSci)

01.02.01 Safety Worksheet (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 2: Safety

DIRECTIONS: Copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and answer the questions. Copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

I. By using the clues listed determine the correct sequence for washing dishes. Use the numbers 1-8 to indicate the order.

________ A. The silverware is in the middle.
________ B. Pots and pans are next to last.
________ C. Glassware is just before the silverware.
________ D. Scraping, rinsing, and stacking dishes are first.
________ E. Dishes are washed just after the silverware.
________ F. Running the garbage disposal is just after rinsing and stacking.
________ G. Dishes and utensils used for mixing and preparation are washed before the pots and pans.
________ H. Washing the dishpans and/or sink is last.

II. Write a sentence predicting what might happen if dishes were not washed in the correct sequence.

III. Underline the safety hazards in the story below. Also, at the end of the paragraph, write what would have been a safer way to have done things. You need to list at least 10 items.

Fried eggs are Julie's favorite breakfast food. After she helped her little sister get dressed one Saturday morning, she sat down at the table to visit as her mother was mixing orange juice. Julie's mother asked her to make the fried eggs and toast because she had to go to work.

Julie first washed her hands but could not find a towel to dry them. Since the clean towels were in the basement she decided to let her hands air dry while fixing the eggs. She plugged the electric fry pan cord into the wall then into the fry pan and put some bread in the toaster. The fry pan didn't seem to be heating very fast. With some investigation, Julie noticed that the cord was cracked and a wire was beginning to show through. She put some masking tape around the worn place on the cord. The fry pan still wouldn't get very hot so Julie got out the hibachi. When the charcoal was hot she put some margarine and eggs in a frying pan.

After the toast popped up, Julie used a fork to pull it out because it was caught in the slot. Suddenly a terrible aroma darted past her nose -- like burning rubber or plastic. Julie noticed the fry pan cord was smoking so she hurriedly yanked it out of the outlet. The cord has melted against the fry pan.

Julie's breakfast wasn't very successful. Even so, she decided to scrub the kitchen so that her mother wouldn't be too upset. As she started to put the food away, she noticed some ants crawling underneath the table. She rushed to get the insect killer and thoroughly sprayed the floor. When the food was put away Julie got the pine cleaner and ammonia from behind the vegetable oil, mixed them and mopped the floor. There was so much of her mixture left that she put it in a milk jug under the sink.

That evening she went into the TV room where her mother was about to use the old Hoover to vacuum up some water. As Julie's mother plugged the cord into the outlet that had six other cords coming out of it, Julie told her mother about breakfast. Julie's mother told her she'd just have to be more careful in the future.

IV. List how the ten safety issues could have been fixed:

01.03 Measuring (FoodSci)

Unit 1.3: Measuring

Do you measure up? Being able to measure accurately and precisely is critical in food science. In this unit you will gain a basic understanding of measuring and the use of the Standards International (Metric) measuring. Learning to measure accurately will assure success in the preparation of a recipe. All ingredients are not measured the same, i.e. solids vs liquids, soft vs granules. There are different types of measuring utensils and measuring techniques to meet these differences - liquid vs dry measuring cups.

Basic abbreviations to include:

T and Tbsp. = tablespoon

min = minute

doz = dozen

qt = quart

gal = gallon

oz = ounce

lb = pound

c = cup

pt = pint

hr = hour

Here's the suggested method of measuring the following items:

Flour- level off with straight not the curved edge; There is a difference between sifted and non-sifted so follow the instructions on your recipe. (1/4 cup extra/cup)

Sugar- level off with a straight not curved edge.knife - shaking helps to level the sugar

Brown Sugar-packed has more sugar than if it is not packed

Shortening/Peanut Butter-pack, no air-water displacement method

Salt-level with a flat edge

OIL or Shortening-liquids in a liquid measuring cup -solids in a dry measuring cup or by water displacement method

Two important equivalents to know:

3 tsp = 1 tbsp

4 tbsp = 1/4 cup

Measuring is a critical part of food science. Just as we know that if you don’t measure accurately and precisely when making certain foods, when a scientist is doing an experiment it can ruin the experiment if measuring isn’t done correctly. When scientists are researching something new, it is critical to measure accurately and precisely every time an experiment is done or redone to insure that the results are valid and reliable. If something is achieved during the experiment, this might change the next time an experiment is done if measuring is not done correctly the second, third, fourth….., or hundredth time.

Accuracy in measuring is critical and knowing how what to use to measure and what to use for a certain substance is also necessary. Read the following and review the information for measuring.

A utensil used to make a precise measurement of any substance is referred to as a measuring device. The best measuring devices for liquids have handles and pouring spouts. When filled to the highest graduation, liquid cups hold the volume designated; i.e., one CUP, one pint, one quart, etc., and have a space above the highest graduation so the liquid does not overflow.

Solids are best measured in cups that are the size of fractions on a graduated liquid measurement cup or device. That is, a 1/4 measuring cup holds the same amount as 1/4 cup graduation on a liquid measuring device. The cups the size of fractions allow leveling of non-liquid (dry) ingredients. The results, again, are a more precise (accurate) measurements.

Precision, Mathematics, Measurement, and Food Science Scientists try to use the measurement device that is most precise for the characteristics of the substance being measured. Sometimes quantities of material are measured by mass and sometimes by volume. For example, an ice cube is a rectangular solid. Volume and mass each refer to the amount of space it occupies. One way to measure the volume is to measure the length, width, and height of the cube, then multiply the length x height x width.

Another way to measure the volume of the cube would be to let it melt and measure the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder. A graduated cylinder is more accurate than a beaker and might be more accurate than a measuring cup. It is easy to obtain the volume of a liquid because once the liquid is poured into the cylinder, the volume is the level the liquid reaches as indicated by the measurement marked on the sides of the container. If a liquid that forms a meniscus is measured, the volume is read from the bottom of the curve formed. Volume is estimated to 1/10 of the smallest division on the scale.

Mass can be measured with a number of different instruments. One often used by scientists is a triple beam balance. There are two kinds: a low-form or a high-form.

In many school laboratory and home situations, food is massed and the volume measured by using kitchen scales and standardized measuring cups. The accuracy of these tools can be checked using more precise tools (cylinders, balances, etc.) manufactured for scientific lab work.


1. A recipe is a formula that produces a specific product.

2. Recipes are easier to reproduce when both the originator of the recipe and the person duplicating it use standardized measuring devices and methods.

3. Solid foods are affected by particles that settle, crystal composition that allows air spaces in the matter, air that is or can be added, and packing from shaking or pressing the particles. In liquid foods, meniscus (a film that can form on the surface of some liquids, such as syrup) sometimes forms. It distorts the surface of the liquid and interferes with accurate measures. Any of the above can affect the weight/volume in measuring.

4. In confectioner's sugar, the crystals are finer than in ordinary table sugar, and in brown sugar the crystals are larger. In cake flour and self-rising flour, other ingredients are added. Hydrogenated shortening and lard differ in composition of crystals. All of the above make differences in weights and volume that make adjustments necessary in substituting different forms of the same ingredient.

5. With every measurement made or repeated for an ingredient, accuracy decreases. It is important, for accuracy, to use the measuring utensil closest in size to the desired unit of measurement.

6. Measurement utensils used in food preparation should be checked against standard devices because new ones might not hold a standard volume. If a utensil shows variation from the standard of more than 5%, do not keep or use it. Variance in measuring usually affects a recipe adversely.

The Metric System is most often used when doing scientific experiments. Metrics is the measure used in all physical and chemical sciences, including food science. People, therefore, need to have a knowledge of how to convert, estimate, and use metrics.

History of the Metric System

The metric system originated in France where it was adopted by the National Assembly on April 7, 1795. Most nations in Europe and Central and South America adapted it for commercial use during the middle and last half of the 19th Century. Following World War II, the Soviet Union and China made the use of metric units mandatory. India and Japan followed in the 1950s. Britain began a ten-year conversion to the metric system in 1965. South Africa completed the metric conversion by 1975. In 1969, New Zealand began an eight-year conversion to metric units, and in 1970 Australia and Canada announced their commitment to metricate.

Metric In the United States

Use of the metric system in the United States was made legal but not mandatory by an Act of Congress in 1966. Since that time, all U.S. customary units of measurement (used with foreign nations and in scientific fields) have been based upon metric standards. Legislation that would have made the use of the metric system mandatory failed in Congress by very small margins during the first 30 years of this century.


Twenty years ago, it appeared that the United States would connect to the metric system with a slow phase-in program. As yet, Congress has not authorized the go-ahead. Mostly this was due to consumer resistance among the general population. Science, however, uses the metric system. The scientific community has pointed out the fact that there are well-defined advantages and disadvantages to the metric conversion. Specific advantages realized by using the metric system am as follows:

1. Metric is a Universal System. It facilitates world trade which is constantly growing.

2. The Metric System is Easier to Use. The units are interrelated and are multiples/divisbles of 10.

3. Calculations are Faster. The system is particularly adaptable to computers and calculators.

4. Less Chance of Error. Decimals replace fractions which in the conventional system make calculations slower and increase chance of error.

5. Interchangeability of Machine Parts. Adoption of the metric system could lead to universal standards for machine parts and aid technology by permitting parts to be used on machines of different makes.

6. Standardization of Tools and Gauges. Universal acceptance of tools would reduce the number of each that would be need to be produced.

7. Especially Useful in the Laboratory. Tests and laboratory instruments are easily calibrated and more simple to read, and accuracy is easier to guarantee.

8. Eliminate Double Measuring System. Factories in both the U.S. and foreign countries must produce equipment for both metric and customary measurements. This double standard creates confusion and a greater cost. (Reference: "The Metric System", Wilmer Westbrook, Modern Textiles, August 1970.)

In the conversion to the metric system, the greatest disadvantage for Americans would be in the acceptance of the changeover-not in learning the system itself. There is also a concern as to the ultimate cost.

1. Reluctance to Change. Resistance to change is a natural human response. Educators and industry have a vital role to play in assisting the American population to more easily accept the changeover to the metric system of measurement.

2. Expense. The change to metric units by industry takes money. But, with careful planning, much of it can be phased into the normal costs of replacement of equipment and machinery. how to convert, estimate, and use metrics.

Will the U.S. go metric? It is already going metric. Many large American corporations are already converting to the metric system: IBM, Honeywell, General Motors, Regal-Beloit, ITT, and General Mills are a few. Since 1974, Fords and other cars have metric engines.

Film has long been measured in metrics: 35 mm, 16 mm, etc. Sports enthusiasts should now be very aware of the 100-meter race track, or the 50-meter swimming pool. We often read in the newspaper about narcotic officers confiscating a kilo of marijuana. The pharmaceutical industry has used the metric system for years. Many hospitals have converted to metric units for patient statistics and dispensing of drugs. All distances and elevation in the firing of weapons by the U.S. Army are measured in meters as is the basic triangulation by the U.S., Coast and Geodetic Survey. Most important of all, science is a universal (global) profession. It is necessary to communicate and replicate scientific work worldwide. Metrics is the international measuring system that science uses.


DEFINITION: Metre from Greek word metron meaning to measure. This is where the word metric comes from.

SPELLING: (all are lower case letters) meter or metre/abbreviation = m liter or litre/abbreviation =l

gram /abbreviation = g

celsius/abbreviation = C (the only capital used)

PREFIXES: (all are lower case letters)

kilo = k = 1,000 x base unit deci = d = .1 x base unit

hecto = h = 100 x base unit centi = c = .01 x base unit

deka = da = 10 x base unit milli = m = .001 x base unit

BASE UNITS: liter, gram, meter/metre


1. Use no periods after symbols and always leave a space between the number and the metric symbol; e.g., 14 cm not 14 cm.

2. Never use an s after a symbol; e.g., 14 cm not 14 cms.

3. Symbols should be in lower case except those designated; i.e., Celsius - C; e.g., 14 cm not 14 CM.

4. Commas should be omitted in figures representing large amounts-use a space instead; e.g., 14 000 cm not 14,000 cm.

Approximate measurements in metric measuring:

1 meter is a little over a yard

1 liter is a little less than a quart

01.03.01 Lab: Measuring (Oatmeal Cookies)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 3: Measuring

DIRECTIONS: You may want to copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) then complete the assignment. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

PART I: Convert the following measurements by using the GIVEN information to get the ESTIMATED information.

1 liter (l) = 1.06 quart
1 lb = 453.6 gm
1 ounce = 29.6 ml
1 kg = 2.2 lbs.
1 cup = 235.6 ml
1 Tbsp = 14.7 ml
1 tsp. = 4.9 ml

1/3 c. = _______ ml
2 tsp. = _______ ml
3 kg = _______ lb.
59 ml = _______ c.
2 lb. = _______ kg
4 fluid oz. = _______ gm
1/2 qt. = _______ ml
250 ml = _______ l

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks by converting the U.S. amounts to metric equivalents. Second, make the cookies using the metric measurements. Use the following chart to help you do the conversion. Write a parent or guardians's name that can verify that you made the cookies and also include a phone number that I can call if I choose to verify that you made the cookies.
1.25 ml = 1/4 teaspoon
2.5 ml = 1/2 teaspoon
5 ml = 1 teaspoon
15 ml = 1 Tablespoon
30 ml = 1/8 cup (1 fluid oz.)
60 ml = 1/4 cup
80 ml = 1/3 cup
120 ml = 1/2 cup
160 ml = 2/3 cup
240 ml 1 cup

95 Degrees Celsius = 200 Degrees Fahrenheit
120 Degrees Celsius = 250 Degrees Fahrenheit
150 Degrees Celsius = 300 Degrees Fahrenheit
175 Degrees Celsius = 350 Degrees Fahrenheit
205 Degrees Celsius = 400 Degrees Fahrenheit
230 Degrees Celsius = 450 Degrees Fahrenheit
260 Degrees Celsius = 500 Degrees Fahrenheit

Oatmeal Cookies
INSTRUCTIONS: Write the metric equivalents for the ingredients below and then use this receipe to actually make the cookies.

Metric equilvalent Metric Equivalent
_______ 1/2 cup margarine
_______ 7/8 cup oats
_______ 5/8 cup sugar
_______ 1/2 tsp. vanilla
_______ 3/8 cup lt. brown sugar
_______ 1/2 tsp. cinnamon
_______ 1 egg
_______ 1/2 tsp. nutmeg
_______ 7/8 cup flour
_______ 3/4 c. raisins
_______ 1/2 tsp. soda
_______ 1/2 cup chopped nuts

Preheat oven at 350*F (______C*).
1. Cream margarine and sugars (white and brown) together until ight and fluffy. Beat in egg. Add vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
2. In separate bowl, sift flour and soda together. Add oatmeal and blend.
3. Stir flour mixture into sugar/egg mixture. Add raisins and nuts. Blend.
4. Drop by tablespoons onto a greased cookie sheet. (Note: dought may be refrigerated.
5. Bake for 18-20 minutes or until done.

List the date, phone # and a person that can verify that you did make the cookies.

_____________________________ _________________________
(parent/guardian name) (parent/guardian phone #)

01.04 Food Testing (FoodSci)

Unit 1.4: Food Testing

Food scientists make discoveries as they attempt to answer questions and solve problems. These discoveries come about through carefully planned investigations. The explanation and prediction of what will happen to food under various conditions is the ultimate goal. Home economists and other scientists use the scientific method to carry out their investigations. A definition of the scientific method is, "a logical approach to the solution of problems that lend themselves to investigations by observing, generalizing, theorizing, and testing." (Tzimopoulos et. al., 1990, p. 7-8).

Observing substances and events is an important aspect of all natural sciences. A good observer uses all five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Collecting data, an important part of observing, can be done by writing a description or using a measurement device, such as a balance beam or a measuring cup. Food scientists conduct experiments in laboratories to control environmental conditions. Before food scientists conduct experiments, they find out as much about the observations others have conducted on the same topic as possible. New experiments can then be planned and carried out to extend existing knowledge. Food scientists then report their findings to others.

Scientists try to analyze and organize the data. In addition, they try to develop general principles that can help to classify the data. The overall goal is to find relationships that enable them to form a hypothesis, a testable statement. With a hypothesis, scientists can set up and predict further experiments. "A generalization that describes a wide variety of behaviors in nature is known as a law." (Tzimopoulos et. al., 1990, p. 9).

When predictions can be made, food scientists construct models to show how things work. A model is an explanation in visual, verbal, or mathematical form. It shows relationships among data or events. When a model has been successfully applied, it may become part of a theory. A theory is a "broad generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena" (Tzimopoulos et. al., 1990, p. 9). A scientist cannot prove a theory. Theories are used to predict what will happen in new experiments.

Testing takes place in every stage of a scientific investigation.
Food scientists try to predict what will happen in the tests based
on hypotheses, laws, or theories. All three are constantly open
to modification or abandonment based on new information.

Scientists have done testing and experimenting and came up with analogues which are products that resemble or mimic another product such as meat. Meat is an expensive part of any food budget and in some countries people can't afford it, so they use a meat analogue as a substitute for the protein in their diet because of its high protein content.

Most analogues are made to look, smell, and taste like the real thing. They are often used to replace or substitute meat or seafood. They are often made from soy protein mixed with vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins/minerals, and flavor/color. Meat analogues are often higher in protein (up to 50 percent) in comparison to meat which can contain around 15-20 percent protein. Meat analogues have about one-third the total fat found in meat which means they have less cholesterol and less saturated fat.

Seafood analogues have a typical texture and bland flavor. Often times they are used with real seafood such as crab meat, fish, tuna, and lobster. While using from 30-50 percent analogue with seafood, the combined seafood end-product retains the characteristic flavor and texture of the seafood.

REPLICATION is a basic principle of empirical/analytic science. Mathematics is basic to science. Because people are human and subject to human error, the scientist relies upon mathematics and standard measurement to guarantee reliability, validity, and to help control the amount of variability in acceptable products.

RELIABILITY mans that the unit of measurement will be the same every time it is used. For example, one inch on a ruler is always the same whether measuring a cake pan, the length of spaghetti, or the size of a bar cookie. One inch on standardized rulers of yard sticks is the same from one implement to the other.

VALIDITY means that a proper way of measuring or the proper unit of measurement has been chosen. For example, it is more valid to use a teaspoon rather an inch as the unit of measurement for vanilla or lemon extract for a recipe. It is also more valid to use a teaspoon than a cup to measure vanilla or lemon extract for a recipe.

VARIANCE is not desirable in most products using recipes because it can prevent quality and consistency results. The ideal is to produce products of like quality. The desire, for example, is to have the quality of the product the same each time a recipe is used. A utensil used to make a precise measurement of any substance is referred to as a measuring device. The best measuring devices for liquids have handles and pouring spouts. When filled to the highest graduation, liquid cups hold the volume designated; i.e., one cup, one pint, one quart, etc., and have a space above the highest graduation so the liquid does not overflow.

Solids are best measured in cups that are the size of fractions on a graduated liquid measurement cup or device. That is, a ¼ measuring cup holds the same amount as ¼ cup graduation on a liquid measuring device. The cups the size of fractions allow leveling and packing on non-liquid (dry) ingredients. The results, again, are a more precise (accurate) measurements.

Precision, Mathematics, Measurement, and Food Science Scientists try to use the measurement device that is most precise for the characteristics of the substance being measured. Sometimes quantities of material are measured by mass and sometimes by volume. For example, an ice cube is a rectangular sold. Volume and mass each refer to the amount of space it occupies. One way to measure the volume is to measure the length, width, and height of the cube, then multiply the length x height x width.

Another way to measure the volume of the cube would be to let it melt and measure the volume of liquid in a graduate cylinder. A graduate cylinder is more accurate than a beaker and might be more accurate than a measuring cup. It is easy to obtain the volume of a liquid because once the liquid is poured into the cylinder, the volume is the level the liquid reaches as indicated by the measurement marked on the sides of the container. If a liquid that forms a meniscus is measured, the volume is read from the bottom of the curve formed. Volume is estimated to 1/1/0 of the smallest division on the scale.

The scientific method is an organized system used in investigating science. There are six basic steps used in the scientific method. Some scientists may add or repeat some steps or even delete complete steps. In technology, the term problem solving is comparable to the scientific method. The same basic steps and principles hold true for either science or technology. The six basic steps in the scientific method are as follows:

Stating the Problem
This occurs when a scientist observes something and wonders why something did or didn't happen.

Gathering Information
After stating the problem and before forming a hypothesis, it is often wise to gather information that has been researched earlier. This helps to narrow down the hypothesis. It might be possible that someone else has already done a similar investigation or study.

A hypothesis is basically a scientist’s best estimation of what might happen in the investigation considering the information that has been gathered and researched. It could be referred to as your “best guess” before beginning your investigation or experiment.

To test a hypothesis, this might mean setting up an experiment, making an observation, creating a model, or a variety of other things. When doing this, it is important to determine what the constants and controls will be. These are those things that will not change during the investigation. For example, if you were testing which shape of wings would be the best for a specific plane, the constants might be the wind speed and wing size. A variable or thing that might vary could be the shape of the wing.

To make information valid and usable, it needs to be recorded and organized so that the test data can be easily read. Often times in testing unexpected things can happen and these also need to be recorded. As the information is recorded it needs to be done in a logical manner in which the correct conclusions are drawn.

Draw Conclusions
After going through all the steps in the scientific method and the information has been analyzed, a decision is made to determine whether your hypothesis was correct or not. In serious situations, where the results could impact human life, the tests might even be run or even further testing completed. For the results to be considered viable or valid, the test would be run over and over and the same results should occur each time. During testing it is very important that an objective perspective be taken in order for the information to not be tainted because of person’s own personal feelings or bias. Retesting helps resolve this issue.

Important Greek and Latin prefixes and suffixes:
Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum

You will have a final project due at the end of this class. You will use the scientific method to do a study on a food related topic of your choice that has been approved by the instructor. You need to choose a topic now and then as you go materials in the course, use the scientific method and the information you learn to work on and complete your “Food-related study.” Make sure that by the time you have completed your study, you have gone through all of the steps in the scientific method. Your project/study will be graded on how well you utilized the scientific method and if your have done a thorough job in exploring the food-related topic. You will also be expected to use proper writing, grammar and spelling.

(Select the link “Scientific Method”)

Now complete the assignment in Unit 1 for lesson 1.4. This assignment will be submitted as a group with all of the assignments from unit 1. Do not submit this assignment by itself. Submit all of unit 1 assignments together.

01.04 Food Testing links (FoodSci)

01.04.01 Scientific Method (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 45 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 4: Food Testing

DIRECTIONS: You may want to copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) then complete the assignment. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

You will have a final project due at the end of this class. You will be using the scientific method to study something dealing with food science. For the time being, you need to come up with your topic. Think through what you might like to do and as you complete the rest of the assignments, you may come up with some ideas or methods to use with your project.

You will be completing lots of different units in which you will be gaining new skills and a better understanding of food science. Use these skills and understanding as you use the scientific method and develop your final project. Click on the word below that says Science Projects to get some possible ideas or search the web.

You've probably noticed that it is a very short assignment. The reason for this is because I want you to really think indepth about what you are going to do for your project before you make a decision. Good luck!

Unit 1-Assignment 4: Food Testing

1. What are the steps used in the scientific method?
A. ______________________________________________
B. ______________________________________________
C. ______________________________________________
D. ______________________________________________
E. ______________________________________________
F. ______________________________________________

2. What is your proposed project topic for your final project?

01.05 Food Physics (FoodSci)

Unit 1.5: Food Physics

Food Physics is an important part of food science. In this area of food science, scientists do sensory testing to analyze existing foods and develop new foods. It is critical to include the human experience in food science since we are the ones that eat the food.

Have you realized that all food that we have ever produced is sensory tested for specific qualities. Imagine being a taste tester for an ice cream company or bakery. Taste testing is just one of the sensory evaluations that are often done on food items. We all have certain tastes we prefer or like. These tastes are developed over time by our culture, geography, and other cultures we come in contact with. For example, in many of the Asian countries, rice is a staple part of their diet. In Idaho in the United States, most people probably eat lots of potatoes since potatoes are grown in mass there. In the southern states, corn is used in lots of cooking.

Many of us develop tastes with emotional ties or memories. We may have something we ate as a child and it brings fond memories back when we eat this food. We may have food that we associate with getting well like chicken soup or foods that we associate with holidays. Some people eat food or restrict food because of religious beliefs and traditions. Many have food restrictions which impact personal tastes because of health problems such as heart related diseases or diabetes.

Sensory evaluation is the scientific testing of food using human senses of taste, touch, smell, hearing, and sight. It costs a lot for manufactures to market a new or improved food. Thus, they will do extensive sensory tests before embarking on placing their product on the market. A sensory panel will test foods for flavor which is a food’s odor, taste, feel, look, and sound.

Odor and Taste
These two senses are closely tied. When you are stuffed up and can't breathe well, notice how foods taste to you. Usually a person will lose some of their ability to taste without being able to smell. How a food tastes is directly affected by the smell of the foods. Try an experiment yourself. Place a very aromatic food like peanut butter under someone’s nose and then feed them something of the same texture as peanut butter like frosting and see if it affects how the frosting tastes.

The olfactory organs are related to the sense of smell. We have a single nerve that ends in the nasal cavity and runs straight to the brain. This nerve ends with sensory cells. There are hair-like structures in the nose which work with the sensory cells in creating the sense of smell.

The taste buds on the tongue are what are used to detect taste. There all cells that line the surface of the taste buds which connect with the sensory cells. When water and saliva are present in a substance, these surface cells begin to work and activate the sensory cells which cause us to be able to “taste” something.


Texture involves the sound of foods and mouth feel.
Imagine eating an apple and it didn't crunch or vanilla ice cream and it did crunch. If foods that aren't suppose to make sound make sound, we usually don't like it. Most of us like to eat crackers that crunch or vegetables that crunch because of crispness.

Mouth feel is how scientists describe how a food feels in your mouth. Peanut butter is another good example here because it has a unique mouth feel compared to its pre-peanut butter state as a peanut. Some terms that might be related to mouth feel are smooth, tender, flakey, tough, gritty, coarse, etc.

How food looks can determine whether we might eat it or not. Often times we won't eat foods if they are a different color that what we are use to. As an adult, if a waiter/waitress brought us purple pancakes we might send them back for golden brown ones. We also have certain expectations on the size and shape of certain foods. These expectations determine whether we feel a foods appearance is good or bad. Most people also appreciate a variety of colors on a plate when it is served to them. Imagine eating a golden fried chicken patty, cream corn, and macaroni and cheese. It might taste great, but everything is yellow or gold…not very appealing. Often times a garnish might be added to add color to a plate.

Sensory evaluation panels are often used to evaluate foods. There are three main groups or panels that do this:

Consumer Panels: These tests are often done on a wide base with hundreds of people. Often times they might even be done in a local grocery store or by a company that does market research.

Laboratory Panels: These tests are often done by a small group of people that works for a specific company. They are usually done within a laboratory and they might be part of the process of developing a new food or changing an existing food.

Experts: These evaluators use industry standards to judge product quality. Their testing is usually very involved and requires specific skills, training, and practice.

As with any other scientific testing, the information
needs to be reliable and valid thus variables about the foods are made the same for every test. For example, a hot food would be served at the same temperature. Therefore the test is not looking at the differences of the food at different temperatures but at the food itself at that specific temperature.

Food tests should be done with any detractors or bias minimized. For example, if color is going to detract, the tester might be blindfolded. Psychology has to also be considered since many people will choose the number one or the letter A for no reason. Therefore the samples might need to be given in a random order for each test. If there are too many noises or the temperature is not comfortable, this can also impact the results of a test. Things should be very controlled to take out any possible distractions.

Testers should do testing either in the late morning or mid-afternoon when people tend to be the most alert and therefore the most responsive to the testing. Water or other bland food should be used between tests to clear the mouth from any aftertaste.

Lab equipment has been developed that can often times be used to determine some characteristics of food products. As humans we can have human error and yet, some things such as the senses can't be simulated by machines or equipment. Using lab equipment makes the evaluation objective meaning that there can be consistency, control, and accuracy. Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum

Now that you have read the information, go to the topic 3 area and complete the assignment that corresponds to this assignment.
After completing this assignment, you will take the test for the entire unit. Remember that the test will cover every lesson in Unit 1.

01.05.01 Food Evaluation (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 1.5: Food Physics

DIRECTIONS: You may want to copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) then complete the assignment. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

UNIT 1-ASSIGNMENT 5: Food Physics

The five types of sensory testing are listed below. You are to have three people test one food for each area and write their response and the food that was evaluated. You can use a different food for each of the 5 tests.

1. TASTE (Sour, salty, etc.)

Food Evaluated:____________________________

1st evaluation:___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

2nd evaluation:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3rd evaluation:___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2. TOUCH (Texture as in smooth, lumpy, mouth feel.) Food Evaluated: _____________________________

1st evaluation:___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

2nd evaluation:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3rd evaluation:___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3. SMELL (Spices used, etc.) Food Evaluated: _____________________________

1st evaluation:___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

2nd evaluation:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3rd evaluation:___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

4. SIGHT (Color, looks.) Food Evaluated: _____________________________

1st evaluation:___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

2nd evaluation:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3rd evaluation:___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

5. HEARING (What did the food sound like.) Food Evaluated: ______________________________

1st evaluation:___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

2nd evaluation:__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3rd evaluation:___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

01.05.02 Unit 1 Test (FoodSci)

computer-scored 36 points possible 90 minutes

Take the unit 1 test: Basics.

This test covers all the information from the course materials and assignments for unit 1. You will have 45 minutes to complete this test. Remember that once you launch the test, you must complete it. Retakes are not permitted. You much complete the test once you start.

This test will cover all the information presented from the course materials, web sites, and assignments before beginning. Make sure you review all the information before beginning. You have ONE ATTEMPT to take this test. Once you begin the test, you must finish. If you exit the test at any time, you will NOT be able to return. The test locks up once you've got out of the test, so make sure you have completed the entire test before exiting the test.

02.00 Energy From Food (FoodSci)

This unit will give you the opportunity to explain how food provides and produces energy.

02.01 Heat and Energy (FoodSci)

Unit 2.1: Heat and Energy

Energy is defined as the ability to work. Even over hundreds of years, that definition still holds true. Energy is all around us. It happens when we do every day things such as walk up some stairs or turn on a music CD. Energy happens during phase changes such as when water begins to boil and turns to steam or a log burns in a fireplace.

In food science, we will deal with thermal energy or heat. Heat is energy transferred from something with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature. This is what causes food to cook. The transfer of heat causes food to change into a desirable result.

Energy is a critical part to our existence as human beings. We use energy in the form of kilo calories or fuel for our bodies to function. Every activity we perform takes energy including sleeping and just sitting watching a movie. As our bodily functions such as the heart beating or digestion occur, energy is being released and used.

Over half of the calories consumed in a normal diet are used to maintain basic bodily functions and yet conversely, a person that consumes more calories than what they need for basic bodily functions and other activities will end up storing this extra energy as fat.

Extra fat stored by the body causes the body to have to work harder. This can cause many health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and joint problems. When a person becomes extremely overweight it is called obesity. Most health professionals categorize a person being obese when he/she has excessive fat and body weight that is 20% or more above a healthful range. For example, if a person should weigh 150 lbs. for his/her height and structure but he/she weighs 190. This person would be considered to be obese because 20% of 150 lbs. is 30 lbs., so any weight over about 180 lbs. (150 lbs. + 30 lbs.) would be considered being obese.

This has become a huge health concern in the United States with obesity rates rising overall and even with young people. Some believe that this is because many people have a more sedentary life style. Children are spending more time watching T.V. or playing video games rather than participating in physical activities. Another possible cause is the amount of “fast food” or “convenience foods” that are high in fat and sugar that are consumed by many Americans.

Finding the right balance for you is important. Many people get enough calories, but they aren't getting enough nutrition. This could happen by eating the same exact foods day after day, eating foods high in fat and calories, omitting food groups from a diet, etc. Without getting the proper balance, some of the basic nutrients could be lacking which would impact overall health and cause some serious problems. We will focus on the nutrients in a later unit.

In finding your balance, you have to consume roughly the same number of kilo calories that would be used during a typical day. If you are an active person, you will need more calories or a less-active person, you will need less calories. You need to find that balance.

A pound of body fat equals 3500 kilo calories. To lose a pound of body fat, the calories taken in would have to be reduced or physical activity increased to burn more calories. If a person decreased his/her diet by 250 calories a day, he/she could lose one pound in a week. If physical activity is increased, this can speed up this process. Caution should always be used when considering weight loss and doing it conservatively. Losing using the above example is at a rate that is more likely to be kept off because it isn't an unreasonable diet that could be continued over time.

Molecular Motion and Temperature
It is important in science to be able to understand how heat affects matter. Thus, we need to understand heat transfer and how the properties of matter affect this. Molecules are always in constant motion. Molecules in solids are the most confined because they are basically held in place. Solids typically have a definite shape and volume. Think of Ice. Ice is a solid. It has definite shape and a definite size.

In liquids, molecules aren't as restricted as in a solid. Molecules in liquids touch each other and move around each other causing liquids to be able to flow. Liquids have definite volume, but they don't hold their shape. The molecules within a liquid are attracted to each other which make it so this holds the liquid together.

Gas molecules are the busiest molecules. They tend to move very fast and in straight lines until they bump in to something else or themselves. They are spaced further apart than the molecules in liquids or solids.

Kinetic energy is associated with motion. Specifically, in physics, it is a theory. The theory is that any substance is made of minute particles (molecules) that are constantly moving. As the particles encounter each other, they change velocity and direction. The movement of the molecules is sometimes referred to as Brownian motion.

Although molecules act differently in solids, liquids, and gases, they react the same when heat is added. These molecules will move faster when a heat source is introduced. When this occurs, the temperature goes up and this is how we can measure the molecular activity. In converse, when the temperature goes down, scientists believe or have developed the theory that molecular activity stops and no heat remains. This is called absolute zero.

Specific Heat is the amount of heat that is needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance1*C. The specific heat of water is 1.0 calorie per gram per degree Celsius and is written as 1.0 cal/g C. This means that it takes 1.0 calorie to raise the temperature of 1.0 g. of water 1.0’ C.

Heat Transfer

Heat is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation. Cooking often uses one or more of these types of heat transfer during the cooking process. Conduction heat transfer occurs when heat energy is passed by the collision of molecules. When there are molecules in something warm and they come in contact with molecules of something cool, some of the heat from the warm substance passes to the cooler substance. The molecules in the warmer substance begin to that bump into molecules in the cooler substance. Thus the heat begins to transfer from the warm to the cool. This process will continue until the warm and cool have become the same temperature.

An example of food being cooked by conduction might be when a hamburger patty is fried. The pan is hot from a heating element and the patty is placed in the pan. The pan conducts the heat to the patty which begins to sizzle. The bottom is cooked and you flip it over to cook the bottom. Heat once again is conducted to that side also. The patty
is absorbing the heat, yet the pan is still hot because there is heat coming from the heating element.

Convection occurs when heat is transferred by circulatory movement in a liquid or a gas. An example of liquid convection cooking is when a pot is brought to boil. The liquid at the bottom of the pot becomes hot first because it is nearest the heat source, the heating element. The molecules begin to absorb the heat which causes them to speed up their motion and so they move apart causing the liquid to become less dense. Something that is less dense will always rise to the top, so these molecules rise to the top and the cooler, more dense molecules go to the bottom. At the bottom the cooler molecules are heated and they begin to rise. This causes a current or circular flow to occur. Often times convection ovens are used in bakeries because the air flow throughout the oven causes more even and quicker cooking times.

Radiation heat occurs when heat is transmitted as infrared rays. Infrared is a set of electromagnetic waves of particular wavelength. The sun is the greatest example of radiant energy. Cooking something over a fire or a grill is an example of radiant heat. Often time foods are cooked with more than one type of heat transfer. For example, if you were going to bake brownies, Heat would be absorbed through the pan which is conduction. The air flowing around the oven while it is closed is convection and the air transfers heat by radiation to the brownies.

A microwave oven uses electromagnetic waves also, but they use lower energy than infrared waves. Microwaves cook mainly because of the polar molecules in food. An example of a polar molecule is water which is found basically in all food products. As these molecules absorb the heat from the microwave, the water molecules begin to move or vibrate. This absorbed energy is then conducted to the surrounding molecules which cause the food to be heated. Microwaves are absorbed deeper inside a food compared with traditional cooking methods which only heat on the surface then spread throughout the food with conduction heat transfer.

How Do Foods Cook?
There are many things to consider when preparing food. Choosing the best cooking method is one of those things. Choosing this method depends on many things such as the amount of energy a food will absorb, how quickly that energy is absorbed by the food, and the rate that the energy is transmitted.
Surface area has an impact on how quickly something cooks or doesn't cook. If there is greater surface area, this will increase the amount of possible heat which will increase heat transfer. Thus, foods will cook more quickly or water will begin boiling quicker. Also, if the food itself has a greater surface area, this will be more area to absorb heat which will cause it to cook more quickly.

What a food is cooked in also has an impact on how heat is transferred. There are four common media in which food are cooked: water, steam, air, and fat. Each of these have their own unique characteristics that affect their heat transfer ability. Oil can be heated hotter than water just as steam is also hotter than boiling water.

The temperature at which a food is cooked determines the rate at which a chemical reaction takes place. Remember, when heat is applied to something, molecules speed up which causes more movement within the substance which increases the level of reaction occurring. To actually cause a reaction, molecules have to speed up and bump into each other with enough energy to actually break the bonds between atoms. Using heat makes this more likely. The chance of a reaction occurring doubles for every 10’ C. that the temperature is increased. Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum

Kilo calorie: One thousand calories. Calories are often referred to as kilo calories.

Joule: 0.239 calories. One calorie is equal to 4.18 joules, and one kilo calories is equal to 4.18 kilo joules (kj).

Absolute zero: Theory at which scientists believe all molecular motion stops and no heat energy remains.

Specific Heat: The amount of heat that is needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance 1EC.

Energy: the ability to work.

Convection: when heat is transferred by circulatory movement in a liquid or a gas.

Radiation: occurs when heat is transmitted as infrared rays.

Electromagnetic waves: A microwave oven uses these and they use lower energy than infrared waves.

Kinetic energy: The theory that any substance is made of minute particles (molecules) that are constantly moving. As the particles encounter each other, they change velocity and direction.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 2.1.

02.01.01 Lab: Heat and Temperature (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

For this assignment you will need to conduct a couple of experiments in the kitchen.

You will need three potatoes that are about the same size. Take one potato and cut it into cubes. The cubes should be cut to the same size. You could cut a template or use a ruler if this will help you.

a. Cut one potato into 1 centimeter cubes and place in a sauce pan with two cups of water.

b. Cut the second potato into 1 inch cubes and place in a sauce pan with two cups of water.

c. Cut the third potato into half making two equal pieces and place in a sauce pan with two cups of water.

d. Make sure that the potato pieces are completely covered with water in all three pans. If they aren't covered, add some water until they are covered. If you add water to one pan, add the same amount to all of the pans to keep the experiment consistant and valid. You can cook each pan individually or at the same time. You will be timing how long it takes to cook the respective pans of potatoes from when the water begins to boil.

e. Turn your stove on to high and allow the water to begin boiling. Once it is boiling, turn the heat down and keep the water simmering (water will slightly roll and bubble). Do this until the potatoes are firm but not falling apart. You can check to see if a potato is done by inserting a fork in one of the potato pieces. When it slips in easily, it is done.

f. After each of the three pans of potatoes have completed cooking, document how long it took to cook each pan of potatoes and then write a short essay discussing the scientific reason why each pan of potatoes took different amounts of time to cook.

The potatoes can be used for whatever purpose (dinner for the family, etc....) once you have the cooking time documented. The following is the information you will need to submit.

Part I:
Potato Cooking Time (1 centimeter cubes): _______mins.

Potato Cooking Time (1 inch cubes): _______mins.

Potato Cooking Time (Potato halves): _______mins.

Part II: In a short essay explain the scientific reasons why the different potatoes cooked in different amounts of time.

Submit your answers using the submission area of this assignment.

02.01.01 Lab: Heat and Temperature links (FoodSci)

Visit this link for tips about writing an essay.

02.02 Physical and Chemical Changes (FoodSci)

Unit 2.2: Chemcial and Physical Changes

Physical and chemical reactions occur when food is cooked. Often times the chemical reaction will cause a physical change to occur. A chemical reaction can be defined as the process that occurs when a substance changes into other substances. An example might be when lemon juice is added to milk which would cause the milk to curdle. The chemical reaction would be the process that caused the curds and the physical change would be that the milk would be in curds rather than liquefied.

All elements have a nucleus made of uncharged neutrons and positively charged protons. Negatively charged electrons move around the nucleus. Different elements have different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons of one atom can be attracted to the electrons of another atom. Chemical elements combine by connecting together through the bonding of the negatively charged protons in the element's nucleus, with positively charged electrons that are moving around another element's nucleus. An atom can form as many bonds as it has electrons to share.

Two or more atoms can combine to form molecules. Molecules come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Molecules move all the time. They move faster when energy in the form of heat is applied. If enough heat is applied, the vibration of the molecules breaks the chemical bonds of protons and the electrons break apart. Higher temperature causes more vibration. As bonds formed by protons and electrons break, the molecular bonds also break, and matter changes its physical state from solid to liquid to gas. Changes like cutting and mashing change only the shape of a substance. These are physical changes. Pouring a liquid from one container to another or boiling, melting, or freezing a substance is a physical change. When custard freezes into ice cream, it is a physical change.

Freezing often turns a liquid to a solid by forming crystals. If water freezes slowly, larger ice crystals form. We can see the results of this in freezing fruits. Bread freezes well because it has low moisture content. Foods that don't freeze well include things that have been thickened and the moisture has formed a gel, like pudding and mayonnaise. Also, things thickened with cornstarch-puddings and fillings-break down during the freezing process as do whipping cream, yogurt, and salad dressings.

Freezing most vegetables isn't a problem since one of the reasons for cooking vegetables is to soften them up, and freezing starts the process. Once thawed, the vegetable is softer than before the freezing.

At a temperature above its melting point, a substance cannot exist as a solid - changing to a liquid; at its boiling point, a substance cannot exist as a liquid - changing to a gas. Such physical changes are called changes of state, and they can be used to classify and separate mixtures. Food scientists use knowledge of changes of state to separate food mixtures because physical changes often make new mixtures or break down existing mixtures.

For example: salt can be separated from water by heating the solution to boiling, turning the water to steam, letting the steam escape to a separate container, and distilling the steam into pure water. The salt's boiling point is so much higher than the water's that salt will remain behind in the original container. In some parts of the world, sea water is changed to drinking water in this way.

Changes in physical and chemical state of matter have to do with atoms and molecules bonding and moving apart. Three kinds of bonding occur: covalent (shared electrons), ionic (electrons of one element captured by another form new element), and hydrogen (temporary link between molecules). Hydrogen bonds are the weakest. Covalent bonds are ten times as strong. Strong bonds contain less energy than weak ones. The more energy a compound has, the more it will be likely to change its physical and chemical state.

Both physical and chemical properties are always accompanied by energy changes. Physical properties of a substance are concerned with mass, weight, volume, color, crystalline slope, melting point, boiling point, and refractive index (ability to bend light).

Kinetic energy was mentioned in the last unit. The way in which molecules move and react impacts how chemical and physical reactions happen. Think of physical states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.

Kinetic energy changes the bonding of the atoms and molecules. The stronger the bonds (as in crystals), the more energy is needed to change them. Heat causes the molecules to move faster. Therefore the molecular motion (called Brownian motion) increases as water changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas.

The physical state of substances in scientific equations is shown by (g) for gas, (l) for liquid, (cr) for solid, and (ag) for a water solution. (Cr means crystal and indicates the change of state from a liquid to a crystal or solid state.)

All foods can be analyzed in terms of their chemical makeup. Any substance that is either produced by or used in a chemical process is a chemical. A food scientist considers water, carbohydrates, protein, fat, sugar, and
flour (among others) to be chemicals. Each has a specific chemical composition. For example, sugar is produced by plants from carbon dioxide and water. Water is produced by combining hydrogen and oxygen.

Products with claims like "no chemical added" or "all natural" can be misleading. No food is free of chemicals. Some chemicals do have dangerous properties while others contribute to our comfort. As you study food science you will be able to prepare, preserve, and evaluate food in terms of its chemical composition. The way you live your life would be drastically different without food science.

There are three things that can happen when a chemical reaction occurs: compounds break apart into individual elements; elements might join together to form compounds; or compounds might turn into other compounds.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 2.2.

02.02.01 Lab: Physical and Chemical Reactions (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

The following experiments demonstrate chemical and physical changes in matter. The three experiments are going to show the following states of matter: sublimation, condensation, and vaporization and possibly not in that order. After you have completed the three experiments, tell me which experiment demonstrated either sublimation, condensation, and vaporization and explain in a paragraph what these three words mean and how you knew the experiment demonstrated each.

EXPERIMENT #1: Dissolve 1/4 tsp. salt in 1 Tbsp. water. (Hot water will dissolve the salt faster.) Place a few drops of the saturated salt solution onto a microscope slide. Place the slide on a microscope tray. Allow the solution to evaporate and observe the results.

EXPERIMENT #2: Place a small piece of a mothball (paradicholorobenzene) onto a microscope slide. Warm the slide gently, place it on the microscope tray, and watch as the moth ball piece cools.

EXPERIMENT #3: Place ice in a pitcher until it is as full as possible. Fill the pitcher with water. Allow the pitcher to sit in a warm room. Note what happens to the sides of the pitcher after it sits for a period of time.

DIRECTIONS: After conducting the experiments determine what the experiment demonstrates, fill in the blank provided with the term that best describes what happened (sublimation, condensation, or vaporization). Then write a paragraph on how you came to this conclusion.

You may want to copy and paste the following information into a word processor (i.e. Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and then complete the work. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area for this assignment.

Experiment #1:

This experiment demonstrated: __________________________

This was determined because: (write a paragraph about how you came to this conclusion).








Experiment #2:

This experiment demonstrated: __________________________

This was determined because: (write a paragraph about how you came to this conclusion).









Experiment #3:

This experiment demonstrated: __________________________

This was determined because: (write a paragraph about how you came to this conclusion).








02.03 Energy and Weight (FoodSci)

Unit 2.3: Energy and Weight

Many do not realize that there is a direct relationship in how many calories are taken in to the weight of a person. If a person takes in more calories than they burn, the excess calories are turned into fat and stored in the body. The converse occurs when there are less calories taken in than a person burns. We all have a certain amount of calories that are necessary for us to function.

The body takes a lot of energy to just maintain itself. Every person’s metabolic functions take different amounts of calories depending on many factors. If a person is active or inactive will impact how many calories that person needs to live. Women that are pregnant or nursing need more calories to perform the functions necessary for the needs of the embryo or lactation.

As you go through this unit, you will take a look at the impact of diet on weight. You will have the chance to explore many scenarios. It takes 3500 calories to make a pound of weight on a human body. Depending on the person and his/her activity level determines how many calories that person needs to function at the level of activity he/she participates in and maintain his/her weight level.

Every situation is different. A 350 pound NFL football player will have a different caloric need than a 350 pound sedentary person. A growing child will have different needs compared to an elderly person. The activity level also has a big impact on the needs of each individual person.

Daily caloric needs to maintain weight


body weight in kg x 24 = kcal/day

body weight in kg x 23 = kcal/day

If a person is very active or sedentary, this has not been considered in the above equations.

kg = pounds divided by 2.2 (ie: 180 lbs / 2.2 = 81.8 kg)

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 2.3.

02.03.01 2000 Calorie Diet Plan (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

DIRECTIONS: There are many sites available on the Internet in which you can find calorie counters to know how many calories a certain person should have to maintain their weight. There are also many sites on the Internet to find out how many calories specific foods have. You need to find some of these sites to use to find the information asked for to complete the assignment.

Create a balanced, well-planned day's diet for a 2000 calorie diet. Include the food items and the calories.

You may want to copy and paste the following information into a word processor (i.e. Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and then complete the work. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area for this assignment.

Food Item Calories Food Item Calories


________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

Total Calories from Breakfast __________


________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

Total Calories from Snack __________


________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

Total Calories from Lunch __________


________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

Total Calories from Snack __________


________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

________________________ _______ ______________________ ________

Total Calories from Lunch __________

Total Calories for the day _____________

02.04 Eating Disorders (FoodSci)

Unit 2.4: Eating Disorders

Any time that dramatic measures are taken to lose weight, this is a cause for concern. People that have anorexia nervosa have an eating disorder in which they starve themselves because they have an unrealistic view of their body. Women between 12 years and 25 years are especially vulnerable for having distorted perceptions of themselves which can lead to eating disorders. A person with anorexia believes that he/she is never thin enough and might even literally diet and exercise themselves to death. Those suffering from this disorder often have control issues. They feel that they can have complete control over their eating and exercise where they might not feel they have control over other parts of their lives.

Another eating disorder is bulimia in which a person might binge and gorge themselves with large amounts of food after which they will cause themselves to vomit or use laxatives. Those with bulimia might overeat to cope with stress or other problems then purge because of self-disgust often times because of the overeating. This can cause a whole new set of problems with the digestive track as the hydrochloric acid from the stomach comes back up through the esophagus and mouth.

Although eating disorders are evident through physical means, they are caused by emotional problems. They may need to get professional help to deal with, understand, and manage the disorder. Without help, they can become life-threatening.

Any major change or restriction of a diet can be considered an eating disorder. For example, if someone only eats one meal a day. This can be very hard on the physical body since it puts the system into starvation or reserve mode for long periods of time. Another example is binging or overeating. Proper nutrition and the dietary guidelines will be studied in more depth in a future unit.

(Select the link "Eating Disorders")

Complete the assignment in Unit 2 for lesson 2.4 labeled Eating Disorders.

After completing this assignment, you will take the test for the entire unit. Remember that the test will cover every lesson in Unit 2 and you will have 45 minutes to take it from when you begin.

02.04 Eating Disorders links (FoodSci)

Read the information presented under Eating Disorders: Facts About Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

02.04.01 Eating Disorder Article (FoodSci)

computer-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 2-Assignment 4: Eating Disorders

DIRECTIONS: You are to act as a newspaper reporter and write an article about eating disorders (focus on one disorder, if you'd like). Contact a professional person in your area that could give you information that you could write in your article. Remember to use good grammar and English skills while writing your article. Use at least one quote from the person you interview. Some possible professionals that you could contact might be:

health clinic worker
health teacher

You are to submit your article along with the person's name you contacted, profession, and a telephone number at which they can be reached.

02.04.02 Unit 2 Test (FoodSci)

computer-scored 60 points possible 90 minutes

Take the Unit 2 Test: Energy from Food7/07

This test will cover all the information presented from the course materials, web sites, and assignments before beginning. Make sure you review all the information before beginning. You have ONE ATTEMPT to take this test. Once you begin the test, you must finish. If you exit the test at any time, you will NOT be able to return. The test locks up once you've got out of the test, so make sure you have completed the entire test before exiting the test.

03.00 Unit 3 Food Microbiology (FoodSci)

In this unit you will explore food microbiology which will include food safety and microbe control, food dehydration, food canning, freeze-drying and/or air drying processes, food irradiation, and the USDA packaging guidelines.

03.01 Food Borne Illness (FoodSci)

Lesson 3.1: Food Borne Illness

Some microorganisms are harmful to the human body. Other microorganisms in food cause food to spoil. Three microorganisms that might cause food to spoil are bacteria, mold, and yeast. Growth of these organisms in food can be undesirable.

Microorganisms, including bacteria, can be grouped according to their requirement for oxygen. Some grow only in the presence of oxygen (aerobes). Others go only in the absence of oxygen (anaerobes). Some are able to grow with or without oxygen (facultative anaerobes). This is important in keeping food safe and palatable.

Germs are spread by three F' 's:

* Food
* Fingers
* Feces

Germs are usually spread by something touching something else. For example, a person with a cold, coughs into his/her hand and then goes into the kitchen and picks up a piece of food. Those "cold" germs can easily jump from the hand to the food item. Someone else comes along and picks up the food item and eats it. They end up ingesting the germ and "catch" the cold.

Germs are so small that we can't feel them. What we do feel is the symptoms brought on by the germ. Think about the cold situation again. You wouldn't even know that the germ had entered your body until you began getting a sore throat, a temperature, a cough, or even aches and pains.

This goes to show how important it is to be clean and conscientious of cleanliness in the kitchen while cooking. Unfortunately, many of these little organisms can't be destroyed with plain water. It is important that hands, dishes, cooking surfaces, and basically all surfaces used in cooking be cleaned with hot soapy water to help prevent food contamination. Why do we need to worry about germs? They can cause serious illnesses.

Think about the last time you washed your hands. Did you really clean them well? Did you use warm/hot water and soap? Think of how many things you have touched throughout the day... and how many of those things you touched were touched by other people? You don't know if those other people have washed their hands. You need to take all of the precautions you can especially when preparing food. Hospital studies show that more disease is spread by unwashed hands than by breathing, coughing or even sneezing on others. Hopefully you are getting the idea that washing hands is VERY important. Keep your cooking environment safe.

Keep in mind that humans are not the only carriers of germs. There are plenty of other household pests that can also carry germs. Realize that it is our responsibility to create an environment that is as clean as possible and to constantly keep things clean and hands washed when cooking. This will help to minimize some of those pests we don't want in our cooking environments.

Under natural conditions, anaerobes grow only in places protected from the air such as deep in the soil or under water. They can also grow under human-made anaerobic conditions, such as in canned or vacuum-packed foods which have not been processed or handled properly. Most bacteria can be killed with heat; therefore, boiling water will often make food safe to eat. Some strains, however, are so resistant to heat that they are only killed with very high temperatures.

A food-borne illness is simply a sickness a person gets from eating contaminated food. Many contaminants are in the form of a harmful bacteria being present. Food intoxications are food- borne illnesses that come from consuming foods which contain toxins or poisons. Food infections are food-borne illnesses caused by eating food which has organisms that grow and cause illness after they enter the human body. Some of these are caused by molds and other fungi.

One bacteria harmful to the human body is Clostridium Perfringens. It is a food intoxication caused by bacteria that produce a toxin (when large amounts are ingested) and spores. It is the toxin that makes people sick, not the bacteria, and the toxin can only be produced in the human body. Clostridium Perfringens is almost everywhere; the big problem is that the bacteria we capable of producing the heat resistant spores.

Clostridium Perfringens is anaerobic. It grows readily on turkey, meat gravy, casseroles, and other meat-based foods. Cooking foods in a slow cooker increases the chance that food may have Clostridium Perfringens. The symptoms of Clostridium Perfringen-caused illness are: nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. It very rarely kills anyone.

Staphylococcus Aureus is a food intoxication caused by bacteria found in the nose, throat, and on the skin. These bacteria are easily spread by coughing or sneezing. Staph bacteria do not cause the food intoxication; they produce a toxin that causes the illness. This bacteria grows best on starchy foods or on moist meat dishes. Symptoms include: nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps.

Clostridium Botulinum is another food intoxication; it is a very strong toxin-the strongest toxin known to humans. This toxin grows most often in home-canned foods, especially in those with low acid content.

The spores, which thrive only in oxygen-free surroundings, manage to get into canned ham or vacuum-packed cold cuts. If these products are allowed to reach a temperature of 50 F or higher (room temperatures), the spores will germinate into active bacteria causing the deadly nerve toxins. The toxins can be destroyed by temperatures above 160 F, but, because they are generally precooked, the cold cuts may not be cooked when consumed. The problem with canned and cured foods is that they are often not thoroughly cooked before eating.

Home-canned fruits and vegetables must be processed at the recommended time and temperatures. Nitrite is added to cured meats to suppress the active bacteria. Symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, cramps, headache, double vision, and general weakness developing after eating the tainted food. The patient can be given large quantities of salt water (1 Tbsp. per quart of water) followed with sweetened hot coffee and/or tea; apply hot water bags to the abdomen, and call a doctor or get the patient to the emergency room immediately.

Salmonella is the most common food infection. It is found in meat, fish, and poultry products. Salmonella bacteria are killed when heated. Quite often foods become cross-contaminated because knives and the cutting board are not cleaned after using them on contaminated food. This is especially true if the cook is working with poultry, fish, and red meats. Usually, the symptoms take a longer time to show up. Symptoms include: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.

Knowledge of the characteristics of salmonella and trichinosis and the safe techniques used when handling food, will help people be more aware of the dangers of microorganisms in food handling and consumption.

Trichinosis is caused by consuming food which contains a microscopic worm called a trichinella spiralis. It is usually in the muscle tissue of animal products. It is killed if the meat is cooked well. Trichinosis causes nausea, diarrhea, fever, muscle pain, and tiredness. In bad cases, it can cause heart and brain damage and even death. To keep food safe to eat, it must be prepared and handled correctly:

Hot foods need to be kept hot and cold foods need to be kept cold. Keeping food cold will not kill the bacteria; it just keeps the bacteria from growing. Cooking the food correctly and thoroughly will kill the bacteria. Proper food handling is necessary to keep food safe to eat. Hands should be washed with soap and water before preparing food. Food should be kept in clean containers, touched with clean utensils, and prepared on clean surfaces.

Hand washing (including nails):

1. Use hot soapy water and nail brushes. Dry with paper, not cloth towels.

2. Repeat hand washing if the hands touch any part of the body (including the nose, face, or hair) and if the hands touch money. The hands must be rewashed after cleaning spills from the floor and after visiting the rest room.

Preventing Food Borne Illnesses:

* Keep surfaces clean such as cutting boards, counter tops, equipment, etc.
* Keep food clean.
* Refrigerate protein foods and do not allow them to stand at room temperatures.
* Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
* Use proper cooking procedures.
* Keep clothing clean; i.e., wear a lab coat or apron.
* Restrain loose hair by wearing hair nets, tying hair back, and not using combs or brushes around food preparation.
* Bring no books, handbags, etc., into the food preparation area.
* Wear lab coats, aprons, etc.

(Select the link “Food Borne Illness”)

The Food & Drug Adminstration (FDA) is a goverment organization that monitors drugs and food in the United States. "FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines more effective, safer, and more affordable and by helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to maintain and improve their health. FDA also has responsibility for regulating the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors." (Food & Drug Adminstration -

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 3.1.

03.01 Food Borne Illness links (FoodSci)

03.01.01 Food Borne Illness Prevention (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 1: Food Borne Illness

PART I - Geospatial activity about the Food & Drug Adminstration (FDA)

DIRECTIONS: Use Google Earth to locate the FDA in Silver Spring MD. If you do not have Google Earth loaded onto your computer, go to the URLs for this lesson and load Google Earth.

In the search box of Google Earth type in Food & Drug Administration (FDA).
Click on the magnifying glass to start the search.
Click on the link for Silver Springs, MD which then Google Earth will fly you to the FDA.
A pop-up placemark will appear.
Click on the website above the reviews.
The FDA website will open.
In this box type in "foodborne illnesses" and choose 2 of the articles from the first list of 10.
Read the 2 articles then summarize the main points in each article in 1-2 paragraphs for a total of 2-4 paragraphs.
You may want to create this in a word document then copy and paste the information into the submission tool in the TOPIC OUTLINE area #3.

DIRECTIONS: Using the information from the course materials on food borne illnesses, list ten things you can do to prevent food borne illnesses.

1. ____________________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________________

3. ____________________________________________________________________________

4. ____________________________________________________________________________

5. _____________________________________________________________________________

6. _____________________________________________________________________________

7. _____________________________________________________________________________

8. _____________________________________________________________________________

9. _____________________________________________________________________________

10. ____________________________________________________________________________

03.02 Household Pests (FoodSci)

Unit 3.2: Household Pests (FoodSci)

Household pests are something that every home owner/building owner and has to deal with, and so if this is a reality, the concern becomes to control and prevention. There are many things that home owners can do to protect their home or scientists can do to protect their labs from these pests. Download the attached PDF for information about common household pests.

In the attached file there is a list of common household pests, a description, and what measures can be taken to control them.

Though not all the animals described are rodents, most of them damage property as rodents do - by gnawing. Many are capable of causing considerable damage to the inside of a house or to outbuildings.

Of the four chief methods of control, three are appropriate to all the pests mentioned; the fourth applies only to those that enter the home:

1. Destruction of the animal itself. In most cases, poison is the most efficient means. Traps can be effective, but results are unpredictable.

2. Elimination of the shelter or nesting place. In addition, you should remove materials that could be used to construct a new shelter.

3. Cutting off food supplies. Eventually the pests will be forced to level in search of food.

4. Seal up or screen all possible places of entry. Do not overlook the chimney, drains, and kitchen vents.

Preventive measure:
Be sure screens fit tightly and are undamaged. Do a thorough cleaning job, especially in corners, in cabinets and closets, around water pipes and bathroom fixtures, and under sinks. Store food in tightly sealed containers and store them outside to await disposal. Use caulking compound to seal openings, such as where pipes enter the house. Since pests often hide in packages, get rid of cartons as soon as they are emptied. Always wash clothing or have it cleaned before storing.

Destroy insects in the house with insecticides, which are available as surface sprays, space sprays, powders, and chemically treated strips. Surface, or residual, sprays are applied by spray gun, aerosol bomb, or by brush to surfaces where the insects breed or travel. The liquid in surface sprays leaves a fine film that will kill insects on contact even weeks after application. Space sprays dispensed from a spray can or aerosol bomb kill flying insects but have no residual effect. Insecticide powders are dusted in breeding or feeding areas.

Before using any insecticide, carefully read the instructions and precautions on the container's label. Use the insecticide only as directed; failure to do so could cause serious injury. Do not let an insecticide spray get on food or on eating or cooking utensils or surfaces. Be careful not to inhale it or get it on your skin or in your eyes. Wash hands and face thoroughly with soap and water after handling any insecticide. Never use a spray near an open flame, such as a pilot light, or near a furnace; do not smoke when handling a spray. Leave the room as soon as you have used a space spray; keep the room closed and stay out of it for at least half an hour, then ventilate it. Do not hang a chemically treated strip in rooms where people will be present for prolonged periods, particularly infants or sick or old people; do not use it where food is prepared or served. Do not let children touch surfaces where residual sprays have been used. Store insecticides in a cool, dry place out of reach of children and pets - and never near food. Dispose of insecticides in such a way that they cannot contaminate water or wildlife; do not flush them down toilets, skins, or sewers. If any insecticide should get in your mouth or be swallowed, call a doctor immediately. Follow the antidote instructions on the insecticide label.
Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 3.2.

03.02.01 List of 10 Pests (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 2: Household Pests

DIRECTIONS: Using the list and information presented in the Food Borne Illness course materials make a list of at least 10 pests that you or your family has dealt with and how the problem was overcome. If you can't get 10 with your family, you can use someone that lives by you or an extended relative. Have the paper signed by that person once you have talked with them and have them write their phone number.












03.03 Microbiology (FoodSci)

Unit 3.3: Microbiology

Click and open the attached PDF so that you can print and have a copy of the bacteria pictures available as you go through this unit.

Just what are microorganisms? They are small, living forms of life which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria, yeasts, and molds are three common types of microorganisms. People often confuse and, almost always, misunderstand functions of microorganisms which are just as real and alive as students are in a classroom. Microorganisms eat and grow; they reproduce and die. (Source: FOOD SCIENCE, SAFETY AND NUTRITION Curriculum Guide: National FFA Foundation, Unit 4.)

Bacteria, yeasts, and molds can be found everywhere. Scientists have gathered them from clouds above mountain tops and in the deepest parts of the ocean. They are present on animals, people, floors, doorknobs, and even in the air we breathe.

How small are microorganisms? Molds can be seen with only slight magnification and the use of an ordinary magnifying glass. Yeasts must be viewed through a microscope that magnifies several hundred times. Bacteria can best be seen when studied with a more powerful microscope that enlarges at least 1,000 times.

A microscope capable of magnifying 500 times must be used in order to see a single bacterial cell. However, if that cell is allowed to grow on suitable food or solid media, it will reproduce rapidly into a colony consisting of millions of cells. The colony is visible to the naked eye.

Microorganisms have a direct impact on our daily lives. Some are helpful. They aid our bodily processes by helping to break down complex foods into simpler substances.

Mold, yeast, and bacteria are the chief microorganisms that cause food spoilage. Mold usually grows on the surface of foods and has a fuzzy appearance. If only a small amount has grown on a food's surface, the mold can be removed and the remaining food eaten. In larger amounts, mold growth produces undesirable changes throughout the food. The growth of yeast, a one-celled plant, is slowed by low temperatures and destroyed at the boiling point. Sugar levels of at least 65% also inhibit yeast growth. Some, commonly called germs, are harmful to us because of the role they play in causing diseases. This unit focuses on bacteria. Subsequent units will present molds and yeasts.

Microorganisms are also responsible for some extremely undesirable changes in food. Warmth, moisture, and food facilitate the growth of microorganisms. The purpose of preserving food is to limit or prevent growth of microorganisms. There are many examples of microorganisms being responsible for beneficial changes in food. A certain mold is used to make Gorgonzola, Blue, and Roquefort cheeses. The process of making sour cream and yogurt utilizes specific kinds of bacteria. In bread making, yeast transforms sugar into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. To make meat more tender, the enzymes in papain are used in commercial meat tenderizers to break down the connective tissue.


Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can grow with or without air. Bacteria make up the largest group of microorganisms. People often think of bacteria only in terms of germs and the harm they do. Actually, only a small number of bacteria types are pathogenic (disease causing). Most are harmless, and many are helpful.

There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria. Some differ only slightly, and it takes a highly-trained person to identify them. There are also groups which differ greatly in growth habits and appearance and are quite easily identified. Regardless of minor differences, most bacteria can be classified according to five basic cell shapes- -Spiral or Spirilla, Rod or Bacilli, Round or Cocci, Comma or Vibrio, and Filamento (pictured on next page).

In addition to their different shapes, bacteria cell arrangement varies. For example, some cocci are always grouped in pairs (diplococci). Others are arranged in chains (streptococci). Still others are bunched (staphylococci)(pictured on next page).

Diplococci am a kind of bacteria which cause pneumonia. Streptococci are often associated with strep throat. Staphylococci are familiar to many because of their role in staph infections and some ram of food poisonings.

Bacteria vary somewhat in size, but the average is about 1/25,000 inch. In other words, 25,000 bacteria laid side by side would occupy only one inch of space. One cubic inch is big enough to hold nine trillion average size bacteria-about 3,000 bacteria for every person on earth.


Bacteria and other microorganisms need food in order to grow and multiply, but the different types vary in their food needs. Although some bacteria make their own food, as plants do, many rely on outside food sources, and nearly everything humans consider as food can also be used as food by some type of bacteria.

To be used by bacteria, a food substance must be manufactured inside the one-celled organism, or food from an outside source must pass into the cell of the microorganism where the food can be processed into energy and new cell material. Because many foods are too complex to move into a bacterial cell, most of them must be broken down into simpler substances. Enzymes do this by acting as catalysts and increasing the rate of biochemical reactions.

A catalyst initiates a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process. A catalyst also enables a chemical reaction to proceed under milder conditions than would otherwise be possible. The enzyme moves through the cell wall to break down food on the outside into a form bacteria can use. Enzymes are found within living bacterial and other cells.



Bacteria are single cells, and like all cells they reproduce by a process called binary fission-one cell divides and becomes two. (See BINARY FISSION drawing on next page.) Some bacteria can reproduce at a very rapid rate under proper conditions. If food and moisture are adequate and the temperature is right, certain bacteria can reproduce in as little as 20 minutes. Within 20 minutes, one cell becomes two; in 40 minutes, there will be four, and so on. In only eight hours, the original cell will have multiplied to nearly 17 million new bacteria. Of course, conditions don't remain favorable for such a rate of reproduction for very long. If they did, people could be buried in bacterial cells.

The number of certain kinds of bacteria in and on food we eat is very important. Plate counting, a technique by which colonies of bacteria are grown from single cells on nutrient agar, makes it possible to determine the number of bacteria in a food sample without the aid of a microscope. A second important method of classifying bacteria is by their ability to grow and reproduce at various temperatures. Some are cold loving and grow well under refrigeration. Called psychrophilic bacteria, this group grows at temperatures less then 50 F. They are responsible for many types of spoilage in refrigerated foods, such as slime formation on meats and ropiness in milk.

The second group-mesophilic bacteria-includes those which cause disease and food poisoning. They grow only at moderate temperatures of 50 F to 110 F. You can see why it is so important to store unprocessed foods under refrigeration.

The third group-called thermophile-grows well at temperatures between 110 F to 140 F. These bacteria can cause spoilage in underprocessed canned foods. Generally bacteria require food, warmth, water, and time in order to grow.

Bacteria are like people...

they need food, water, warmth, and time to grow.

BACTERIAL CONDITIONS FOR GROWTH (Food Science, Safety and Nutrition, Curriculum Guide: National FFA Foundation, Madison, Wisconsin. 1991.)


Bacteria like moist, nonacid foods than are high in protein such as milk, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Most vegetables have some acid which slows the growth of bacteria.


Bacteria need moisture to grow. Dry foods such as sugar, flour, dry cereal, rice cookies, and biscuits do not have enough moisture to allow bacteria to grow.


The danger zone for bacterial growth is between 40EF -- 140EF.

To prevent the growth of bacteria:




An important thing to consider in the growth of bacteria is the ability of certain types to produce spores. A spore is a dormant or resting state of a bacterial cell. (See BACTERIAL SPORES pictured to the left.)

There are certain basic differences between spores and active or vegetative (these terms refer to growing or having the power to grow and reproduce) bacterial cells. Spores are not easily killed. In fact, conditions which will quickly kill active bacteria have little or no effect on spores. A temperature of 180 F will kill bacterial cells within minutes, but the same bacteria, owe formed into spores, can resist the 180 F temperature indefinitely. This knowledge is applied in food preparation in that all processing times for canned foods are calculated by using both the time and temperature required to kill bacterial spores.

As noted earlier, microorganisms are essential in the production of certain foods. Reactions caused by bacteria are central to producing many foods we enjoy daily. For examples, bacteria are responsible in whole or in part for the following:

Cocoa, Coffee, Olives,

Pickles, Yogurt, Sauerkraut,

Vinegar, Vanilla, Buttermilk,



Acid-producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilous, when added to milk and kept at controlled temperatures (110 F or 43 C) and time controlled (usually 4 hours), will produce a milk product known as yogurt. The two kinds of bacteria consume the lactose in milk as an energy source, excrete lactic acid as a waste product, and produce a safe and edible product-yogurt.

Sour cream and cottage cheese can be made without the help of bacteria by purposely adding cultures as is done in commercial ventures. Bacteria derived from the atmosphere will also sour the milk and, over time, will cause it to curdle. Plain milk and cream is fairly stable when heated, but prolonged heating and acids added from other foods cause the casein micelles and whey proteins to become unstable and curd.

Commercially, cottage cheese and other cheeses are produced by two methods: one uses rennet (an enzyme that coagulates milk) to curdle the milk, the other uses lactic bacteria. Cheese making depends on the bacteria that produce lactic acids to cause the casein micelles to aggregate, trapping fat globules and the whey in the protein. Streptococcus lactis is used to produce buttermilk commercially.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 3-Assignment 3.

03.03.01 Microorganism Research (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 3: Microorganisms

INSTRUCTIONS: Do a search on the Internet and find a website with information presented on microorganisms, list five microorganisms, where they are found, how they are spread, and prevention measures.

1. Chosen Microorganism: ____________________________

Where Found:____________________________________________________


How they spread: ________________________________________________


Prevention Measure: ______________________________________________


2. Chosen Microorganism: ____________________________

Where Found:____________________________________________________


How they spread: ________________________________________________


Prevention Measure: ______________________________________________


3. Chosen Microorganism: ____________________________

Where Found:____________________________________________________


How they spread: ________________________________________________


Prevention Measure: ______________________________________________


4. Chosen Microorganism: ____________________________

Where Found:____________________________________________________


How they spread: ________________________________________________


Prevention Measure: ______________________________________________


5. Chosen Microorganism: ____________________________

Where Found:____________________________________________________


How they spread: ________________________________________________


Prevention Measure: ______________________________________________


03.04 Food Dehydration (FoodSci)

Unit 3.4: Food Dehydration

Various methods of preserving food have been around for a long time. The processes of food drying (dehydration) and using salt and spices to prevent spoilage have been used for thousands of years. Grains and nuts were the first foods to be dried using the sun and air. Mechanical methods of drying were developed in the late 1700s. Campers, backpackers, and military personnel are a few of the people who commonly use dried foods. Dried foods are eaten by others as well because they are compact, lightweight, and last much longer than fresh foods. In contrast, irradiation of food is a much newer process. Nicolas Appert, a French chef and inventor, discovered a way to sterilize food in a sealed container. Napoleon I gave Appert 12,000 francs to make his invention public. Napoleon was highly interested in Appert's invention because of its potential to feed armies who were many miles from home. Appert published several books for canning and started the canning industry.

Families involved in home-canning and commercial canning and food preservation endeavors must utilize procedures published by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the Cooperative Extension Service, and/or the FDA (Federal Drug Administration) to avoid spoilage that could be fatal. Many companies involved in food production and preservation (such as Kerr, Ball, MCP, etc.) provide educational material to help individuals and families have a safer, better quality food supply. If individuals and families involved in food preservation at home do not work in a sanitary environment utilizing procedures established by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the Cooperative Extension Service, or canning companies, the spoilage that may occur could be fatal. Salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, clostridium perfringens, trichinosis, and Clostridium Botulinum are the five most common bacteria that can cause food-borne illness. Negligence in food preparation and storage is the most frequent reason food poisoning occurs. The symptoms vary from mild flu-like symptoms to death. Sixty five percent of persons with botulism die. This type of food poisoning can be caused by improperly home- canned food. It can also be caused from commercially canned food stored in damaged containers.

Purpose of Dehydration

Smaller size and less weight


Longer storage potential

Using Dried Foods
Dehydrated foods can often be used in the dried state or rehydrated. Rehydration means the water is reabsorbed into the food. An example of this is instant potatoes. Raisons are a dried fruit that are often eaten in the dried states.

Pre treatment of Foods for Drying
Pre treatment improves the quality of the finished product. Pretreating the foods will help ensure retention of more flavor and fat-soluble vitamins. It also lessens browning and storage deterioration.

Methods of Pretreating
Three methods of pretreating are sulfating, sulfuring, and blanching. These methods help the food retain desirable qualities.

Sulfating: soaking food in a solution of water and sodium bisulfite or sodium metabisulfite which slows enzymatic browning and oxidation. Foods shouldn't be soaked too long (10 mins. or less) or they may become mushy. Although, soaking can add time to the drying process.

Sulfuring: the food is placed on closely stacked trays and covered while burning sulfur creates fumes that flow around the food. This method is used often in commercial settings. This process does not affect Vitamins A and C, shortens drying time, slows mold growth, and repels insects.

Blanching: the food is placed over boiling water and blanched by the steam, placed in a hot solution usually of sugar and water, or placed in boiling water for a short period of time to stop or denature enzymes in the food that cause browning.

Once foods are ready to dry, it is important to consider air temperature and movement to be adequate to optimize drying time and improve the quality of the finished product.

Fruits and vegetables and be dried whole, in pieces or pureed and made into fruit leather. Each food will take a varied amount of time to dry depending on the characteristics of that fruit.

Fruit Leather
Fruit leather can be made whenever you have fruit. During the winter, cookie sheets of leather will dry in front of a sunny window or over a heating unit. An electric heater with a fan to blow warm air across the pans will speed drying. A low setting on the oven can be used. Use your imagination when it comes to finding heat sources. Food dryers are available commercially.

Ends and pieces from canning fruit.
Preserves that did not jell.
Home canned fruit that has darkened but is still safe to eat.
Fruit in season.

There are four ways in which fruit leather can be made at home: sun drying, oven drying, room drying, or in a food dehydrator.

Dry the puree in direct sunlight for nine to ten hours. It may be covered to prevent insects from getting onto it.

Set the oven at the lowest possible temperature. Prop the door open as for broiling. The puree should dry in six to ten hours. Be careful not to overdry.

The food is set out to dry at room temperature. It's best to have a spot that is warm with good air circulation without pollutants in the air. This method creates the lowest quality product.

In this process, a machine is used that provides a continuous circulating, heated air to dry the food. This process usually produces the best product at home because it is a sanitary, consistent environment.

Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 3.4.

03.04.01 Lab: Fruit Leather (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 4: Food Dehydration

You will be making fruit leather. The instructions are listed below. Once you have completed making your leather, fill out the sheet on the following page and submit it to me.

PREPARATION of Fruit Leather

1. Select sound, flesh, mature fruits and vegetables. Food quality neither improves nor lowers with drying.

2. Wash carefully, remove any spoiled or defective parts. Vegetables should be blanched before drying.

3. Pare, halve, or quarter fruit and puree in a blender. A colander or sieve will also work if the fruit is mashed first (make sure there are no lumps).

4. Add sweetening or flavoring if desired. This is optional but a rule of thumb is 1 Tbsp. of sugar or honey for each cup of puree. Other spices may also be added.

5. Line a cookie sheet with plastic wrap extending it over the sides and ends of the cookie sheet.

6. Spread the puree evenly over it, about 1/8" thick. A 17" x 12" cookie sheet will hold about two cups of puree. Dry.

INSTRUCTIONS: FIll out the following sheet. Include a parent/guardian's name and phone number that they can be reached for verification.

Parent/Guardian Name: _________________________ Phone #: ___________

Type of fruit used in your leather: ______________________________________

Self-evaluate your own product for the five senses:

Taste: __________________________________________________________


Touch: __________________________________________________________


Feel: __________________________________________________________


Color: __________________________________________________________


Smell: __________________________________________________________


03.05 Food Canning (FoodSci)

Unit 3.5: Food Canning

Canning foods had its beginnings in the late 1700’s when Emperor Napoleon ordered a 12,000 franc prize to anyone that could preserve food from one harvest to the next. He needed a way to feed his army while they were on extended campaigns.

In 1809, a candy maker from Paris, Nicolas Appert, demonstrated his method of preserving using glass bottles with food in them that was heated and then sealed with a cork. He won the prize money and the government continued to fund his research on this new technology. A year later, an Englishman, Peter Durand discovered the tin canister for canning. This is where the term “canning” came into existence.

Canning food kills harmful microorganisms and also seals the container. There are two common methods used to process (heat) the food. A water bath in which the jars are heated in a boiling pot of water is used. The water is boiled and allowed to circulate around the jars which help to kill any microorganisms. After the recommended time expires, the jars are removed and allowed to cool at room temperature.

While they cook, it creates a vacuum inside the jar which seals the lid to the jar. If the center spot on the lid has been pulled in towards the center of the jar, then the jar has sealed. If the center spot on the lid is still rounded up, the jar has not sealed and the lid may need to be replaced so that the jar can be reprocessed again.

If the jar does not seal, this food could be placed in the refrigerator and used within a week or so. A water bath is used on high acid foods. These types of foods are less likely to have microorganisms grow because of the high acidity levels. Examples of these foods are berries, fruit, pickles, and sauerkraut.

Pressure canning occurs when the jars are placed in a pressure cooker which is sealed. The pressure cooker is heated, which causes pressure to build up inside the canner since there is no way for the steam that is created to escape. A safety valve is installed in the lid of the pressure cooker to insure that if too much heat is present and the pressure becomes too great it can be released to prevent the pressure cooker from exploding under the pressure. The heat has to be monitored very closely to keep the pressure cooker at the correct pressure. A gauge on the top of the pressure cooker helps in this process so that you know exactly how much pressure is present in the canner. Low acid foods are pressured such as beans, carrots, pumpkin, meat, fish, poultry, and basically most vegetables. Pressure cooking kills the harmful bacteria and spores present in the foods.

Pressure cooking takes more time because the pressure cooker has to be allowed to cool on its own without releasing any pressure. As the cooker cools, the pressure is reduced inside. If the pressure valve is manually released, it stops the vacuum effect in the jars and thus, the jars do not seal. Because the cooling process cannot be speeded up, it takes quite awhile for the pressure canner to cool. With the water bath, the jars can be removed while the water is still boiling and set aside while new ones are processed while the first jars cool.

If you remember, heat conduction occurs when two substances that are touching transmit heat. The substance that is warmer will give off heat to the cooler one until all of the molecules in both substances are the same temperatures. In the water bath canning method, conduction occurs when the water becomes heated and then transfers to the jar which transfers to the liquid and food in the jar. Convection works along with conduction and occurs when currents form in a liquid or air. The water at the bottom of the canner is heated and the molecules begin to move faster and move away from each other. The hot water at the bottom becomes less dense or lighter and begins to rise where the cooler water has become denser and sinks to the bottom. Thus, currents are formed. The water will continue to flow until all of the water becomes the same temperature.

The processing times used depend on the type of food that you are canning. It is recommended that you have a chart available that will give you the times needed for processing and also be aware of any adjustments that need to be made for altitude. If you have any questions, you can locate your local extension agent.

Home canning gained wide spread acceptance and use and is still a common practice in many homes. To achieve a quality end product, it is important to understand canning methods and the correct equipment to use. Typically a person needs canning jars which are made of tempered glass to withstand high temperatures. It is critical that there are no chips or cracks especially along the mouth of the jar or the jar will not seal and the food will spoil over time. Lids are placed on the mouth of the jar and will actually seal to the jar during the canning process. Rings or bands are used to hold the lid in place. The type of pan that is used depends on the method that is used to process the food.

There are three basic types of canning: hot-pack, cold-pack, and pressure canning. Each is done for different reasons.

Hot-Pack Canning
The food is heated in syrup, water, or juice to around a 100E temperature. While the food is still hot, it is put into the jars, the lid and ring is secured over the mouth, and then processed. This method is used for foods that can be slightly compressed when they are heated to allow for more food to be placed in the jar.

Cold-Pack Canning
Raw food is placed in the jar and then covered with boiling water or juice. The lid and ring are secured and then the food is processed. Using this method seems to allow the food to hold its shape better. This type of canning is usually recommended for low density foods that might fall apart during the cooking.

Pressure Canning
Refer to the sixth paragraph in this lesson.

A couple of canning methods that have gained popularity are retort canning and aseptic canning. Retort canning helps speed the processing time because the food containers are mechanically moved.

Aseptic canning occurs when the food is sterilized before it is placed in sterilized containers. It has been suggested that this process is the most significant technology in the last fifty years because of the decrease in time needed to process foods and the increase of nutritional value and flavor.

Clostridium botulinum is a microbe that causes botulism, the most serious of the food borne illnesses.

Scientists believe that one cup or 250 mL of botulinum toxin would be enough to kill every person on the earth. For this reason, it is critical that proper steps be followed and no steps missed in the canning process. Most cases of botulism occur from improperly home-canned foods. Canning properly will eliminate this microbe, so be very conscientious when you are canning to insure your food is safe. Botulism poisoning happens in canning when the jars are not heated hot enough or long enough to kill all of the spores. These spores are anaerobic and do not need air and will survive and grow if not killed during the canning process.

If foods that have been canned have a “bad” odor when opened or the container is bulging, it should be discarded. Don't take a chance. Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 3.5.

03.05.01 Lab: Canning Fruit (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 5: Food Canning

To get credit for this assignment you are going to "can" something. If you do not have the supplies available, jars and lids may be purchased at a grocery store and if you use the pint or half-pint jars, they can be water bathed in a large cooking pot or if you have access, use an actual water bath canning pot. I have included some recipes, but if you have something in particular that you would like to "can" and I have not included this, please feel free to "can" whatever you would like to. It is recommended to use something that is "in season" which will be easier to buy and less expensive. When you have completed the canning process and sampled your product, please have another person sample the product and fill out the sheet following the instructions for the assignment. Please include the steps you went through, the precautions you took for food borne illnesses, the recipe you used, and the signature and telephone number of the person you had sample your product.

Good luck and happy canning!!


Be very mindful of following all necessary precautions when using boiling water and in preparing the food. Make sure you process the food the correct amount of time and using the best method properly. Double check each step you do to make sure that your product will be safe to eat when you are done. Read through the recipe completely before you begin and make sure you understand what you are doing before you begin. Use caution while canning!!!

Before you proceed, click on canning link in the URL's and go to the following web site and search through it.

It will give you step-by-step instructions on canning, recipes, and other important information. If you do not have a recipe or want to do one of the recipes, I have included the recipes below.

Product canned: ________________________

Name of person that sampled product:______________________

Phone number of person that sampled: ________________________

Comments from person that sampled product: __________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Steps you went through in canning process: ____________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Precautions you took for food borne illnesses:____________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Recipe used: ___________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________


DIRECTIONS: Read through the instructions before proceeding.

Using the following instructions, can one pint or one quart of apples (Jonathan, golden delicious, or other canning apples) and/or one pint or one quart of peaches or other fruit provided by the teacher.


20%-Thin or Light-1 cup-3 cups
30%-Medium-2 cups-4 cups
40%-Medium Heavy-3 cups-4 cups
50%-Heavy-4 cups-4 cups
60%-Extra Heavy-6 cups-4 cups


1. Select uniform apples, wash, pare, core. Cut into desired uniform size.
2. If peeled fruit is to stand several minutes before precooking, drop into a mild salt solution to prevent discoloration (2 Tbsp. salt per gallon of water). Drain when ready to use.
3. Boil 5 minutes in a thin syrup (1 cup sugar to 3 cups water).
4. Pack hot fruit to within 1/2" of the top of the jar.
5. Cover with hot syrup or water, leaving a 1/2" space at the top of the jar.
6. Wipe clean the top surface of the bottle.
7. Put a seal cap on the bottle (be sure it has been in boiling water for at least 3 minutes).
8. Screw the band on the bottle so that it is firmly tight.
9. Process the filled bottle in a boiling water bath for: 25 minutes - pints 35 minutes - quarts

1. Wash peaches and remove skins. Dipping the fruit into boiling water, then quickly into cold water makes peeling easier.
2. Pack the raw fruit to within 1/2" of the top of the jar.
3. Cover the fruit with syrup leaving 1/2" of space between the top of the bottle and the syrup. (The syrup will already be made. It will be a medium syrup with 2 cups of sugar for every 4 cups of water.) If you use boiling syrup to cover the peaches, fill the syrup to within 1/2" of the top of the jar.
4. Process in a boiling water bath or in a steam canner for:

25 minutes - pints
30 minutes - quart jar


(Source: USDA- Utah State University Cooperative Extension)


Yield: 6-8 pints

2 lbs. chile peppers, peeled and chopped

1 cup vinegar (5% strength)

5 lbs. tomatoes

1 lb. onions, chopped

1/2 tsp. black pepper

1. Wash and dry peppers. (Caution: wear rubber gloves while handling peppers or wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching your face.)

Make one slit in each pepper along the side. Peel using one of the following methods:

a. Place peppers in a 400 F oven or under the broiler flame for 6-8 minutes or until skin blisters.


b. Cover the top burner with heavy wire mesh. Place peppers on the burner, and turn on heat or gas flame for several minutes until skin blisters.

2. Place peppers in a pan and cover with a damp cloth. After several minutes of cooling, slip off skins. Cut open the pepper, discard seeds, and chop.

3. To peel tomatoes, dip them in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until the skins split. Dip in cold water, slip off the skins and remove the cores. Coarsely chop the tomatoes. Combine onions, peppers, tomatoes, and remaining ingredients in a large saucepan.

4. Heat to boiling and simmer 10 minutes. Fill pint jars, leaving 1/2" headspace. Adjust lids and process in boiling water canner: 20 minutes.

This recipe is safe for canning; please do not alter ingredients. Because vinegar is added to the tomato/vegetable mixture, the processing time is less than cold-packed, whole tomatoes.


(Source: USDA- Utah State University Cooperative Extension).

Tomatoes have changed over the last several years. There are now some very dense and meaty tomatoes and some tomatoes are much lower in acid than those of earlier years. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed canning guidelines that will guarantee a safe product especially if you are canning a dense or a low-acid tomato. Contact your local office of the Utah State University Cooperative Extension Service for detailed information. It is suggested that tomatoes be processed in a water bath rather than a steam canner.

DIRECTIONS: Select firm, underripe-to-ripe tomatoes. The use of decayed or overripe tomatoes may result in spoilage of canned products. Do not can tomatoes from dead or frost-killed vines.

Remove the skins by dipping in boiling water for 30-60 seconds or until the skins split. Dip in cold water, then slip off the skins and remove cores. Trim off any bruised or discolored portions and cut tomato into quarters or leave whole or in halves.


Fill jars with raw, peeled tomatoes. Cover with hot water, leaving 1/2" headspace.


Place prepared tomatoes in a large saucepan, cover with water, and boil gently for 5 minutes. Fill jars with hot tomatoes and cover with hot cooking liquid, leaving 1/2" headspace.

Add acid to jars of both hot and raw pack products. If desired, add salt.

For low acid tomatoes, acidify per quart:

1/2 tsp. citric acid


2 Tbsp. bottled lemon juice


4 Tbsp. vinegar

Adjust lids and process in a boiling water canner or pressure canner. (It is not recommended that a steam canner is used for tomatoes due to the length of the canning process.)



Pints-50 minutes-10 minutes @ 13 lbs. pressure

Quarts-55 minutes-10 minutes @ 13 lbs. pressure

If tomatoes are packed in their own juices or without liquid, the time for processing in a boiling water canner increases to 95 minutes.

03.05.01 Lab: Canning Fruit links (FoodSci)

03.06 Food Freezing (FoodSci)

Unit 3.6: Food Freezing

Freezing food has been around since the 1920s when Clarence Birds eye produced the first frozen food, a fish. Since then this industry has grown and expanded and the introduction of convenience foods has changed society.

Freezing foods preserves them by slowing the action of enzymes which cause foods to spoil. The enzymes are slowed down rather than destroyed. Some foods, especially vegetables have to be blanched first before freezing to denature the enzymes, which helps the food retain a fresher flavor. The freezing processes slow the microbes, but once thawing occurs, the microbes will become active again if they are present. Careful handling is very important. It is recommended that frozen foods such as meats be thawed in the refrigerator to minimize microbe activity.

(Resource: Cooking with Understanding, Nichols, H.L. Jr., North Castle Books, 1971.)

Foods that are high in water do not freeze well without destroying the basic structure of the food. The water changes to ice which is a physical change and this impacts the food structure. Quick freezing usually does less damage to the flavor and texture of properly prepared and packaged food than any other method of preservation.

Fast freezing creates many fine crystals; slower freezing produces fewer but larger ones. Small crystal formation gives a better texture, is less likely to rupture cell membranes of food, and it damages the food less. Care should be taken to freeze food quickly.

When water freezes, its molecules arrange themselves in crystals. As the crystals form, they seed, or draw other molecules of water, separating them from other substances that are in combination with the water. As the water molecules separate and freeze, the water is drawn from the cells of the food, and as the water molecule leaves the cell, it punctures or tears the cell wall, damaging it by pulling the water molecule through it. Quick freezing makes smaller crystals that do less damage. Quick freezing also is more likely to freeze the molecules in place and give less time for them to separate and move through cell walls.

1. Place food in a freezer that maintains the
temperature of 0’ F during the freezing period.

2. Do not put packages to be frozen in the door compartment of an upright freezer, as they are usually several degrees warmer than the interior.

3. Packages larger than a quart are not advisable. Small packages freeze faster than large ones.

4. Wrapping in foil slows freezing somewhat.

5. If placing several unfrozen packages in the freezer at the same time, put them in different areas of the freezing compartment.

6. Refer to the freezer instructions book for the pounds of fresh material it can freeze in one batch. If information is not listed, assume you can freeze twice as many pounds as the freezer's rated capacity in cubic feet.

7. Follow quick freezing rules with meat. It will decrease the amount of runoff that occurs when the meat thaws out.

1. Always use quality foods.

2. Don't overestimate your needs.

3. A rapid turnover is important! Use a STORAGE CHART to keep a record of what you put in your freezer, when you put it in, and the date by which the food should be removed.

4. Preserve quality by:
a. Proper handling before freezing
b. Good packaging
c. Storage at temperature no higher than 0’ F
d. Proper handling and cooking after removing from freezer

Packages for freezing must give adequate protection against moisture and vapor losses or color, flavor, and texture will deteriorate.

1. Choose the size of container that will hold enough food for its use.

2. Select containers or wrappings based on how you will handle the food when it is thawed for serving (e.g., meat loaves in casserole dishes, bread to be reheated in aluminum foil, etc.)

3. When filling containers, keep in mind that liquids expand when frozen. Always allow 1/2" head space at the top of the cartons.

4. Never use scotch tape or common gummed paper tapes to seal freezer packages. These tapes loosen at low temperatures. Use freezer tape for sealing and labeling.

5. To keep foods at the peak of freshness, they must be completely sealed to keep out air. When the food surface is exposed to air, evaporations form of freezer burn-takes place.

Freezer burn occurs when foods are not
package properly for freezing. It causes a damaging effect causing foods to have a tough texture and off-flavor. The actual cause is from moisture loss from the food when the food has been exposed to air. It can also be caused when freezing and thawing happens in the freezer. With each refreezing, the ice crystals in the food get larger and cause the freezer burn.

1. Use a cover that fits tightly. When in doubt, seal the edges with freezer tape.

2. When using aluminum foil, shape it around the food.

3. When ice cream has been left in a container, smooth off the surface and place a sheet of foil directly over the ice cream.

4. When using cellophane or plastic freezer bags, force out the air and use a twister around the bag to keep out the air.

Good wrapping materials are moisture-vapor proof or resistant and will help minimize freezer burn. For most solid foods such as meat, cake, pie, and bread, use freezer weight paper such as aluminum foil, cellophane, pliofilm, or other transparent film. Polyethylene bags may be used for baked goods such as bread and cookies. To give form to shapeless plastic bags, put them in paper cartons, then fill and freeze.

Liquid-packed foods may be packaged in heavily waxed cartons, glass freezer jars, and plastic or aluminum containers. Choose a size that holds enough for one meal-quart containers hold 4-6 servings; pints, 2-3. Use only containers with wide top openings so the food does not have to be thawed completely to remove it from the container. Some prepared foods like meat pies and casserole dishes may be frozen in the containers in which they were prepared, ready for reheating at time of use.

Seal frozen food containers or packages with freezer locker tape, not general utility tape. Freezer locker tape may also be used as a label on hard-to-mark wrapping materials.

Label jars, cartons, and packages with china marking pencil or soft crayon, available at stationery stores. Be sure to DATE the package and IDENTIFY the contents.

Packaging with Freezer Sheet Material

1. Place food in the center of the wrapping. Have enough length to overlap. Bring edges together evenly above food.

2. Fold edges over and over until fold is flat against the food. Press out air.

3. Fold side edges; seal with freezer locker tape. Label plainly with contents and date.

Packaging in Rigid Container
Place food in container. Seal rigid food containers by adjusting the lids as required for the type of package used. Casseroles made of ovenproof material can be covered and then sealed with freezer tape. Label with contents and date.

Packaging in a Polyethylene Bag
Polyethylene bags are especially durable. Some are manufactured especially for freezing. They can be sealed by twisting the tops and securing with soft twine or rubber binders. If using bags with a zip-lock, be sure to expel as much air as possible before sealing. Label with contents and date.

Meat can be frozen raw, cooked, or half-cooked because it has no problem of spoiling due to enzyme action. Baked goods can be frozen as is for the same reason.

Fruits have to be treated to help prevent oxidation
which can change the color and the texture of the fruit.

1. SUGAR - Sugar helps slow enzyme damage and is desirable and often essential to counteract acid flavors is some fruits.
a. Dry method - 1/2 to 1 cup of sugar
to a pound of fruit.
b. Syrup - in general, thick or heavy syrups are used with high acid fruits. Medium and thin syrups are used with lower acid fruits.
2. ASCORBIC ACID - is added to sugar in the proportion of about 1/4 teaspoon to the cup and mixed well before putting on the fruit. If it is added to the syrup, it is necessary to wait until the syrup is cool and ready to use.

Vegetables must be partially cooked (blanched or scalded) before freezing to destroy enzymes and prevent the deterioration they can cause.

Most enzymes are destroyed by keeping food at 212 E F (boiling temperature) for a period varying from 50 seconds to 2 minutes depending on the vegetable. There are several ways to accomplish this:

a. Water blanching
b. Steam blanching
c. Chilling
d. Full cooking

Freezer Jams and Jellies
Why make jams and jellies? They add a extra special touch to meals and they provide a good way to use fruit not at its best for canning or freezing; i.e., extra large or small sized fruits and those that are irregularly shaped. Jam and Jelly making also provides a means for taking advantage of in- season fruits for the best tasting product at the lowest cost. Many people choose to make jams and jellies because they can make fruit combinations that are not commercially available. Often times people want to give a personalized gift that was hand-made.

What are jams and jellies? Jams and jellies are fruit preserved using sugar and jellied to some extent and individual characteristics depend on the fruit used, how the fruit is prepared and the proportions of the ingredients. Jam is made from crushed or ground fruit that is left in the mixture. The consistency is thick but not as firm as jelly. Jam will hold its shape. Jelly is made from the juice of the fruit only. Jelly should be clear and firm enough to hold its shape when unmolded from its container.

What is the importance of pectin? Pectin is a natural substance found in fruits that gives the fruit structure (shape). The amount of pectin used varies depending on the type of fruit (i.e., citrus fruits are high in pectin, apricots are low in pectin) and also on the ripeness of the fruit (i.e., ripe strawberries have less pectin than under-ripe strawberries). Adding commercial pectin ensures a sufficient amount of pectin so jams and jellies will set. Before commercial pectin was available, recipes called for a proportion of under-ripe fruit to have sufficient pectin to set. Flavor was not as good because the under-ripe fruits do not have a fully developed fruit flavor. Also, before commercial pectin was available, jams and jellies had to cook for extended periods of time to come to theme point. This extended cooking time resulted in a less desirable flavor, darker color, and a lower jam and jelly yield.

What are some of the advantage of freezer jams and jellies?

They have fresher taste and color. They use less sugar and fruit, so they are more economical. The containers do not have to be sterilized. Containers do not have to be glass; any container with a tight-fitting lid will work. The yield is generally comparable to cooked jams and jellies. They are much easier to prepare; not as many steps to follow. They are generally failure-proof.

What causes freezer jams and jellies to not set? Stiff jams and jellies are usually the result of using under-ripe fruit, improper measuring, and under-measurement of fruit. Soft- set jams or jellies are usually the result of using overripe fruit, over-measuring fruit or fruit juice, not adding the required amount of sugar, and using fruits lacking in fruit acids (without the addition of lemon juice). Syrupy jelly is usually caused by of adding pectin at the wrong time and omitting the lemon juice if called for. Weeping jellies are usually caused by too much acidity (from fruit or lemon juice) and fluctuation of storage temperature.

Tips on proper storage of freezer jams and jellies.
Maintain the excellent qualities of freezer jams and jellies by following these simple guidelines:

Make sure the lids of storage containers are extremely tight fitting and airtight.

The freezer temperature should be 0 E F or lower. If the temperature in the freezer is higher than 0 E F do not keep jams and jellies for over three months.

Freezer temperatures should not fluctuate, but should be kept constant at 0 E F as with all frozen foods. Fluctuations in temperature occur during the automatic defrost cycle, manual defrosting, and frequent opening and closing of the freezer door or freezer compartment doors.



When measuring fruit or fruit juice, if there is not enough to equal amount needed, add water up to 1 cup.

Pre-measuring of dry ingredients is extremely important. Careless mistakes are more often made when one is hurrying to measure the ingredients at the last minute. Adding too much or too little sugar can drastically affect the recipe outcome.

Powdered and liquid pectins cannot be used interchangeably. Powdered pectin is formulated to be dissolved in fruit or fruit juice; then the sugar is added. In recipes using liquid pectin, it is added to fruit and sugar mixtures; powdered pectin will not dissolve in fruit and sugar mixtures.

Two different recipes may be combined. Halve the recipes, add the different halves together, and proceed with basic directions and preparations. Some excellent combinations can be made.

It is not necessary to use fresh fruits to make jams and jellies. Canned, bottled, and frozen fruits and fruit juices work just as well and, in most cases, cut down preparation time.

If using canned or frozen fruits processed without the addition of sugar, thaw fruit if necessary, and use just as you would fresh fruits. If canned or frozen fruit is packed with sugar or with sugar syrup, omit 3/4 cup sugar from freezer jam and jelly recipes. Make sure excess syrup is drained from fruit and NOT added to jams or jellies.

As with all canned or preserved foods, be sure to label and date each container. Use containers with the oldest dates first.



(Source: Jam & Jelly soft by MCP Pectin.)

There are many differences between cooked and uncooked jams and jellies. These differences include the amount of ingredients called for, the method of preparation used, the color and taste of the jams and jellies, die containers used, and the storage of these two types of jams and jellies. Following is a discussion of these differences.

The amount of ingredients called for is usually less in the uncooked jams and jellies. This is because none of the liquid is evaporated as it is in the cooked jams and jellies. For example: cooked strawberry jam uses 5-3/4 cups crushed berries, while uncooked strawberry jam uses only 3-1/4 cups crushed berries. The amount of sugar used is quite a bit less in uncooked jams and jellies. Using strawberry jam as the example again, cooked strawberry jam uses 8-1/2 cups of sugar while uncooked strawberry jam uses 4-1/2 cups of sugar. The yield is slightly greater in the cooked recipes. The uncooked recipes also use fight corn syrup (Karo) as an ingredient. This helps prevent sugar crystals from forming during storage.

The differences in methods of preparation are quite obvious, as the names cooked and uncooked imply. The uncooked method involves stirring, mixing, and warming. The cooked method involves constant sniffing (to avoid boil over and/or scorching), boiling, mixing, and reboiling. Preparation is much easier in the uncooked method because you don't have to constantly watch and stir the jams and jellies. When the directions are followed exactly, the uncooked method is a virtual failure-proof procedure for making quality jams and jellies.

The taste and color differences in cooked and uncooked jams and jellies are also quite noticeable. When large amount of sugar are used, the color is usually deepened. Also, cooking only fruit or fruit juice drives off some of the natural flavor. Therefore, uncooked jams and jellies usually have a lighter, more natural fruit color, and a fresher taste. The texture of the uncooked jams and jellies is usually more delicate because it hasn't been cooked.

The containers that can be used in cooked jams and jellies must be glass so that the container may be properly sterilized and sealed. If the containers are not properly sealed, air may come in contact with the jam or jelly and turn it dark or allow mold to form. A two-piece metal lid or melted paraffin must be used to seal the containers for cooked jams and jellies so that the contents are air- tight during storage. If the containers have not been sterilized, the bacteria in the container will cause spoilage.

Uncooked freezer jams may be stored in any type of container as long as the lids are tight fining. This is because the preservation method for these jams and jellies is the freezing process during storage. Bacteria and mold cannot thrive in freezing temperatures. Parafin is not to be used on uncooked jams and jellies, as it may crack during freezer storage.

Both cooked and uncooked jams and jellies may be stored for up to one year. Cooked jams and jellies should be stored in a cool, dry place. If cooked jams and jellies are stored in a place that is too warm, or for too long a period of time, the jam or jelly may darken in color and lose flavor. Uncooked jams and jellies are stored in the freezer, unless they are to be used within three weeks (then they may be stored in the refrigerator). Any opened jam or jelly, regardless of the method of preparation, should be stored in the refrigerator until consumed.

(Source: Jam & jelly unit by MCP Pectin.)

Jam and jelly making has often been considered a skill that tested the ability of even the most experienced cook. The MCP freezer (uncooked) method, using the right proportions of ingredients, gives the cook tender, flavorful fruit jams and jellies that require little time, culinary expertise, and no cooking!

Basically jams and jellies are similar products; jellied fruit is preserved by sugar. The type of fruit, the preparation method, and the proportions of ingredients utilized give jams and jellies their unique characteristics. Jelly is made from the juice of fruits and should be clear and firm enough to hold its shape. Jam is made from crushed or ground fruit and is less firm than jelly. Conserves are jams made from a mixture of fruits, with citrus fruits, raisins, and nuts. Marmalade is basically jelly with citrus fruit pieces evenly distributed. Preserves are whole fruits or large pieces of fruit in a very heavy syrup which is sometimes slightly jellied.

Freezer jams and jellies have a fresher, more natural fruit taste and brighter color. These types of jams and jellies may be stored in the freezer for up to one year or left in the refrigerator if they are to be used within three weeks.

MCP freezer jams and jellies, like conventional jams and jellies, use the following basic ingredients pectin, Fruit or fruit juices, lemon juice, and sugar. One difference is that the MCP recipes call for an additional ingredient, light corn syrup (Karo) to prevent formation of sugar crystals in the freezer jams. The formation of crystals is also addressed in the unit on Crystallization (Candy). Each ingredient performs a specific function and is added in certain proportions to ensure excellent flavor, texture, and color of freezer jams and jellies. Their functions are described below.

Pectin is used to enable fruit or Fruit juice and sugar mixtures to gel in a very short period of time. Before added pectin was used, the cook boiled equal amounts of Fruit and sugar until this mixture sheeted off a spoon. The mixture had to be cooked over a very high heat and stirred constantly to prevent burning, scorching, or boiling over. This usually meant constant attention from the cook and a long cooking period. Pectin is a natural substance found in all fruits. Pectin is extracted from citrus rinds, chiefly lemons and oranges. Other principal sources of pectin are apples and citrus fruits. Pectin is a substance similar to gelatin, but gelatin is from animal sources. The amount of pectin present in fruits varies with the type of fruit and the degree of ripeness.

Fruit or fruit juices give the jam or jelly its characteristic
flavor and color and also provides part of the pectin and acid necessary for the mixture to gel. For full-flavored jams and jellies, be sure to use fully ripe fruits. Underripe fruits may produce a rubbery product with an underdeveloped flavor. Canned, frozen, and fresh fruits may be used in making jams and jellies.

Lemon juice may be used with certain fruits if that particular fruit
is especially low in fruit acids (i.e., pears, peaches, apricots).
The addition of lemon juices in recipes using low acid fruits
helps flavor development and gel formation.

Sugar is very important in jams and jellies for it helps the mixture to gel, acts as a preserving agent, and intensifies the flavor of the jam or jelly. It can also add extra firmness to fruits used in jams, thereby ensuring a pleasing texture in the resulting product. The composition of beet and cane sugar is identical, either type of sugar can be successfully used in making jams and jellies.

Light corn syrup (Karo) is added to prevent sugar crystals from forming. The molecular action of corn syrup is such that it interferes with the molecular structure of the other sugars in the candy solution, thus preventing crystallization from taking place. The sugar in corn syrup (dextrose) is Dot as sweet as regular sugar (sucrose).

(Source: Jam & Jelly unit by MCP Pectin.)
The steps used to prepare perfect freezer jams and jellies are easy and simple to follow.

The Utensils needed are basic pieces of equipment that can be found in most kitchens. These include:
1. Paring knife or peeler (for jams)
2. Fruit (or potato) masher or grinder (for jams)
3. Shallow plate or bowls to crush fruit (for jams)
4. Standard liquid measuring cups
5. Standard dry measuring cups for sugar
6. Bowl to remeasure sugar
7. Rubber scraper for corn syrup
8. 4-quart sauce pan or kettle
9. Stirring spoon with long handle
10. Thermometer
11. Canning funnel (optional)

Preparing Containers is extremely easy. Any type of container (jelly glasses, small canning jars, plastic storage con=m) may be used as long as it has a tight-fitting lid. Inspect all containers for chips, cracks, or defects and discard these containers as they may allow air to get into the product and affect flavor. Wash containers in soapy water; rinse thoroughly, sterilize, and drain.

Accurate Pre-measuring of Ingredients is extremely important to assure perfect jam or jelly. All the ingredients called for should be pre-measured before combining ingredients. There are five basic steps used to preparing jams and jellies:

Prepare fruit or fruit juice and measure into a 4-quart saucepan or kettle.

FOR JAMS: Wash and stem or pit fruit. For large pieces of fruit, slice and grind through fine food chopper or food processor. Smaller pieces of fruit may be crushed. All fruit pieces should be as uniform in size as possible for uniform consistency and flavor. After the fruit is thoroughly crushed, measure the amount of fruit called for. Fruits should not be measured before they are crushed or ground because of the air spaces around the fruit particles.

FOR JELLIES: If using bottled juices, measure out the juice required in the recipe. If using frozen concentrated juices, dilute the cancan to juice strength. (Do not dilute to beverage strength, as this dilution is weak in flavor and color). If extracting juices from fruits, wash fruit thoroughly, and crush fruit completely one layer at a time. Rest colander in a bowl. Spread a cloth or jelly bag over the colander. Pour crushed fruit into the cloth or bag. Fold the cloth to form a bag. Twist the bag and press out the juice with a masher. Add lemon juice to fruit juice if the recipe calls for it. If short of juice, add water for the exact amount.

Slowly sprinkle in a package of pectin (MCP) while stirring
fruit or fruit juice vigorously. Let mixture set for 30 minutes,
stirring occasionally. This ensures complete dispersion and dissolution of pectin and is a vital step in making successful freezer jams and jellies.

Add one cup fight corn syrup (Karo). Mix well. As mentioned earlier, corn syrup will keep sugar crystals from forming by interfering with the molecular action of the sugar. While mixing, make sure to scrape the bottom of the saucepan often as the corn syrup will tend to settle to the bottom.

Add premeasured sugar all at owe. Stir thoroughly using a wide-backed spoon, strainer, or potato masher. As with the corn syrup, scrape the bottom and sides of the saucepan often so that lumps and particles of sugar are dissolved. To hasten die dissolution of the sugar, the jam or jelly may be warmed gradually while stirring the mixture. Warming to 100 F will help speed up sugar dissolution.

Once sugar is completely dissolved, pour into prepared containers. Fill to 1/2" of the top. This head space is used to allow room for expansion of the product when frozen. Cover the containers with tight fitting lids so that air does not come in contact with the jam or jelly during prolonged storage periods. Refrigerate in coldest part of the refrigerator if the product will be used in three weeks; otherwise store in the freezer.


1. Wash, stem, and crush berries one layer at a time.
2. Measure fruit. Add lemon juice, if called for. Place in a 4-quart pan. Stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Let stand for 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo). Mix well.
5. Add premeasured sugar all at once. Stir thoroughly. Warm to 100 F to hasten sugar dissolution.
6. Pour into containers with tight lids leaving head space of 1/2 inch. Cover and refrigerate.

GRAPE JELLY (as an example)
1. Measure juice, including lemon juice, into a 4-quart kettle or saucepan. Stir well.
2. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Let stand for 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
3. Add light corn syrup (Karo). Mix well.
4. Add premeasured sugar all at once. Stir thoroughly. Warm to 100 F to hasten sugar dissolution.
5. Pour into containers with tight lids leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Cover and refrigerate or freeze.


YIELD: 7 cups

2 cups apricots, ground or mashed (about 1-1/2 lbs.)
1-1/4 cups unsweetened pineapple, canned or crushed
1/4 cup lemon juice
1 pkg. pectin (MCP)
1 cup light corn syrup (Karo)
4-1/2 cups sugar


Rinse, peel, and pit firm ripe apricots. Mash or grind through fine food chopper.

1. Measure sugar into a dry bowl to be added later.
2. Measure ground apricots, crushed pineapple, and lemon juice into large bowl or kettle; stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Set aside 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo), stir well.
5. Stir in premeasured sugar. Warm to 100 F to speed up sugar dissolving time, but not any hotter.
6. When sugar has dissolved, the jam is ready. Ladle into jelly glasses or suitable freezer containers with tight lids, leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Store in freezer. If jam is to be used immediately, it can be stored in the refrigerator up to three weeks.

YIELD: 7 cups

1-1/2 cups blueberries, fully ripe, crushed
1-1/4 cups peaches, fully ripe, crushed (6 medium)
1/2 cup lemon juice
1 pkg. pectin (MCP)
1 cup light corn syrup (Karo)
4-1/2 cups sugar

Rinse and stem blueberries. Crush berries one layer at a time to let juices flow freely. Rinse, peel, pit, and crush peaches.

1. Measure sugar into a dry bowl to be added later.
2. Measure crushed blueberries , peaches, and lemon juice into large bowl or kettle; stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Set aside 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo), stir well.
5. Stir in premeasured sugar. Warm to 100 F to speed up sugar dissolving time, but not any hotter.
6. When sugar has dissolved, the jam is ready. Ladle into jelly glasses or suitable freezer containers with tight lids, leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Store in freezer. If jam is to be used immediately, it can be stored in the refrigerator up to three weeks.

YIELD: 7 cups

1 cup strawberries, fully ripe, crushed (about 1 pint)
1 cup peaches, fully ripe, crushed (about 3 medium)
1-1/4 cups kiwi, crushed (about 3 medium)
1/4 cup lemon juice
1 pkg. pectin (MCP)
1 cup light corn syrup (Karo)
4-1/2 cups sugar

Rinse and stem strawberries. Crush berries one layer at a time to let juices flow freely. Rinse, peel, pit, and crush peaches. Stem, peel, slice, and crush kiwi.

1. Measure sugar into a dry bowl to be added later.
2. Measure crushed strawberries, peaches, kiwi, and lemon juice into large bowl or kettle; stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Set aside 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo), stir well.
5. Stir in premeasured sugar. Warm to 100 F to speed up sugar dissolving time, but not any hotter.
6. When sugar has dissolved, the jam is ready. Ladle into jelly glasses or suitable freezer containers with tight lids, leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Store in freezer. If jam is to be used immediately, it can be stored in the refrigerator up to three weeks.

YIELD: 7 cups

1-1/2 cups strawberries, crushed (about 1-1/4 pints)
1-1/2 cups raspberries, crushed (about 2 cups)
1/2 cup Rose wine (or lemon juice)
1 Tbsp. orange rind, grated
1 pkg. pectin (MCP)
1 cup light corn syrup (Karo)
4-1/2 cups sugar

Rinse and stem berries. Crush berries one layer at a time to let juices flow freely.

1. Measure sugar into a dry bowl to be added later.
2. Measure blueberries , wine (or lemon juice), and orange rind into large bowl or kettle; stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Set aside 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo), stir well.
5. Stir in premeasured sugar. Warm to 100 F to speed up sugar dissolving time, but not any hotter.
6. When sugar has dissolved, the jam is ready. Ladle into jelly glasses or suitable freezer containers with tight lids, leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Store in freezer. If jam is to be used immediately, it can be stored in the refrigerator up to three weeks.

(Using Bottled Apple Juice)
YIELD: 7 cups

3-1/4 cups bottled apple juice or cider
1/4 cup lemon juice
1 pkg. pectin (MCP)
1 cup light corn syrup (Karo)
4-1/2 cups sugar

1. Prepare containers according to manufacturer's instructions.
2. Measure juice and lemon juice into a 4-quart kettle or saucepan. Stir well.
3. Slowly sprinkle in pectin (MCP), stirring vigorously. Set aside 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
4. Add light corn syrup (Karo). Mix well.
5. Add premeasured sugar all at once, and mix well. Warm to 100 F to hasten sugar dissolution.
6. When sugar is dissolved, pour into containers with tight fitting lids, leaving a head space of 1/2 inch. Cover.
7. Store in freezer, or if jelly is to be used within three weeks, store in refrigerator.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Assignment 3.6.

03.06.01 Lab: Freezer Jam/Jelly (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 6: Food Freezing

INSTRUCTIONS: Choose a freezer jam/jelly recipe of your choice and make it. After making it, do a taste test with 3 different people. Have them write their comments using the 5 sensory tests and then submit this to me. Include their name and a phone number at which they can be reached.

Type of Jam/Jelly made: _____________________________________

#1 Tester's Name: __________________________________________

Phone Number: _______________________

Taste: ____________________________________________________


Touch: ___________________________________________________


Feel: _____________________________________________________


Smell: ____________________________________________________


Hearing: __________________________________________________


#2 Tester's Name: __________________________________________

Phone Number: _______________________

Taste: ____________________________________________________


Touch: ___________________________________________________


Feel: _____________________________________________________


Smell: ____________________________________________________


Hearing: __________________________________________________


#3 Tester's Name: __________________________________________

Phone Number: _______________________

Taste: ____________________________________________________


Touch: ___________________________________________________


Feel: _____________________________________________________


Smell: ____________________________________________________


Hearing: __________________________________________________


03.07 Freeze Drying and Irradiation (FoodSci)

Unit 3.7: Freeze Drying and Irradiation

(Select the link "Food Preservation".) Pay close attention to the pages on freeze drying and irradiation.

The technical name for freeze drying is lyophilization. Sublimation occurs when water in the form of ice is removed from frozen food. The best foods are used for this type of processing because it is very expensive to do. During sublimation, the ice changes from a solid to a gas state without becoming a liquid. This happens also with dry ice.

Irradiation helps to destroy contaminants that destroy or degrade food. During the process food is exposed to the smallest, controlled levels of radiation to destroy microorganisms that would cause spoilage.

Units to Measure Radiation

Microwaves use electromagnetic waves and depending on the length of the wave will determine the amount of energy. The shorter the wavelength, the greater the amount of energy. An electromagnetic spectrum encompasses all of the electromagnetic wave lengths. Radio waves are at the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. At the opposite end are the gamma rays. These are the rays used in the irradiation process.

Irradiation causes foods to dry out as they are frozen very quickly. The more radiation that a food receives causes a higher rate of preservation.
With so much concern for radiation, irradiation creates concern for many people. This process is regulated very closely in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers this process as though it were an additive. More reporting is done on this process than any other food preservation method.

This method has to meet the standards specified in the Delaney Anti-Cancer Clause in which is stated that no substance shown to cause cancer in humans or animals may be added to food in any amount. The irradiation process is approved by the FFA on an individual basis.

(Select the link "Food Irradiation".)

03.07 Freeze Drying and Irradiation links (FoodSci)

03.07.01 Lab: Freeze dried Fruit (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 3-Assignment 7: Freeze Drying and Irradiation


INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the experiment listed on the website about freeze-drying. After completing this, write one paragraph describing the process that happens in freeze-drying and what happened in your experiment.

Write a parent/guardian that can verify that you completed this experiment. Include a phone number at which they can be reached.

Parent/guardian:________________________________Phone #:____________


INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the answers for the following items.

1. What foods have the FDA recently approved for irradiation?


2. What is the technical name for freeze drying? __________________________

3. During sublimation what physical changes happen with water? ______________


4. What type of rays are used in the irradiation process? ____________________

5. Delaney Anti-Cancer Clause states what? _____________________________



03.07.01 Lab: Freeze dried Fruit links (FoodSci)

03.07.02 Unit 3 Test (FoodSci)

computer-scored 48 points possible 90 minutes

Take the unit 3 test that covers all the course materials and assignments in unit 3.

This test will cover all the information presented from the course materials, web sites, and assignments before beginning. Make sure you review all the information before beginning. You have ONE ATTEMPT to take this test. Once you begin the test, you must finish. If you exit the test at any time, you will NOT be able to return. The test locks up once you've got out of the test, so make sure you have completed the entire test before exiting the test.

03.08 Labels

What's in a Food Label?

03.08 Labels (FoodSci)

Unit 3.8: Labels

Labeling is big part of the food industry. It gives consumers a better idea of what is actually in a product. It also created consistency across the industry so that consumers aren't so confused when they read labels.

Packaging also has a very important role in the food industry. There are many things that have to be considered in packaging a product such as protecting the food product physically and keeping it safe and sanitary. It needs to be convenient for the consumer to use and non expensive. A package should also be friendly to the environment because ultimately it will be discarded or recycled. Another feature a package must have is consumer appeal. If it doesn't look good, the consumer probably won't buy it.

(Select the link "Labels".)

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 3-Assignment 8.

Once you have completed the assignment go to course materials and go to "Unit 4: Food Chemistry." Click on the first unit there and read the information.

03.08 Labels Assignment

computer-scored 48 points possible 90 minutes

Complete your assignment by opening the file you created for unit 3 and adding to it for this assignment. Use Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, a program from Microsoft Suite, or a Corel Suite Program. At the beginning of this assignment, you need to include the following information:

EHS Username:
Class Name & quarter:
Assignment name:

Assignments without this information will not be graded.

Save a copy using your name, class name (including quarter) and the name of the unit as the file name (i.e. kendall.becky.0000 FSq1 Unit3). I teach three different foods classes, so it is imperative you save your files in this manner.

Send this file to your teacher as an attachment to an email. Use the email address In the subject line put the same information you used to name the file (i.e. kendall.becky.0000 FSq1 Unit 3) then attach the file to your email.

Instruction: Search through some labels you have around the house. Clip those labels from the packages and send me one level for each of the following specifications:

1. Four labels that show total fat calories less than 50.

2. Four labels that show more than 12% RDA saturated fat.

3. Four labels that show less than 5% RDA total fat.

4. Four labels that show total fat calories more than 20% RDA.

5. Four labels that show more than 50 saturated fat calories.

An easy way to submit all of the labels as a group is to take digital pictures of the labels and send the pictures as attachments to an email.

You could also scan the labels as a group and send the scanned pictures as attachments to an email.

The other option is to mail the actual LABELED labels to me through the regular postal service. Please label each example with which number on the assignment that it represents.

04.00 Food Chemistry (FoodSci)

In this unit you will explore the basis of food chemistry which includes the scientific table, solutions, enqymes, fermentation, leavening agents, additives and many more items.

04.01 Elements, Compounds, Solutions, Mixtures (FoodSci)

Unit 4.1: Elements, Compounds, Solutions, Mixtures

During this unit you will be learning about chemistry principles that impact food science.

(Select the link "Periodic Table") to learn and study the Periodic Table and elements. Notice how the table is set up and the similarities between the elemtents listed there. When you click on the site, you will click on an area and then use the back button on your navigator bar to get back to the main page.

Once you get to the website, read the information on the following pages at this site and you may also explore individual elements by clicking on that element on the periodic table:

* What is the Periodic Table
* How to use the Periodic Table
* Click here to see Mendeleev's original Periodic Table
* Chemistry in a Nutshell
* Naming New Elements

It is necessary at this time to introduce more about compounds, elements and mixtures. Please click on the button below and go through the slide show.

What’s an Atom?

Atoms are made from subatomic particles. The three prominent particles in an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons. These subatomic particles are the same no matter what element they are a part of. Protons in chlorine are identical to protons in hydrogen. Atoms of one element are different from atoms in another atom.

An electron is a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus. The electrons within an atom are what determine whether a chemical reaction will occur, yet they have very little mass. (mass of 1/1836**)

A proton is a particle that has a positive electrical charge. The number of protons contained within an atom determines the atomic number of the element. Atoms within an element have the same number of protons and give it its identity. Protons and neutrons are found in the core of the atom which is called the nucleus. (mass of 1.*)

A neutron has no electrical charge. In an element, the atoms can have different numbers of neutrons. (mass of just slightly more than 1 *.*)

Electrical Charges within an Atom

Opposites attract with regard to electrical charges. Negatively charged electrons are held within the nucleus of an atom by the positively charged protons. An atom is neutral if there are an equal number of protons or electrons.

There are regions of space called energy levels that electrons move about the nucleus. The first energy level has the lowest energy and is nearest to the nucleus. Electrons with more energy are in the energy levels further from the nucleus. The electrons in the third level have more energy than in the second energy level and the second has more energy than those in the first energy level.

Within each of the energy levels a specific number of electrons can be present. For example, there can be two in the first. Most atoms are unlikely to react with each other and are chemically stable when they have eight electrons in their outer energy level. With only one energy level, hydrogen and helium are exceptions to this and are stable with only two electrons.

Atomic Mass

The atomic mass of an atom is found by adding the total protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus. This number becomes the atom’s mass number. Every atom has the same number of protons, but the number of neutrons may vary. Atoms of any given element would have the same amount of protons, but the number of neutrons could vary from atom to atom and yet they are all the same element. The number of protons would be added to the number of neutrons and this would be the atomic mass number for that particular atom. You can look at a periodic table (a table with rows and columns that is organized by atomic numbers and similar properties) and see that each element has a mass number listed. If each atom can have a different amount of neutrons which would affect the atomic number mass number, how did they come up with a specific number for that element on the periodic table? The atomic mass number of a bunch of atoms within each respective element was added together and an average determined.

When scientists and chemists work with elements, they often work with great numbers of atoms. Realize that atoms are very, very small and so they work with moles. A mole is a quatity equal to 6.02 X 10. If this number is multiplied out it equals 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This helps to illustrate how tiny some atoms must be if scientists have to use moles to measure them. A mole of many elements would fit inside a beaker and yet a mole of $1.00 bills would reach back and forth from the earth to the sun over a million times.

A mole is a number of something. It doesn’t have anything to do with the mass or weight of the object. When working with elements, scientists often need to know the mass of that element. It was discovered that the mass of one mole of an element is called its molar mass and is equal to that element’s atomic mass in grams.

Names of elements given by their discoverer are sometimes quite long, so chemists have developed shorthand symbols for chemical elements. The symbol of an element may represent one atom or a group of atoms forming the element. The symbols agreed on by the scientific community contain capital and lowercase letters. Names for elements 104 through 109 are three-letter symbols adopted by the International Unit of Applied Chemistry (IUAP) from the Latin and Greek stems of their atomic numbers. This came about because both United States and Soviet Union scientists claimed discovery of elements 104 and 105, and they could not agree on the name, so systematic naming was adopted.

In a chemical equation or formula, the symbol of a compound may represent one molecule or a group of formula units forming a compound. Chemical formulas show two things: (1) the elements present in each compound and (2) the relative number of atoms in each element. Because atoms are so small, counting them in groups is common. Half or part of an atom, however, does not exist.

The formulas of compounds are used to represent chemical changes that result from chemical reactions. The chemical equation shows what changes took place. The equation is actually made of formulas of the reactants on one side and the products on the other. In chemical reactions, no mass is lost or gained, matter simply changes into new matter. There must be the same amount of atoms shown in the equation before and after the reaction or in other words a balanced equation.

For example, H is the letter for the element hydrogen. 0 is the letter for oxygen. An oxygen molecule contains two atoms, and the shorthand symbol for the molecule is 02. The number (2) is called a subscript. Water is a compound made of two atoms of H, written H2, and one atom of 0. The chemical shorthand for a water molecule is H20. The shorthand for two molecules of water is 2H20. The first (2) is a coefficient, the second (2) is a subscript. Click on the attached Water Formula PDF to see a diagram of a water formula.

In another example, the element carbon is represented by the letter C. Carbon dioxide is a compound of one carbon atom (C) and two oxygen atoms (02). Combined they make a compound, carbon dioxide, written C02. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) breaks down when water is added and results in a new product, carbon dioxide. The chemical equation is:

H2CO3+ H20 -> 2H20 + CO2.

Notice the equation has 4 atoms of hydrogen, one atom of carbon, and 4 atoms of oxygen on one side of the equation. There are also 4 atoms of hydrogen, one atom, of carbon and 4 atoms of oxygen on the other side. Yet the two sides of the equation represent different compounds. The process is illustrated on the transparency CHEMICAL EQUATION found in the Resource section. Note that the equation is balanced. Note also that in any equation for oxidation (fruit browning, burning, combustion), the number of oxygen atoms on each side must be an even number because the oxygen molecule contains two atoms. (It is written 02.)

Water has an impact on any chemical equation of which it is a part. Each water molecule contains only one oxygen atom. Therefore, there must be, in all chemical equations that use water, an even number of water molecules. Moreover, each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms (written H20), so, in a chemical equation, of which water is a part, there must be a multiple of four hydrogen atoms on each side. It is expedient, then, to always be sure to start with a multiple of four hydrogen atoms on the left.

Likewise in any equation for oxidation the equation must show an even number of oxygen atoms on each side because the oxygen molecule contains 2 atoms. It is written 02 for that reason. (Oxidation includes combustion, burning, fruit browning, etc.).


1. Determine the reactants and products.

2. Assemble the parts (letters) indicating the reactants on one side of the yield sign (arrow) and those representing the product of the reaction on the other.

3. Balance the equation by showing the same number of atoms on each side. The recipe is: element or compound plus element or compound yield element plus compound. The process is one of either synthesis or analysis.

Atoms can acquire electric charges. They can be positive or negative. A charged atom or a group of charged atoms is called an ion. The positive and negative charges of the different elements in an ion add (algebraically) to 0. Therefore, the formula is correctly written without the superscripts + and - as in the formula for table salt which is

NaCl (not Na+Cl-).

Chemical changes are always accompanied by a change in energy. That is, energy is either absorbed or produced in a chemical change. In the example that follows, energy is produced and used by the body. Glucose is used as a source of energy for the human body. The overall reaction is C6H12O6 + 602 -> 6CO2 + 6H20. The reaction is one of oxidation. The chemical reaction of the sugar with oxygen results in a chemical change to carbon dioxide and water. A certain minimum amount of activation energy begins all chemical changes.


1. Chemists use equations to describe the changes substances undergo.

2. Reactants start chemical changes; products result from a reaction.

3. Chemical equations represent changes that take place in a reaction.

4. Chemical equations show relative amounts of reactants and products, and atoms are always present in definite ratios.

5. Balancing an equation means adjusting coefficients so that there is the same number of atoms of each element on the left and right sides of the equation.

6. Under normal conditions, the oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water.

7. A chemical change is always accompanied by an energy change, and in foods we measure this energy in calories.

8. If energy is absorbed, it is endothermic; if it is given off, it is exothermic.

9. When atoms combine they form molecules. If the atoms carry positive and/or negative charges, the molecules are referred to as ions.

10. Structure formulas or maps of organic compounds (always present in living things such as food) show carbon atoms linked in chains and rings with hydrogen cross bonds.

Click on the attached Chemical Formula PDF to see an example of a chemical formula.


Solutions are homogeneous mixtures with at least two substances which are a solute that is dissolved in a solvent. Solutes can be solids, liquids, or gases. A solid solute might be sugar or salt. Koolaid would be a solution of sugar and water and flavoring. Soda pop is a gas solute. In foods, solvents are usually liquid.

A solution is the same at any point in the solution. If salt has been dissolved in water and samples taken from different points in the container, the samples would test the same salt levels.

If an unsaturated solution contains less solute than can be dissolved at a given temeprature. There is a point at which the solution cannot dissolve anymore of the solute. A saturated solution contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a given temperature. Supersaturated solutions occur when the solution is heated which causes more solute to be able to be dissolved than can dissolve at the saturated solution stage.

The temperature that a solution boils or freezes is affected by the amount of solute in the solution. When a solute is present, the boiling point is higher and the freezing point is lower. More solute means an even higher boiling point and a lower freezing point.

The surface area of a food being boiled can decrease or increase the amount of vitamins or minerals that dissolve into the water or solution that the food is being cooked in. It is wise to cook with food cut into the largest pieces possible to decrease the surface area.


A colloid is a mixture that all of the particles do not dissolve. One of the defining characteristics of a colloid is the size of the particles. An Itallian sald dressing is a an example of a colloid. The substance that is mixed within another substance is called the dispersed phase and the substance that hold the dispersed phase is the continuous phase.

Colloidal System Properties

Tyndall Effect: A path of light is visalbe when a light beam passes through the colloid. This is like the sun shining through a window. The dust particles in the air scatter the light which makes the beam visible.

Stability: Many colloids are stable and the particles willnot settle in the mixture. Unstable colloids may have particles settle to the bottom.

Concentration: The boiling and freezing points are not impacted by the concentration of the solids in the colloid.

Particle Dispersion: Particles will stay dispersed in the colloic as long as it is stable.


A foam is a colloid. In an egg foam, the air that is beaten into the egg white is the dispersed phase and the egg white is the continuous phase. A liquid must have a low surface tension to form a foam. If a high surface tension is present, liquid molecules are drawn to each other and so the foam won't form. It doesn't have the stability it needs.


An emulsion is also a colloid. The emulsion has the property of being able to help two mixtures that wouldn't normally mix blend together. The two main emulsions are oil-in-water and water-in-oil. Examples of emulsions are butter, mayonnaise, and ice cream. An Oil-and-Vinegar dressing is a temporary emulsion because the liquids will mix but after a while, the oil will be floating on the vinegar. The molecules of the oil and vinegar are attracted to like molecules which causes the separation.

A phospholipid has a phosphorus-containing acid in place of one of the fatty acids and they are similar to triglyceride. Egg yolks contain about 10 percent of phospholipids.

Through homogenziation in which the fat globules are forced through a device that makes the fat globules smaller, equal in size, and dispersed evenly through the mixture, milk is more stable and is considered to be an emulsion. Butter is also an emulsion. Cream is shaken or mixed until the fat globules stick together. Some of the water does remain behind though.

(Select the link "Emulsions")

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 1.

04.01 Elements, Compounds, Solutions, Mixtures links (FoodSci)

04.01.01 Lab: Mayonnaise (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 1: Elements, Compounds, Mixtures, Solutions

Click on the "Mayonnaise" link in the URL's and follow the directions for making mayonnaise.

**********************HELPFUL HINTS*********************

* Read the recipe very close as you make it.
* Notice it says to have your equipment at room temperature before you start.
* You can use a high-speed blender instead of a food processor.
* Use very FRESH eggs for your experiment.
* You can reduce the recipe for a smaller recipe if you choose.

Once you have completed the experiment, complete the information asked for then submit this along with a picture of your mayonnaise. You can send this picture as a digital picture or a photograph that is sent through the postal service.

INSTRUCTIONS: Fill out this form once you have completed the experiment and submit it to me.

1. Type a name and number of a person that will verify that you made the mayonaise.

Parent/Guardian Name:_______________________________

Phone #: ____________________

2. What type of a mixture is mayonaise?

3. What is a colloid?

4. How does emulsifying occur?

5. What does the egg do for the mayonaise?

6. What role does lecithin play?

**REMEMBER to send a picture of the mayonaise you have made to receive full credit.**

04.01.01 Lab: Mayonnaise links (FoodSci)

04.02 Enzymes (FoodSci)

Unit 4.2: Enzymes

Enzymes are organic catalysts (proteins) produced by living cells which can be destroyed by heat. They are responsible for some of the changes that take place in the flavor, color, and texture of foods.

Browning results from the fresh fruit being exposed to air. This browning takes place IMMEDIATELY after the cut fruit is exposed to air and is a process called oxidation. Browning is not a reversible process. Fruit which has browned cannot be restored to its original color by placing it into a solution. High-acid fruits do not brown when exposed to air. Fruits such as bananas deteriorate in texture as they sit in a liquid solution.

Prevent browning by covering the fruit immediately after peeling or slicing with a juice containing Vitamin C or a citric acid solution, salt water, or anything that covers the surface of the fruit and slows the oxidation process.

Placing peeled fruit in water to prevent it from turning dark causes loss of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and natural sugars. When air comes in contact with a fruit which is low in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), the air oxidizes or browns the surface of the fruit.

Because oxidation or browning takes place during the first few minutes that fruit is exposed to air, it is important that we cover fruit as soon as it is peeled.

Enzymes break down food as the digestive process takes place.

Saliva is the moisture in the mouth. It moistens food and contains the enzyme ptyalin (tie' a lin) which is the first enzyme to start the breakdown (or digestive) process before the food enters the stomach. Saliva begins to break apart the starch molecules by changing the starch into simple sugars while the food is in the mouth.

A cracker which has been chewed thoroughly before swallowing has been changed by the action of the enzyme saliva into simple sugars that the body can use for energy. The enzyme action stops when the cracker comes in contact with acid in the stomach. No more starch is digested until the cracker reaches the small intestine. The flavor of sugar (or sweetness) can be detected while the cracker is still in the mouth.

Because of the importance of enzymes in saliva to the break down of the starch in food, people should slow their eating process, and chew more thoroughly before swallowing their food.

Commercially, cottage cheese and other cheeses are produced by two methods: one uses rennet (an enzyme that coagulates milk) to curdle the milk, the other uses lactic bacteria. Cheese making depends on the bacteria that produce lactic acids to cause the casein micelles to aggregate, trapping fat globules and the whey in the protein. Streptococcus lactis is used to produce buttermilk commercially.

Acid-producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilous, when added to milk and kept at controlled temperatures (110 F or 43 C) and time controlled (usually 4 hours), will produce a milk product known as yogurt. The two kinds of bacteria consume the lactose in milk as an energy source, excrete lactic acid as a waste product, and produce a safe and edible product-yogurt.

Sour cream and cottage cheese can be made without the help of bacteria by purposely adding cultures as is done in commercial ventures. Bacteria derived from the atmosphere will also sour the milk and, over time, will cause it to curdle. Plain milk and cream is fairly stable when heated, but prolonged heating and acids added from other foods cause the casein micelles and whey proteins to become unstable and curd.


A. Yogurt is milk that has been made sour under specific conditions:

* 1. Two types of bacteria are involved: lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilous. They are different from other bacteria that cause milk to spoil.
* 2. The bacteria use sugar (lactose) found in the milk for food. As they consume the lactose, an acid (lactic acid) is released. The sweet lactose becomes sour. This gives yogurt its flavor. (Note: lactic acid bacteria can be purchased in yogurt cultures.)
* 3. The bacteria can grow in whole or skim milk, but they grow better if the milk is warm. The water content of the milk and the sugar (lactose) and the warm temperature combine to provide a perfect condition for the bacteria to grow. Cold temperatures slow the process.
* 4. The high acid content of the bacteria and milk mixture causes proteins in the milk to break apart and form curds. (Curds are easy to see in cottage cheese.) At 100EF or 38 C curds will form in about 5 hours. If yogurt is placed in a refrigerator, curd formation stops.
* 5. Adding powdered milk (usually skim milk) to the milk mixture adds more protein and more curds result. (Boiling the milk to let some water evaporate will do the same thing.)

B. Yogurt is served in many different ways:

* 1. It is a main dish and/or a dessert.
* 2. Fruits, herbs, and spices may be added.
* 3. It is a good topping or dip for fruits and vegetables.
* 4. It can be added directly to batters.

C. Yogurt contains a very delicate balance of curds and whey. Heat, salt, acids, and vigorous stirring will disrupt the balance causing curds to form in protein clusters making the yogurt look odd and changing texture.

D. If yogurt is stirred and returned to a refrigerator, water (whey) will separate from the curds, and a day or two later, the water will form in a layer on top of the yogurt.

Enzymes play many important roles in food science. (Select the link "Enzymes")

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 2.

04.02 Enzymes links (FoodSci)

04.02.01 Lab: Making Cottage Cheese (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 2: Enzymes

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the "Cottage Cheese" link in the URL's and follow the directions for making cottage cheese.

Write a person's name and number to verify that you did make the cottage cheese and then answer the questions below.

**********************HELPFUL HINT*********************

You can reduce the recipe if you prefer.

Parent/Guardian Signature: ____________________

Phone # ___________

1. What are five foods that are made using enzymes?

2. What is the role of enzymes in digestion?

3. Where does the enzyme come from when making cottage cheese?

4. What can affect enzyme activity?

5. What is the relationship between an enzyme and a substrate?

**REMEMBER to send a picture of the cottage cheese you have made to receive full credit.**

04.02.01 Lab: Making Cottage Cheese links (FoodSci)

04.03 Fermentation (FoodSci)

Unit 4.3: Fermentation

History of Fermentation

The use of natural biological processes to obtain useable products is certainly not new. Since recorded history, microbes have been involved in the preparation and processing of items in the daily diet of humans.

Lacking any knowledge of microorganisms, or of ways in which contamination of food by them could be avoided, man learned to live with microbially infected foods. Usually the actions of these microbes ultimately made the food unacceptable, either by altering the appearance or odor of the food to a point which it was no longer appetizing or by producing poisonous toxins, some of which were lethal. Occasionally, however, microbial infections of food materials made it appear more appetizing and the taste enhanced. Ultimately, microbial infections of these foods were exploited, so the fermented foods and beverages now form a large and important sector of the food industry. Today the main groups of microbes involved in the industry include the yeasts, molds, and bacteria

Nobody knows exactly when cheese making began, but legend generally has it that its origin lies in the Middle East. A Bedouin, preparing for a journey across the desert, filled his skin pouch with ewe's milk for refreshment along the way. After hours in the hot sun, and weary from the jostling ride on the camel, the Bedouin opened the pouch made from the dried stomach of a sheep only to discover that the rich milk was no more. In its place lay a thin watery fluid surrounded by a thick white mass - whey and curds. Having nothing else to drink, he tried the liquid and found it tasted good; then he nibbled at the gummy curds and was equally pleased with the discovery. Arriving at his destination, he shared the remaining curds with his tribesmen, who were no less satisfied then he. Thus, quite by accident, cheese was introduced into man's diet. Today, the manufacture of cultured dairy products represents the second leading fermentation industry (next to alcoholic beverages), accounting for approximately 20% of all fermented foods produced world wide.

While no such legend exists for the discovery of sauerkraut, it undoubtedly was also discovered by accident and trial and error methods.

In the days before refrigeration facilities became available, a number of techniques were devised for preserving seasonally produced vegetables. One of the most efficient of these involved packing vegetables tightly in a vessel with salt or brine. This technique is thought to have originated in the Orient where, even today, it continues to be used extensively. Only in the last 60 years has it been shown that this method of preserving vegetables involves a microbiological fermentation.

In cheese making, the mystery surrounding the nomad's discovery can be easily explained. The four essentials of cheese making were acting together that memorable day in the desert: milk plus a slight churning motion coupled with heat and rennet (the product of an enzyme produced in the membrane lining of ruminate animals stomach). The cheese discovered by the Bedouin was probably what we would call cottage cheese or cheese curds. Similar legends attend the origin of aging, curing or ripening which has lead to the many various cheese flavors we have today.

We now know that in the production of sauerkraut, lactic acid bacteria proliferate in the brine. These bacteria produce acids which lower the pH. The combined action of the salt and acid lowers the activity of enzymes responsible for the breakdown of vegetable tissue. At the same time oxidative changes in the tissues are inhibited and thus prevent spoilage.

Anaerobic Fermentation

Although respiration and breathing are often thought of as the same, they are in fact two different processes. Breathing is the exchange of gases between an organism and its external environment. Respiration occurs within all living cells. Cellular respiration involves breaking the chemical bonds of organic molecules and releasing energy that can be used by the cells.
04.3 cellular respiration04.3 cellular respiration

Most students are not familiar with fermentation which occurs in some of the less complex organisms such as bacteria and yeasts. Fermentation reactions are anaerobic, proceeding without oxygen being present. Anaerobic reactions involve cellular food products and/or glucose sugar as their reactants. And without oxygen they can produce combinations of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH), carbon dioxide (CO2), and lactic acid (C2H4OCOOH) as their products.

We have used the products of anaerobic respiration (fermentation) to our advantage, supplying ourselves with food, drink, and even fuel for automobiles. Yeasts are used as tiny "fermentation factories" producing carbon dioxide and alcohol. Certain bacteria and molds ferment milk, producing carbon dioxide and lactic acid.

It has been stated that the fermentations are the result of growth of bacteria, yeasts, molds, or combinations of these. Stated more precisely, the changes that occur are caused by the enzymes liberated by these microorganisms. Some foods usually said to be fermented are actually cured by the enzymes naturally inherent in the foods. Throughout the centuries fermentation has been one of the most important methods for preserving food; It still remains one of the most important methods. Relatively few people, however, are aware that the many food products consumed regularly are prepared and/or preserved by fermentation processes.

It is essential to understand that the lactic acid bacteria produce acid which in effect inhibits the growth of many other organisms. Most species convert sugars to acids, alcohol, and carbon dioxide. The fermentative yeasts produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide from sugars. They require oxygen for growth but not for fermentation. The molds have the greatest array of enzymes, are aerobic, and will grow on most foods to produce various types of digestion.

The changes that occur during fermentation of foods are the result of the activity of enzymes. The enzymes arise from three sources: Those that are produced by the microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation, those that are native to the food, and those that are produced by the microbial flora that happen upon the unfermented food. A good fermentation is one in which the enzymes produced by the fermentative microorganisms play the primary role.

There are relatively few pure culture fermentations. An organism that initiates a fermentation will develop until its byproducts of growth inhibit further growth and fermentation. During this initial growth period other organisms develop. They in turn are followed by other more tolerant species. This succession of growth of different species may be referred to as a natural sequence of growth. The use of starters or inocula should be based upon these facts. In general, growth will be initiated by bacteria, followed by yeasts and then molds, if conditions are suitable for growth of these microorganisms.

Now let us try to relate these biological processes to biotechnology. What is biotechnology? "In the broadest and simplest terms, biotechnology is defined as the collection of industrial processes that involve the use of biological systems."(Harlander, 1991).

We have been using bacteria, yeasts, and molds for centuries to produce a host of fermented foods including buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, butter, cheese (over 700 kinds), pickles, sauerkraut, sausage, breads, crackers, pretzels, doughnuts, grape nuts (you thought it was a cereal brand name?), wines, beer, spirits, soy sauce, coffee, cacao, vanilla, tea, citron, ginger, and more.

Biotechnology is also used in some food processing related areas including processing aids, ingredients, rapid detection systems, and biosensors. Enzymes acting as protein catalysts, are used extensively in the food processing industry to control texture, appearance, and nutritive value, and for the generation of desirable flavors and aromas. Because they are isolated from plants, animals, or microorganisms, their availability is dependent upon the availability of the source material. Using genetically engineered microorganisms for the production of enzymes eliminates the need to rely on source materials while ensuring a continuous supply of enzymes.(Harlander, 1991).

The new technologies have allowed researchers to target the genetics of plants, animals, and microorganisms and to manipulate them to our food production advantage. What might be in store for tomorrow's food advancement? Predictions include:

Environmentally hardy food-producing plants that are naturally resistant to pests and diseases and capable of growing under extreme conditions of temperature, moisture, and salinity.

An array of fresh fruits and vegetables, with excellent flavor, appealing texture, and optimum nutritional content, that stay fresh for several weeks.

Custom designed plants with defined structural and functional properties for specific food-processing applications.

Cultures of microorganisms that are programmed to express or shut off certain genes at specific times during fermentation in response to environmental triggers.

Strains engineered to serve as delivery systems for digestive enzymes for individuals with reduced digestive capacity.

Cultures capable of implanting and surviving in the human gastrointestinal tract for delivery of antigens to stimulate the immune response or protect the gut from invasion by pathogenic organisms.

Microbially derived, high-value, "natural" food ingredients with unique functional properties.

Microsensors that accurately measure the physiological state of plants; temperature-abuse indicators for refrigerated foods; and shelf-life monitors built into food packages.

On-line sensors that monitor fermentation processes or determine the concentration of nutrients throughout processing.

Biotechnologically designed foods to supply nutritional needs; meat with reduced saturated fat, eggs with decreased levels of cholesterol, and milk with improved calcium bioavailability.(Harlander, 1991)

Diagram of respiration and fermentation

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 3.

04.03.01 List of Fermented Products (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 3: Fermentation

DIRECTIONS: Visit your nearest grocery store and identify ten different food products that use fermentation in their production. For example, pickles are one food type. Do not list ten varieties of pickles. They are only one type.

Grocery store visited: ________________________________

Date visited: ______________________

List 10 types of food products that use fermentation in their production and give at least one example of each.













Fill in the answers to the following questions in the blanks provided.

1. What discovery came from the milk that was in the dried stomach of a sheep skin pouch? _________________

2. What method is used when packing vegetables in a salt brine?_____________


3. What two things do yeast produce?



4. What are three things predicted to happen in the future from fermentation?




04.04 Leavening Agents (FoodSci)

Unit 4.4: Leavening Agents

A leavening agent is a substance (yeast) or a material (baking powder) used to produce fermentation or gas that separates and pushes apart proteins in dough and batters before they can coagulate and/or form permanent networks. The leavening agent, whether fermented yeast in sour dough or water turned to steam in cream puffs, makes the mass or aggregate of the final product light and tender. Air, steam, and carbon dioxide are the main leavening agents in quick breads, cake, and other pour or drop batters.

NOTE: Yeast breads are not generally considered to be pour or drop batters or quick since fermentation is a slower process than the reactions from mixing acids and bases or the changing, at high temperatures, of liquid to steam. Yeast breads are categorized as dough.

(Select the link "Bread")


Baking soda and baking powder are chemical leavening agents. They work by producing carbon dioxide during a chemical reaction. Steam is a natural leavening agent. It is produced when the liquid in a baked product is heated above 212 F. Steam is produced by a change in the physical state of water. Baking soda and baking powder produce chemical instead of physical changes.

Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and an acid with a dry dilutant, usually cornstarch, added to separate the mixture. There are two types of baking powder-single-acting and double- acting. Single-acting baking powder begins to react as soon as the chemical gets wet because the acid is soluble in cold liquids. Homemade baking powder (made from soda and cream of tartar) is single-acting. Double-acting baking powder is the kind sold almost exclusively in the United States. Double-acting baking powder is able to react twice because it is made with two different acids. One is dissolvable in cold liquids, and the other must have heat to react. The first reaction is the smallest; most of the carbon dioxide is given off when the baking powder is heated. Carbon dioxide is the only gas given off by baking powders produced in the U.S.A. The law requires baking powder to produce 12 grams of carbon dioxide for every 100 grams of baking powder used. Since all of the carbon dioxide comes from the baking soda in baking powder, at least 25 percent of baking powder must be baking soda.

Baking soda is a salt with the chemical name sodium bicarbonate. The chemical formula for soda is NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a compound formed from a strong base, sodium hydroxide, and a weak acid, carbonic acid. The compound is a base because the base it is made from is stronger than the acid. A base has a pH of more than 7.0. (See AN EXPLANATION OF THE pH SCALE in Resource section.) Baking soda gives off carbon dioxide when dissolved in a liquid and heated. The correct amount of soda and acid creates a good product. If not enough soda is used, sourness results. Too much creates a bitter, yellowed product.

The chemical equation for the reaction that occurs when soda is heated is:

2NaHCO3 --- C02 + Na2CO3 + H20

Heat is important because it promotes chemical reactions. Heat also maintains the structure of the final product by coagulating the protein strands and the starch gel formed from the flour and eggs in the food mixtures.

The carbon dioxide gas makes the quick bread rise. Water vapor goes off as steam. Sodium carbonate makes foods taste bad and makes the quick bread a yellowish color. It also can give the quick bread a corn bread texture. To stop sodium carbonate from forming, an acid needs to be added to quick bread recipes that call for soda. Adding an acid to the quick bread recipe changes the way the sodium bicarbonate reacts when heated. The chemical reaction will take place in two steps when an acid is added. In the first step of the new chemical reaction, the soda reacts with the acid to form a salt and a new acid. In the second step of the reaction, the my acid breaks down to form water and carbon dioxide.

For example, if one chooses to use cream of tartar for the acid, the first step of the chemical reaction would work like this:
01.4 leavening reaction01.4 leavening reaction

Many recipes that call for soda and an acid also call for less salt in the recipe because a salt is produced during the two-step reaction.

(Select the link "Baking Soda")


Any recipe that calls for a liquid will produce some amount of steam when the product is heated. However, not all baked products call for sufficient liquid to produce enough steam to act as a leavening agent. Only those quick breads that are classified as pour batters have a high enough liquid concentration that the liquid will produce a sufficient amount of steam to leaven the product. Steam is the leavening agent in popovers and cream puffs. Steam contributes a little leavening in cakes and pie crusts. The baking temperature for quick breads, whose primary leavening agent is steam, needs to be quite high. Usually the baking temperature will be around 400 F. The high temperature is needed to change the liquid to steam quickly- before the gluten sets. The quick bread must rise before the protein in the gluten and the eggs coagulates and the structure of the quick bread becomes set.

Popovers are pricked with a fork and baked the last few minutes to allow the steam to escape from inside the popover. This helps keep the popover from becoming soggy. (The trapped steam would condense as the popover cooled when removed from the oven, and the condensation would make the popover soggy.)

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 4.

04.04 Leavening Agents links (FoodSci)

04.04.01 Lab: Bread (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 120 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 4: Leavening Agent

Click on the "Bread" link in the URL's and read the first and second pages labeled:

Introduction to How Bread Works


Bread Basics.

Go to the following experiments and perform them:

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Experiment 3

INSTRUCTIONS: Include a name and phone number of an adult that will verify that you did the experiments.

Adult's name: _____________________Phone #: __________

What happened in Experiment #1: ______________________



What happened in Experiment #2: ______________________



What happened in Experiment #3: ______________________



04.04.02 extra credit Lab: Bread (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 120 minutes

If you would like to earn some extra credit, go to Let's Bake on the bread web site and make the bread.

Unit 4-Assignment 4: Extra Credit

EHS Username:
Class Name & quarter:
Assignment name:

INSTRUCTIONS: Include a name and phone number of an adult that will verify that you made the bread for extra credit. Answer the rest of the questions.

Adult's name: _____________________Phone #: __________

How did your bread turn out?___________________________



Write three descriptive words for the following test tastes on your bread:

Taste: _____________, ______________, ______________

Smell: _____________, ______________, ______________

Touch: _____________, ______________, ______________

Feel: _____________, ______________, ______________

Sound: _____________, ______________, ______________

04.05 Food Additives (FoodSci)

Unit 4.5: Food Additives

A food additive is a substance that a food producer purposefully adds to a food or food product with a specific purpose in mind. They are placed in foods for a variety of reasons such as to improve the storability of a food, make a food easier to prepare, make foods easier to process, make a food healthier, and to even make some foods more appealing.

Of course there are concerns about using additives with foods. Some people worry that in the long term, there might be adverse problems that aren't evident now. There are people taht are senstive to certain additives or may even have food allergies because of the additives. Others worry that unnecessary additives might be placed in foods.

Even with all of these concerns, there are many valuable reasons for having additives. Some foods are made safer to eat because of additives. Such is the case in additives that help prevent rancidity in fats such as thylenediamine tetraacetic acid or EDTA. Some foods have improved nutritional value because of additives. Some of these additives have actually reduced disease rates related to nutrition such as goiter in which a person's diet is lacking enough iodine. Salt is often iodized now which has almost eliminated the disease, goiter in the United States. Vitamin D has been added to milk since the 1930s. Many other additives have been used to fortify foods to make them more healthy.

Millions of people have been able to be fed and lessen world hunger because food additives make it possible to ship foods without as much food quality loss or deterioration.

(Select the link "FDA Website"), and learn more about food additives from the Food and Drug Adminstration's (FDA) website. The FDA is the government entity that determines what foods and drugs are approved for consumption or other purposes in the United States.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 5.

04.05 Food Additives links (FoodSci)

04.05.01 Lab: Natural vs Artificial Food Coloring (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 5: Food Additives

DIRECTIONS: Find at least 10 items that are colored. Possible samples are listed under materials and equipment. Follow the insturctions and put your results on the next page provided in this slide show.


1. Samples of colored juices and waters;

e.g., beet juice, tomato juice, sodas, teas, maraschino cherries, grenadine, fruit syrups, jellies, water from canned and cooked vegetables, powders like paprika, saffron, or tumeric mixed into 1/2 cup water, and anything else you can think of.

2. 2-cup saucepan (not aluminum)

3. Vinegar

4. White wool yarn (be sure it is not acrylic)

5. Scissors


1. Put a sample of a colored liquid in a saucepan with a few drops of vinegar and a 3" piece of white wool yam.

2. Heat to boiling.

3. Lift out the yarn and rinse under cold water. If the wool retains the color of the liquid, the substance contains artificial coloring made from coal tar.

4. Repeat as often as desired using a different colored liquid each time.

5. Record your observations on next page of this slide show.


The protein in wool reacts with the coal tar dyes in an acid environment so that chemical bonding occurs. The molecules interlock, forming a new stable substance. Natural dyes do not form this bond with wool, so the yarn will become white again when washed.

This is good consumer knowledge. Check your results against labels. You should get positive results when the use of FDA-certified color is indicated on labels.

Unit 4-Assignment 5: Food Additives

EHS Username:
Class Name & quarter:
Assignment name:

INSTRUCTIONS: Find at least 10 items that are colored. Possible samples are listed under materials and equipment. Follow the instructions and fill in the type of sample you used and mark whether you found it be a natural or artificial coloring.

Name of Sample / Natural / Artificial

1. ____________________ _____ _____

2. ____________________ _____ _____

3. ____________________ _____ _____

4. ____________________ _____ _____

5. ____________________ _____ _____

6. ____________________ _____ _____

7. ____________________ _____ _____

8. ____________________ _____ _____

9. ____________________ _____ _____

10. ____________________ _____ _____

04.05.02 Unit 4 Exam (FoodSci)

computer-scored 60 points possible 90 minutes

Take the Unit 4 Test: Food Chemistry.
This test will cover all the information from Unit 4.

05.00 Unit Five: Nutrition(FoodSci)

This unit will explore human physiology, cellular biology, molecular structures, and metabolism.

05.01 Human Physiology(FoodSci)

5.1: Human Physiology

In integral part of science is how the food that is developed, discovered, and improved is used by the human body. With this in mind, we need to take a look at the human digestive track and review how food is used by the human body.

(Select the link "Digestive Process")

(Select the link "Digestive System")

05.01.01 Human Physiology(FoodSci)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.1Physio Assignment" to submit the assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Using the website on digestion, fill out this study guide. This will be a great resource to you when you take the test for this section. So, as always, keep a copy for yourself.

1. The digestive process happens when you _________________.

2. The body has about ____________ pints of blood.

3. In the digestion process, blood is used to _________________


4. What do the walls of the stomach, intestines, and other digestive organs do to food as it moves along the digestive tract?_________________________________


5. What are 10 parts of the human digestive system?

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

6. What does food provide for the body?_______________________________


7. What happens to proteins in the digestive track so that the body can use them?_____________________________________________________________

8. What other three factors are mentioned in the reading, besides food, impact how we feel? __________________, ____________________, ___________________

9. What is the term that doctors often use when referring to the digestive track? ______________________________ __________________________

10. Where is amylase found and what is its purpose in the chemical digestive process? __________________________________________________________


11. An adult stomach will hold ____________ cup of food empty and up to _________ cups when full.

12. What are the three parts of the intestines and where are they found?

Intestinal Part Where found in intestinal track

a. ___________________ ___________________________________________

b. ___________________ ___________________________________________

c. ___________________ ___________________________________________

13. What do villi do in the intestinal wall? ________________________________


14. What is the role of the gall bladder and pancreas in the digestive track?______


15. What is the muscular valve at the end of the esophagus called and what does it do?______________________________________________________________________

16. What kind of acid is present in the stomach to break down foods? ___________________________________________________________________

17. What is chyme? ________________________________________________

18. What enzyme from the pancreas breaks down fatty acids? _______________

19. What is absorption? ____________________________________________

20. Where are salt removed from waste in the body? ________________________

21. Diarrhea can lead to ________________________ in the body?

22. What are three symptoms of appendicitis? ___________________________, _____________________________, __________________________________

23. What is the condition when the contents of the intestines do not move along fast enough? _______________________________________

24. Cystic Fybrous is an inherited disease affecting what two organs?

_______________________________, __________________________________

25. Hepatitis is caused by a ____________________ ______________________

05.02 Cellular Biology(FoodSci)

Unit 5.2: Plant and Animal Cells

Cells differentiate in both plants and animals. Although the groups of cells that form muscle tissue are different from the groups that form bone or blood, and cells that form roots of plants are different from those that form leaves.

The protoplasm for all living cells in the human body comes from the foods people eat. How well cells work, how much energy a person has, and how an individual grows all depend on how food is selected, prepared, ingested, and digested.

All plants and animals grow by reproducing cells. In large organisms such as people, the billions of cells perform many different roles. The cells combine to form body tissue and several different tissues also combine to form organs and to function as various parts of the body, from the brain to the big toe.

Other forms of life such as microorganisms are made up of a very few cells or even one single cell and are also capable of carrying on all of life's processes. A basic understanding of cell structure and function is important to understanding how food functions in and for the human body. It is also essential to understanding the actions of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.

Since the cell is the basic unit of all living things, you might think it is a simple structure. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The cell is complex in its makeup and its function. Many scientists have spent their lives studying it. Even with all of our advanced knowledge scientists are not yet able to explain how cells differentiate to become skin, muscle, nerves,etc.

The main parts of any cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell wall. In plants, the cell walls are thick and rigid. Animal cell walls are thinner and more pliable.

(Select the link "Plant and Animal Cells")

The nucleus of the cell is the control center. It directs cell division or the formation of new cells. The cytoplasm contains the parts which convert food material into energy and new cell material. The cell wall or membrane holds everything together and controls the passage of material into and out of the cell.

Cells are remarkably diverse. Cells are never formed by nonliving things. They are found in nonliving matter (such as wood) only if it were once alive.


Every bit of food and information (stimuli) needed by a cell must enter through the cell membrane. When cells are small, no part of their complex machinery lies too far from the area outside the cell. If a cell were larger, fewer of its interior structures could be near the cell membrane. Cells perform better if supply lines are short and cannot be cut off. Multicellular organisms, like humans, grow as their cells grow and divide. When cells reach a certain size, they stop growing or they divide to keep all parts of a cell very close together.

As it grows, a cell's volume increases faster than its surface area . As it takes in more nutrients, the cell grows, and it creates more wastes. The membrane has to accommodate the cells needs, but the membranes also limits cell growth because the surface of the cell is less than the volume. The volume cannot grow faster than the surface area of the membrane, because the surface area of the membrane allows food in and eliminates wastes.

Click on the words "surface area" above to view an illustration of the ratio of surface area to volume in cells.


We are familiar with chemical reactions in test tubes, but chemical reactions associated with life processes, also take place in living cells. A chemical reaction is a process making or breaking chemical bonds. In plant cells, for example, light energy forms chemical bonds of molecules in large chains of glucose (sugar).

Substances with more than one kind of atom are called compounds. Atoms in compounds are always in definite ratios. For example, oxygen is a substance that is classified as an element. Hydrogen is also an element because its atoms are of one kind. Water, however, is a compound because it contains hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms, and they are always in the definite ratio of 2 hydrogens to one oxygen.

Because atoms in compounds occur in definite ratios, scientists can write chemical formulas for substances, such as 1120 for water. Chemists can also classify substances into two broad groups: organic and inorganic.

With few exceptions, organic substances contain the element carbon. Inorganic substances are elements other than carbon and compounds are elements with carbon. The categories are for convenience. Foods contain carbon, so does the human body. So, the study of foods and nutrition is considered to be based, among other things, upon organic chemistry.

Substances undergo changes when their conditions are changed. A change in condition could be an increase in temperature, a mechanical deformation, exposure to another substance, or any number of other alterations. NOTE: If the same substance remains after the change, a physical change has taken plain. If popping of popcorn is reviewed, students can see it was a physical change.

Whenever matter undergoes a change and a new substance with new characteristics is formed, a chemical change has taken place. Chemical changes often form compounds. For example, sodium is a soft, silvery metal that reacts with water. Chlorine is a yellow-green, corrosive, poisonous gas. If the two are brought together they will form a white crystalline solid that does not chemically react with water and is not poisonous. It is called sodium chloride. We know it as table salt.

Chemical properties of a substance describe and are concerned with how a material will react with another material. Decomposing compounds into elements involves chemical properties. Burning, digesting, and fermenting are examples of chemical changes that decompose elements into compounds.

Enzymes start many chemical reactions. Enzymes are made in living cells, and they start reactions but are not used up in the reaction. It is sort of like a spark plug causing a gasoline engine to ignite.

Enzymes are also responsible for some extremely undesirable changes in food. Enzymes can cause both positive and negative reactions. They often cause fruits and vegetables to turn brown or gray. To inactivate enzymes, food can be briefly immersed in boiling water and then dried or frozen. Enzymes in food are also inactivated when oxygen is excluded, sulfur dioxide is used, or the pH is lowered.

Enzymes are catalysts in the chemical process. Different kinds of enzymes are and can be produced in cells found in any living entity. They are proteinaceous substances produced by living cells.

Catalysts make a reaction go faster. A common example of a catalyst is an enzyme in cells of an avocado speeding up the rate at which oxygen can combine with smashed avocado cells and turn guacamole brown.

Enzymes, like microorganisms, can help or hinder food preparation and use of food in the body. Sometimes enzymes are beneficial; sometimes they are not. You will remember browning can be a problem in food preservation. Most browning in fruits and vegetables is caused by enzymes. On the other hand, enzymes made in the cells of the human body are essential to human health and well-being.

Fruit ranks high as one of the most abundant, attractive, and appealing foods. Most of the fruit consumed in the U.S. is eaten in the fresh form. Because of improved methods of refrigeration in storage and transportation, most of the fruits can be purchased in all sections of the country some time during the year. All fruits provide enjoyment in eating, stimulate the appetite, and contribute importantly to the food value of the diet.

The flesh of certain fresh fruits darkens on exposure to air. Bananas, apples, peaches, and pears are familiar examples. A phenolic compound called substrate must be present for browning to occur. The browning occurs when oxygen comes in contact with the substrate. An enzyme catalyzes, or speeds up, the reaction. To avoid browning, the enzyme can be denatured.

Browning is slowed by preventing oxygen from coming in contact with the substrate. Fruits which brown easily should be prepared immediately before serving to prevent darkening. Putting pealed fruit in water causes the loss of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and natural sugars. However if they must be held, a little lemon juice or other acid fruit juice sprinkled over them helps to keep their original color.

Chilling helps in preventing the darkening of fruit. Cooking also will keep pared fruit from darkening. For example, slicing apples for a pie need not be treated if the pie is to refrigerated or cooked immediately. All fresh fruits are perishable, and it is therefore particularly necessary to be able to recognize the signs of good quality. In general, good quality fruits look fresh and bright in color and are free from blemishes-not underripe; no signs of overripeness, such as softness, mold, or decay.

Fruits, because of their flavor, texture, aroma, and color stimulate the appetite. Fresh and frozen fruits should have stimulating flavor and color. The firmness and freedom from decay help the purchaser to judge quality.


1. High-acid fruits do not brown when exposed to air. When air comes in contact with a fruit which is low in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), the air oxidizes or browns the surface of the fruit.

2. Browning results from the fresh fruit being exposed to air and being affected by the oxygen in the air. This browning takes place immediately after the cut fruit is exposed to air and is a process called oxidation or enzymatic browning. The discoloration is the work of an enzyme known as polyphenoloxidase which oxidizes phenolic compounds in the tissue of the fruit and causes them to condense into brown or gray polymers. This same kind of action takes place in humans during browning of the skin.

3. Browning is not a reversible process. Fruit which has browned cannot be restored to its original color by placing it into a solution.

4. Bananas deteriorate in texture the longer they sit in a liquid solution.

5. Because oxidation (or browning) takes place during the first few minutes that the fruit is exposed to air, it is important that we cover fruit as soon as it is peeled.

6. Enzymatic browning can be discouraged by several means. a. Chilling the food below about 40 F (4 C) will slow the enzyme down.

b. Boiling temperatures will destroy the enzyme. Boiling also means cooking and cooking means altering the flavor and texture of the fruit or vegetable.

c. Chloride ions (salt) inhibit the enzyme so that salt solutions will retard discoloration but at the cost of flavor.

d. Immersing the cuts in cold water limits the enzyme's access to oxygen and slows browning somewhat.

e. Various sulfur compounds combine with the phenolic substances and block their reaction with the enzyme; they are often applied commercially to dried fruits.

f. The enzyme works very slowly in highly acidic conditions. Ascorbic acid inhibits enzymatic browning.

To prevent browning (or oxidation), cover the fruit immediately after peeling it with a juice containing a high Vitamin C content, water, or salad dressing.

The importance of remembering that the cell is the basic structure of all living things helps one understand what causes a number of problems and poses solutions in food preparation and utilization. Many chemical changes take place within the cells of living things.

05.02.01 Cellular Biology(FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.2CellBio Assignment " to do this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Perform the following experiments and submit your responses in the submission area for this class. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.


EXPERIMENT: Make a decision on whether it is better to cut or tear lettuce for a salad.

1. Prepare a head of iceberg lettuce by removing the center core. Cut the lettuce head in half.

2. Chop the lettuce with a knife and place in a zipbag.

3. Tear the lettuce with your hands and place in a zipbag.

4. Place the zipbags in the refrigerator for a few days and then determine which method is best by observing, tasting, evaluating and recording the results on your worksheet.


EXPERIMENT: Can you bring yourself to eat black avocado guacamole?

1. Peel and mash a ripe avocado. Divide into three separate small bowls.

2. In one bowl add a small amount of an acid such as lemon, lime, orange juice, or a commercial preparation (Fruit Fresh).

3. Wrap the second bowl tightly with an impermeable plastic film such as Saran Wrap and press it onto the surface of the mashed avocado.

4. Leave the third bowl exposed to the air.

5. Refrigerate all three bowls overnight.

INSTRUCTIONS: After performing the two experiments above, answer the questions below and submit them in the submission area of this class.

1. What did you observe with the lettuce?

a. Chopped lettuce?

b. Torn lettuce?

2. Why do you think this happened?

3. Which method would you prefer to use to have the freshest salad?

4. What did you observe in the three bowls of avocado guacamole?

a. Guacamole with juice added:

b. Guacamole wrapped in plastic:

c. Guacamole left out in the air:

5. Why do you think this happened?

6. Which method would you use in making avacado guacamole?

05.03 Metabolism(FoodSci)

Unit 5.3: Metabolism

Metabolism occurs when cells use nutrients in chemical reactions which provide energy for basic activities and processes in the body.

(Select the link "Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism")

Basal metabolism is the energy used by the body for basic life supporting functions when the body is at rest. The basal metabolic rate is the amout of heat or kcalories needed for basic bodily functions disregarding any kcalories needed for extra physical activity.

Search the Internet for a website with a "Basal Metabolism Calculator" to learn more about basal metabolism and you can even find out what your basal metabolism is by filling out the information requested.

When you did the basal metablic calculator, you received a printout that indicated the caloric intake for basal metabolic function and also the caloric intake when activity is introduced into the scenario. Any activity is going to increase the body's need for more calories. The converse is also true. If the caloric is higher than the need present for basal metabolism and activity then those extra calories will be turned into fat in the body.

It is important for a person to find out what their caloric intake should be to maintain the best bodily function and performance. It is very important that any person that determines they need to lose weight, should contact their health care professional to insure that it is done safely. Crash diets aren't effective and lead to malnutrition and stress the body.

Physical Activity

Extreme dieting slows metabolism where exercise increases metabolism. When muscle cells are used, they use the energy avaialbe by catabolizing the simple sugars in the blood and then use their glycogen stores.

With exercise, muscles become toned and the cells are more active which means they need more kcalories to function. Therefore, active, muscular people need more calories than less muscularly developed people.

During exercise, have you ever felt your muscles become tired, or even had a burning sensation. This is caused by a buildup of lactic acid in the muscles. Metabolism has to have oxygen to occur. Lactic acis is a waste product that forms when carbohydrated are not completely metabolized. This can occur when cells don't have enough oxygen to break down the carbohydrates. Thus, when a person slows down and gets enough oxygen, this helps with the lactic acid buildup.

05.03.01 Metabolism(FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.3Metab" to do this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Go to a website with a basal matabolic calculator and put in the ifnormation for the following scenarios. For the last response, use your ow ninformation to find your basal metabolic rate. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Metabolic Rate

1. A 16 year old 5'4" female that weighs 126 pounds. ________calories

2. A 17 year old 5'11" male that weighs 164 pounds. ________calories

3. A 32 year old 5'5" nursing mother that weighs 135 pounds. ________calories

4. A 71 year old 6'0" male that weighs 181 pounds. ________calories

5. A 24 year old 5'6" female athlete that weighs 131 pounds. ________calories

6. A 44 year old 6'4" male that weighs 269 pounds. ________calories

7. A 5 year old 38" female that weighs 45 pounds. ________calories

8. A 22 year old 6'2" athlete that weighs 180 pounds. ________calories

9. A 19 year old 5'6" pregnant female that weighs 129 pounds. ________calories

10. A 12 year old 5' male that weighs 100 pounds. ________calories

11. Put in your information and find your calories. ________calories

05.04 Good Nutrition(FoodSci)

Unit 5.4: Good Nutrition

In the past the United States has used the BASIC FOUR as one food guide that divides food into groups according to their common characteristics:

Bread and Cereals - 4 servings a day
Fruits and Vegetables - 4 servings a day
Milk and Milk Products - 4 servings a day
Meats, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Nuts, and Beans - 2 servings a day

The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowances) is another guide to good eating. It, along with the basic four, was meat to assure good nutrition. Currently being used is the United States Department of Agricultures's FOOD PYRAMID. It is designed to focus attention on the fact that most people in the United States eat too much fat and sugar. It was developed to help consumers better understand the relationship of food intake to health. (Background information and resources are available from the USDA.)

The U.S.D.A. reviews recommendations every decade. Many designs were considered (squares, circle, bowl, triangle, etc.) to be used for presentation of the recommended food guidelines. The triangle was chosen over the others because it could indicate which group was needed in the greatest or least amount.

The pyramid is a guide to daily food choices because it prescribes the number of servings of each food category that we should eat to provide us with all the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (the five classes of essential nutrients) we needed for optimum health. The food groups that should be ingested in the largest quantity form the base of the pyramid. If we use the pyramid as a guide and drink eight glasses of water a day, we will provide our bodies with all the food basis that are necessary for a healthy life.

There is no one perfect food although milk comes close and so does liver. It is the combinations and varieties of foods, however, that give good nutrition. Perhaps more than any single substance, food in some way effects almost everything we do - how we look, feel, act, and grow. It even affects our abilities - how well we function mentally, physically, socially, and emotionally. Six out of 10 leading causes of death in the United States are linked directly to diet e.g. heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity (overweight) and some cancers (80% of cancer can be prevented by proper nutrition). One might assume that we would know or want to know as much as possible about something as important as proper nutrition. If good food choices aid appearance, health and performance, then it seems reasonable that what we eat is important to us.

Adolescent Nutrition Facts

1. Food is what people eat.
2. Nutrition is how the body uses food.
3. The two most important times effecting growth are the pre-school and teen years.
4. What age level grows at a faster rate than infancy? Teenagers
5. At what time in their lives do teenagers have the ability to determine the body size they will have for life. The teen years - 12 to 17 years of age.
6. The period of growth and change for teenagers is from 12 to 17 years of age.
7. What will influence the way teenagers grow? What they eat.
8. If teenagers do not eat properly now, will their bodies be able to make up for it in later years. No.
9. Why do teenage boys be less likely to have malnutrition than teenage girls? Because, as a rule, boys eats more and diet less than girls.
10. The three major nutritional problems affecting teenagers are? Being too heavy, too thin and having a deficiency of a mineral - iron.
11. At what time in his life is a boy's nutritional requirements the most important? During the time he is becoming a man are higher than any other time in his life.
12. Nutritional requirements for a teenage girl are exceeded by what two events in her life? Only during pregnancy and the period following child birth.
13. What a teenage girl eats will effect the kind of pregnancy she will have years later. True.
14. What teenage girls and boys eat will effect the health of children born to them even though reproduction occurs years later. True.
15. How much will a teenage boy grow in one year? A teenage boy will grow as much as four inches in height and gain as mush as 15 pounds in one year.
16. What does growth involve? Growth involves more than increases in height and weight: body fat is lost while bones increase in density and muscles develop in size and strength.
17. List 5 ways that malnutrition is likely to occur in teenagers. Malnutrition is likely to occur in teenager due:

a. to poor food habits
b. extreme dieting
c. lack of knowledge about nutrition
d. limited food selection
e. limited funds or lack of emphasis on good foods.

18. What a teenager eats will effect the skin, hair, weight, vitality and outlook on life. True.
19. If a teenager doesn't look or feel well what suffers? The quality of life will suffer.
20. Teenagers with poor eating habits tend to pay less attention to what they are doing and los interest easily.
21. The endocrine glands that manufacture or secrete hormones during adolescence are growing and developing as part of the growth of the entire body. True.
22. Good nutrition is essential for the growth hormones to develop properly. True.
23. The teen years are a period and mental stress; good nutrition reduces the stress level in teens.
24. What influences teenage eating habits the most? They are influenced by friends more than by parents.
25. Teenagers have a great need for what nutrients? Protein, vitamins, especially B and C. and minerals, especially iron.
26. During the growth spurt, ample supplies of all nutrient are need for muscle, bones and blood.

(Select the link "Dietary Guidelines")

(Select the link "Food Guide Pyramid")

05.04.01 Good Nutrition(FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.4GoodNut" to submit this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions and then fill in the food guide pyramid with each of the categories represented and the recommended servings for a day in each category. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

1. List ten things outlined in the dietary guidelines:

1. _____________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________
6. _____________________________________________
7. _____________________________________________
8. _____________________________________________
9. _____________________________________________
10. _____________________________________________

2. Write a 100 word essay telling how can you use the information from the MyPyramid web site in your life. (What benefits will you have if you follow the food pyramid?) _____________________ _____________________________________________________










05.05 Unit 5 Test(FoodSci)

teacher-scored 70 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "Unit5 Test Quiz" to do this assignment. Follow the instructions there.

06.00 Unit Six: Nutrients (FoodSci)

Unit 6: Nutrients
This unit will teach you about recommended daily allowances, carbohydrates, fats & lipids, Proteins & amino acids, vitamins & minerals, and water.

06.01 Carbohydrates (FoodSci)

Unit 6.1: Carbohydrates


A nutrient is a substance needed for the body to develop and function properly. There are many nutrients, but six are absolutely necessary. We are told, for example, that the "ultimate" breakfast should have foods that, together, provide some of each of the daily needs for all six nutrients.

Each nutrient plays a specific role in the body. Together they supply energy, provide materials for growth and maintenance, and control body function. Nutrients that do similar things are grouped together.

A healthy mind and body require oxygen, exercise, sleep, eater and nutrients. Nutrients are found in the foods we eat. Nutrients and water must be ingested (taken into the body and digested) in order to nurture and sustain life.


1. water - "The" essential for all body functions

2. carbohydrates - "go" foods

3. fats - concentrated "go" foods

4. proteins - "grow" foods

5. vitamins - "glow" foods

6. minerals - "glow" foods

The nutrients are either used to produce energy for the body to "grow and go" or they are used to regulate body systems. Explain the difference and have students categorize the nutrients: Body Regulators Water Vitamins Minerals Fiber Energy Producers Protein Carbohydrates Fats

Now that you have had a brief review of what the nutrients are, what they do, and where you can find them, we will be going into more depth on each nutrient. Our first focus will be carbohydrates.

Open the attachment labeled "Basic Nutrients" and study the chart.


Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the body. The term carbohydrate refers to a group of compounds which have a similar structure. They are the most abundant organic molecules on earth and are produced by living organisms (plants not animals).

All carbohydrates are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), and contain the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen as occurs in water. Carbohydrates are identified by the number of saccharide units in their structure.

Sugars and starches are carbohydrates. Sugar is the quick energy source for cells in both plants and animals, excluding humans. When sugars are digested in the cells, they are oxidized.

Oxidation occurs when oxygen molecules interact with other molecules and strip away some of their electrons. Starch is formed by many sugar molecules bonding together. Sugar molecules also bond to starch to form crystals. Oxygen molecules have an affinity for electrons and will pull them away from any other molecule that has electrons in weak or loose bonds.

Oxidation of a molecule changes the original appearance and properties of the molecule. It also releases energy held in a molecule's bonds. For example, when wood burns, the oxygen in the air reacts with wood, the becomes ashes, energy is released. DNA in cells masterminds oxidation.

MONOSACCHARIDES are sugars in their simplest form. They are carbohydrate molecules which serve as building blocks for the more complex carbohydrates. Dietary monosaccharides include:

Glucose (sometimes called dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugar) is the most prevalent monosaccharide. It is found in fruits, vegetables, honey, corn syrup, and molasses. It is a structural unit of all common dietary disaccharides and the basis for all polysaccharides.

Fructose (sometimes called levulose) is the second molecule used for sucrose. It is the sweetest of all the sugars and is found in honey, molasses, fruits, and vegetables.

Galactose does not occur in a free form in foods but is produced when lactose or milk sugar is digested, or when milk products are fermented.

DISACCHARIDES contain two units of monosaccharide.

Sucrose, more commonly known as table or regular sugar, is the most common one used. Sucrose is extracted from either beet or cane sugar. Sucrose is the crystalline form resulting when one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose combine to form sucrose and water. The chemical formula for producing sucrose illustrates how this formation of sugar takes place. (Glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula but differ in molecular structure.)

glucose + fructose = sucrose + water

C6H1206 + C6H1206 = C12H22011 + H20

The body uses sugar by reversing this process. It is called the hydrolysis of sugar. Lactose is hydrolyzed in the body by an enzyme lactase which breaks down the lactose into two monosaccharide-glucose and galactose. The galactose is then further broken down in the liver to form glucose. Glucose is used by the body for energy.

POLYSACCHARIDES OR POLYMERS contain many molecules of monosaccharide. The main ones are:

Starch is the most abundant dietary carbohydrate and is reduced to sugar by digestive processes.
Dextrin are short glucose chains formed from starch.
Cellulose is the unique structural component used primarily by plants. Human bodies cannot digest cellulose.

Poly means many. Mer means parts. Polymer means many parts. Polymers are long chains of molecules. Polymers have a carbon nucleus with hydrogen cross bonded to them.













Pure sugars (sucrose) are solid at room temperature and will liquefy or decompose when heated. The melting point is about 320 F (160 C). At that temperature, it forms a colorless liquid. With continued heating, it becomes yellow, and with additional heat, the color change progresses to brown and then to nearly black. This process is known as caramelization. It is a chemical process. Care must be taken not to let the process go too far otherwise a bitter, burnt flavor develops. Caramelized sugars can be used in many ways especially to produce color.

Sugar has gained a poor reputation in that too much of it will be stored in the body for emergency purposes. Some people will gain weight; develop diabetes, heart, or other diseases; or have poor teeth as a result of an improper sugar balance.

Sugar plays an important role in food preparation. It has several functions in food preparation and in the body:

1. Used by the body for energy.
2. Enhances food flavors.
3. Promotes tenderness, fine texture, greater volume, and browning in baked products.
4. Stabilizes egg white foam.
5. Increases tenderness of starch-thickened gels, gelatin products, and egg dishes.
6. Promotes production of carbon dioxide by yeast.
7. Acts as a dehydrating agent in pectin gel formation.
8. Lowers the freezing point of mixtures (ice cream).
9. Increases the boiling point of mixtures (candy).
Sugar crops up as an added ingredient in such unlikely places as (among others) soda crackers, spaghetti sauce, soups, salad dressing, ketchup, table salts, and many medicines. Sugar also comes in many disguises. For example, the following (among others) are forms of sugar: honey, syrup, corn sugar, corn syrup, molasses, invert sugar, brown sugar, sucrose, fructose, glucose, dextrose, maltose, and lactose.

Sugar tastes good to most people. Bacteria that cause tooth decay love it too. When exposed to sugar, especially sucrose, the bacteria in the mouth thrive on it and form an acid that weakens tooth structure and forms decay.

If a person was monitoring their intake of carbohydrates, they could calculate how many kcalories they were getting by understanding that one gram of carbohydrates has 4 kcalories of energy. If you were eating a bowl of cold cereal that has 12 grams of carbohydrates, this would equal 48 kcalories from carbohydrates.


Polymers were mentioned earlier and so what do you think of when you hear the word slime? Something gooey, wet, slippery, etc. Slime is actually a synthetic polymer. It can be made at home with the following recipe:

Mix 10 ml of polyvinyl alcohol with a few drops of 4% sodium borate. (The alcohol can be purchased at most chemical supply stores and some educational supply stores. The sodium borate can be made using water to dilute a small amount of borax soap.)

Stir the alcohol as the sodium borate is dropped in. The solution will thicken and can be experimented with. This is polymerization.

What happens is that the need of atoms for electrons determines how they will bond. It takes 2 electrons to fill the first level, 8 for the second, and 18 for the third around the atom. The same processes is used to form the polyethylene of common plastic wrap. Gelatin is a substance of long protein molecules that polymerize as the gelatin sets.


Gelatin is a natural substance extracted from the collagen (connective tissues), bones, and skin of animals and fish. It is an incomplete protein which, when softened and heated in water, dissolves or bonds with the water molecules. After bonding, the mixture needs to be kept cool since high temperatures will liquify it. Freezing will cause a gummy look and the surface will crack.

The conversion of collagen to gelatin is most rapid at temperatures close to the boiling point of water, and this fact should be considered in the cooking of meat. If meat is cooked well enough to gelatinize the collagen, the fibers will be dry and dense. Observation of roast juices upon cooling will disclose the gelatin that has been formed by the connective tissues heated to a high temperature for a long period of time.

The acids found in fresh pineapple, protease enzyme, will break down the gelatin proteins preventing the bonding of gelatin. This is why fresh or frozen pineapple should not be used in any gelatin mixtures. Canned pineapple is all right to use because the acids have been destroyed by the cooking process.

Formula for use: 1 Tbsp. of gelatin granules can turn 2 cups of liquid into a solid. Too much gelatin will result in a rubbery texture.

When gelatin is sprinkled on cold water, the granules suddenly take up large quantities of water and swell into a delicate, tender mass. Heating this mass will liquify it.

(Select the link "Importance of Carbohydrates")

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 1.

06.01 Carbohydrates links (FoodSci)

06.01.01 Basic Nutrients Worksheet (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: There are three parts to this assignment. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Part I. Create a chart or table about the basic nutrients. Include the following information in the sheet: The names of all 6 basic nutrients, what each of the nutrients do for the body and where we can get each of the nutrients.

Part II. CALORIES IN CARBOHYDRATES DIRECTIONS: Knowing that sugars and starches are both carbohydrates and that one gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories, peruse four food labels and figure the calories from the carbohydrates found in any food product. List the food product and calculate the calories from carbohydrates.

Part III. Summarize your findings in two paragraph about how this information impacts what you might eat and also the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates.










06.02 Fats and Lipids (FoodSci)

Unit 6.2: Fats and Lipids

LIPID - The scientific term used to depict fats and oils. The terms are interchangeable, but fats or oils are more commonly used in everyday language. The three will be, for the most part, the term used in this unit.

Fats need to be included in food supplies because they perform a number of critical functions in the human body. Among these are: (1) insulation, (2) the repair of walls of arteries and veins, (3) for energy storage, and (4) as a solvent for vitamins A, D, E, and K. They provide linoleic acids and calories (9 per gram). Fats should not be eaten in excess, and eating them in excess is easy to do in the American culture because they are such an integral part of our everyday food preparation.

Fats in our foods that come from plants are oils; that is, they are liquid at room temperatures. This is true of peanut oil, sunflower oil, vegetable oil, etc. Fats from foods provided by animal sources are generally solid at room temperature. The exception is vegetable shortenings which are chemically modified plant oils that remain solid at room temperature.

Chemically, all fats and oils are built from glycerol molecules and fatty acids that are long chains of from 4 to 24 carbon atoms (Feeling, 1991, p.96). Fats contain 3 fatty acid chains bonded to one glycerol molecule.

The fatty acids that bond with the glycerol molecule can be identical or different. There are many different kinds of fats each with specific characteristics. The varying combination of these characteristics is what makes each fatty acid unique.

Saturated fats contain the most hydrogen. If a carbon chain has only single bonds, there are some places free where hydrogen atoms can attach to the carbon chain. When single bonded fats have all the hydrogen atoms added that the carbon atoms have room for, the fats are called saturated fats. Saturated fatty acids tend to raise the blood cholesterol level in many people. Some health authorities suggest limiting intake of saturated fatty acids to that of total fat intake. Saturated fats are generally less healthy than unsaturated fats.

Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond. The double bond has used up one place a hydrogen atom could connect to; and the chain, therefore, is not connected (saturated) to all possible hydrogen atoms.

Polyunsaturated fats contain the least number of hydrogen molecules, so the carbons have many double bonds where hydrogen potentially could have connected to the carbon atoms.

In single-bonded fats, the carbon atoms move and the saturated molecules form zig-zag chains. In double bonds, the chain is inflexible and it wrinkles, or kinks, at every place where there is a double bond. All fats are composed of two building blocks: glycerol and fatty acids. Fats are created when three fatty acids attach themselves to the three prongs of one glycerol molecule (Freelig, 1991, p.97).

The unsaturated fats are not flexible enough to pile on top of each other easily, in nicely stacked rows. The saturated fats can pile up nicely with their saw-tooth chains fitting into one other in a zig-zag manner. They form crystals and stay solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are liquid molecules and are liquid at room temperature. Most solid fats have both saturated and unsaturated fats and both crystalline and liquid molecules. The longer the fatty acid chains, the higher the melting point of a fat will be. All dietary fats are made up of mixtures of these three types of fatty acids.

The temperature where a fat smokes is the temperature at which the fatty acid is breaking down creating acrolein. This substance irritates the eyes and nostrils as it enters the air.

There are many types of fats, and they should be matched to the use intended and flavor desired. For example, butter and oil are valued for flavor, but they have a low smoke point. On the other hand, if a fat has a high smoke point, it can remain liquid on the surface of a flour product, such as a scone or doughnut. (Freeland-Graves, 1987.)

Fats add flavor and tenderness to foods. In salad oils, taste is more critical than the melting point. Hard fats make better biscuits because they keep the gluten strands shorter and prevent toughness. Hard fats in pie crust separate the gluten strands, and the melting fat lets the other ingredients cook in loose layers, creating flaky pastry.

Frying food is faster than baking or broiling because oil heats much hotter than water before it boils. Oil, a liquid, also transfers heat faster than air, which is composed of gases. Cooking oil, in a deep fryer for example, needs to be hot enough to keep the water in the food (French fries) at a boiling point. The water that escapes from the potatoes will keep hot oil from soaking into the French fries. The flavor of fried food comes from oil reacting with proteins, starches, and sugar in the surface areas of the foods. This also promotes browning.


Two liquids that mix together (e.g., vinegar and water) are miscible. Two liquids that do not mix (e.g., oil and water) are immiscible.

Oil and water do not mix because water is made of polar molecules and oil is not. Polar molecules work just like magnets. The negative side of a polar molecule will attract the positive side of another polar molecule. Oil molecules are not attracted to polar molecules. Oil is also lighter (less dense) than water. If you shake oil and water together in a beaker or bottle, the two will separate as soon as the shaking stops.

If oil and water are to be mixed in food preparation, as in salad dressings, they need a third agent, preferably one that has a molecule that is both water-loving (hydrophilic) and oil-loving (lipophilic). An emulsifier is such a substance. Soup is a common emulsifier. So are egg yolk, mustard, honey, and some herbs. That is why egg yolks are used in making mayonnaise and mustard is used in some other types of dressings. Some emulsions are temporary (French dressing), and some are permanent emulsions (salad dressing and soups made with a stabilizer or starch).


All foods are ready-to-eat. Values taken from NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS, USDA.

Whole milk, 1 c./8 g
2% milk, 1 c./5 g
Nonfat milk, 1 c./0 g
Processed American cheese, 1 oz./9 g
Cheddar cheese, 1" cube/6 g
Ice cream, 1 c./14 g
Ice milk, 1 c./6 g
Egg, whole/6 g
Bacon, 2 slices/8 g
Hot dog, 1/15 g
Chicken drumstick, fried, 2 oz./4 g
Pork chop, loin, broiled, 2.7 oz./25 g
Pizza, 1 slice/4 g
Hamburger patty, broiled, 3 oz./15 g
Coconut, 2" x 2" x 1/2" piece/16 g
Peanuts, 1/2 c./36 g
Peanut butter, 1 Tbsp./8 g
Avocado, California, 10 oz./37 g
Olives, green, 8 medium/4 g
Brownie, 1 3/4" x 1 3/4" x 7/8"/4 g
Milk chocolate candy, 1 oz./9 g


Cook foods in fat heated below the smoking point but above 212 F or 100 C (sea level) which is the boiling point of water in a food.

1. Fat boils at a higher temperature.

2. More fat is absorbed in foods that have more sugar, liquid, leavening, and other fat.

3. The degree of browning is dependent on time, temperature, and the sugar and protein near and on food surfaces.

4. Crispness is due to dehydration of the outer surfaces of food.

5. The smoke point will be decreased by:

a. Adding emulsifiers to fat.

b. Using iron and copper pans (they accelerate oxidative reactions).

c. The use of wide, shallow pans (accelerates oxidation).

d. Adding small particles of food, such as crumbs.

e. The repeated use of fat.

f. The prolonged use of fat.

6. Used fat can be freshened by adding 15-20% new fat, by straining the used fat, or by adding a slice of bread to reheated fat.



To demonstrate this, you can take two carrots and cut them into small pieces. Cook the carrots in 1 cup water for 10 minutes. Cover the pan and cook slowly so that the water is not lost in steam. Drain and save the cooking water and let it cool.

Measure 1/4 cup cooking water into a shaker bottle and add 1/4 cup mineral oil. Shake mixture for at least one minute. Allow to settle. When oil and water separate, observe the color change in the oil layer. It should take on an orange color which is the carotene or vitamin A.


This property of lipids is best shown in the cooking of pasta. It is possible to illustrate this by bringing 2 quarts of water and 1 tsp. of salt to a full boil. Add pasta slowly, stirring so that boiling continues.

When the water foams and is close to boiling over, add 1 to 2 Tbsp. oil to the boiling water and pasta and observe what happens to the boil. Observe how long it takes for the water to resume boiling. The oil will have a calming effect of the foaming water and will keep the water from boiling over because the oil has a higher boiling point than water.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 2.

06.02.01 Fats and Lipids (FoodSci)

Unit 6-Assignment 2: Fats and Lipids

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.


DIRECTIONS: Make the following dressing and then answer the questions on the worksheet at the end.

1. Place 2 Tbsp. red wine vinegar or cider vinegar and 2 Tbsp. oil in a small container with a tight lid. Shake well and record what happens.

2. Add 1 Tbsp. honey and 1 Tbsp. Dijon mustard. Shake. Observe and record the difference.

3. Add salt and pepper to taste. Shake. Pour over favorite salad vegetables. Makes one cup.

DIRECTIONS: Carefully study the following recipe for ice cream and answer the question by completing the chart on the worksheet at the end.


5 eggs
1 pint whipping cream
1 cup sugar
1 can evaporated milk
1/2 cup white Karo syrup
1 can water
1 Tbsp. vanilla
additional whole milk if needed
ice and rock salt
Optional: crushed pineapple or strawberries
Separate eggs. Beat whites until stiff. Add sugar and beat again. Beat together yolks, syrup, evaporated milk, and one can water (use milk can to measure). Add to whites but don't stir.

Beat whipping cream until thick (don't overheat). Add vanilla and mix with the other mixture. Add flavor-pineapple or strawberry. Pour mixture into ice cream mixer. Add additional milk until mixture is 2" from top of freezer with paddles in.

Place cover on container and put container into the tub. Surround the container with ice adding 4 parts ice to one part salt (use rock salt). If turning freezer by hand, turn until you can't turn any more. If using an electric mixer, follow directions given by the manufacturer. Then let stand 1/2 hour. Serves about 8.

Part 1:

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer these questions once you have made the honey-mustard dressing.

1. What two liquids were immiscible?

_____________________________ _____________________________

2. What two agents acted as peace makers or emulsifiers?

______________________________ ____________________________

3. In your own words, explain how an emulsifier works.











Part 2:

INSTRUCTIONS: After examing the ice cream recipe, complete the chart by telling the purpose and contribution of each ingredient in the recipe. Give the scientific reason for its use, and the result obtained because of that ingredient. If you aren't sure, use the Internet to learn more.


Egg - yolk

Fat from egg

Egg - white


Karo syrup

Whipping cream

Whole milk

Evaporated milk



Pineapple or Strawberries

Rock salt


06.03 Proteins (FoodSci)

Unit 6.3: PROTEINS

Open the attachment labeled "Protein Illustrations" and print the sheets that appear. They will be referenced throughout this lesson.

Approximately one-half of the non-water mass of the human body is protein. Proteins compose some structural parts of the body such as cartilage and tendons. Protein will be discussed here, using eggs because the white of the egg gives such visibility to protein reaction in food preparation.

One-half of the protein in the body, however, is used as catalysts within the cells. These catalysts, you will recall, are called enzymes. Enzymes, then, are proteins. Body cells require energy. The body makes enzymes from protein, but it eats its own protein only during starvation. Enzymes allow energy-producing reactions to occur within the cells without raising temperatures so high that the energy-producing reactions would injure the cells. Some on the energy produced does appear as heat in the cell, but most is used to produce other products whose synthesis requires input of energy. If all the energy were kept in the cell in the form of heat, the cell would die.

Proteins are a type of molecule found in all animals and plants. Like polysaccharide, proteins are polymers. They are very large molecules because each protein molecule is made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. The amino acids form proteins by linking into long chains called polymers. When human beings eat proteins, the body breaks them apart and uses the amino acids to build new proteins necessary for growth and repair of body tissues.

Proteins from animal sources are complete proteins because they contain all of the amino acids the human body needs. Eggs are a primary source of complete protein and have unique physical and chemical properties that illustrate the nature of the protein molecule.

All amino acids have a simple chemical backbone with an amine group (the nitrogen containing part) at one end. At the other end is the acid part. This backbone is the same for all amino acids. The difference between them depends on a distinctive structure, the chemical side chain, that is attached to the backbone. It is the nature of the side chain that gives identity and chemical nature to each amino acid. Twenty amino acids with 20 different side chains make up the proteins of all living tissue.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Amino Acid #1 illustration.

The amino acids that make up proteins differ from fats and carbohydrates in that they contain the element nitrogen. Proteins differ from each other in the sequence of the amino acids that form a particular chain. They also differ in the way that the protein chain (also called a peptide chain) is linked, coiled, or twisted.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Amino Acid #2 illustration.

Chemically, the backbone of every chain is -C-C-N-. This backbone is also called a peptide chain. If two amino acids join in a chain, it is called a dipeptide. A number of amino acids in a chain are called polypeptide. Molecules of water bind to both the backbone and polar groups of proteins. Polypeptide and proteins are formed from amino acids by a condensation reaction in which one amino acid loses -OH from -COOH and another loses -H from -NH2 to form a peptide bond. Repetition of this reaction (polymerization) converts dipeptide to polypeptide and these in turn to proteins. A strand formula for an amino acid, with the variable group R, has been used in the diagram. Breakdown of proteins to polypeptide to amino acids is the reverse process, an enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis.

There are 30 to several thousand amino acids contained in different proteins. All amino acids are similar in shape, but each one contains a unique side chain that allows formation of different chains of different lengths and chains with unique combinations of sequencing.

A strand of protein is not a straight chain, however. The amino acids are attracted to each other at several different places along the strand. This attraction causes the strand to coil and fold. Each unique protein folds naturally because of its own special type of bonding and its own special shape. Some proteins are shaped like springs. Some are shaped like doughnuts. Some water soluble ones are shaped like a ball of steel wool. Some resemble flat sheets of paper that have been accordion pleated. Some look like a tangled yarn ball. The shape of the amino acid chains, as the fold, determines what the protein does inside the plant or animal (human) cell.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Polypeptide and Protein illustration.

Eight of the amino acids are known to be essential to human life. Since proteins cannot be synthesized (put together) within the human body, the essential amino acids must be provided by the foods eaten. Different amino acids have different names. The names of the eight amino acids are: lysine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, valine, and phenylalanine.

Some animal protein from eggs, dairy products, kidneys, and liver contain all the essential amino acids. Other animal and some plant proteins from corn, wheat, gelatin, soybeans, peanuts, potatoes, poultry, fish, and red meats in various combinations, can also provide the complete proteins that contain the amino acids essential to the body's health and well-being.

When proteins, for any reason, lose their natural folded shape, they are called denatured, which means unnatural. Most proteins, once they become denatured, cannot fold back again into their normal shape. For example, when an egg is fried, the loss of water molecules and the heat changes (denatures) the protein. The changes are visible, and they cannot be reversed. The egg cannot be uncooked. It is easier for a human body to digest denatured protein.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Denatured Protein illustration.

In some proteins, amino acids that have affinity for water molecules are folded to the inside, and those with less tendency to bond with water molecules are on the outside of the folded protein chain. Denaturing can expose the water-bonding molecules to the outside.

Proteins change dramatically when cooked. Many foods that contain proteins, such as eggs and meat, are cooked specifically to change the proteins and that changes the nature of the food.

As noted above, eggs are one of the foods that contain all the essential amino acids. But, eggs are important in cooking because of another unique property: egg whites and egg yolks mixed together are liquid at room temperature and solidify irreversibly when they are heated. (This is the opposite of water and other common cooking ingredients such as fats and sugars which, when heated, change irreversibly to liquids and then to gases.)

Hydrogen bonds affect the nature of the protein molecule in both raw and cooked eggs. Proteins in eggs, meats, and other foods, consist of long molecules. If these molecules are poorly bonded to each other, they are liquid-like. By cooking the egg, hydrogen bonds form between the protein molecules and thicken the proteins. We perceive that the egg coagulates and changes color from transparent to opaque. The changes that take place in eggs when they are heated are due to the fact that eggs contain many different types of proteins. The most abundant of these is globular. It is the globular protein, for example, that makes hard-boiled eggs hard.

Globular protein is the name given to a protein with long chains of amino acids which fold around each other to form a fairly compact ball, much like a ball of yarn. Heat will cause all of the egg's proteins to unfold and expose amino acids that were once on the inside of the protein strand. As the globular protein unfolds, it will network and form weak bonds with amino acids of other unfolded proteins. The unfolding is generally irreversible. Further heat will cause egg's protein networks to solidify. Overheating creates too many bonds among the proteins and squeezes out water. This can result in food textures that are runny, lumpy, and/or rubbery.

In food mixtures, milk and eggs are the most common source of proteins. If a protein containing food mixture is heated, the proteins become more solid; that is, they coagulate. This is because heat causes protein molecules to move faster through the water in the food mixture, and the molecules collide and bond with each other in large, three-dimensional networks. In other words, the bonds between the protein molecules that become solid when heated, give structure to the mixture because the liquid within the mixture is held in the network of coagulated protein.

If the mixture is overheated, some of the liquid is squeezed out. This is the reason that custard, for example, that is baked too fast at a temperature which is too high will tend to separate and weep. It is also why scrambled eggs turn rubbery or watery. Egg whites are about 10% protein and about 90% water and coagulate at around 60 C or 140 F. Egg yolks are about 15% protein and about 50% water. They also contain around 35% fat. This causes them to coagulate at about 68 C or about 154 F, which is slightly higher than the temperature at which the whites coagulate.

If more ingredients are added to eggs in a mixture, the coagulation temperature of egg proteins will change. That is because the other ingredients dilute the egg proteins, and it takes more heat to move them to a place in the mixture where they can collide and bond.

Salts, acids, and alcohol each have the capacity to neutralize negatively charged parts of the protein molecule, so that the protein molecule will bond more easily. Cream of tartar, for example, contains acid which can cause egg whites to coagulate without heat. Lemon juice will do the same thing, but the water in the lemon juice will prevent a good foam from forming. Vinegar and salt can be used to seal the cracks in eggs that are being boiled because, as protein in the egg white leaks out of the cracked shell, coagulation of protein molecules seals the crack. Vinegar in water used to poach eggs denatures the protein on the surface and keeps it from failing apart before coagulation can take place.

Whipping egg whites also denatures proteins because it makes the bonds of the protein break apart; then the long, unfolded strands of proteins surround air bubbles. The molecules of protein near the surface denature (uncoil) due to exposure to the air of the water in the amino acids, and some of them collapse, forming small bubbles and resulting in a finer foam. Foams can be stabilized by heating (for example, baking a meringue).

Fats coat denatured proteins and stop them from bonding (coagulating). That is why a bit of egg yolk (which contains fat) dropped into egg white will stop production of a good meringue. Whipping egg whites in a bowl with residue of fat or oil also inhibits production of a good meringue.

An in-depth study of eggs will help students understand the nature and versatility of eggs as a food source of protein and other nutrients and as an important ingredient in the preparation of other foods. Exquisitely simple, yet enormously complex, the egg is one of nature's marvels. It is one of the most nutrient dense of foods and one of the most inexpensive food sources of complete protein.

The chalazae (kuh-LAY-zuh) is a dense cord-like white strand made mostly of mucin. It is connected to each side of the yolk. It holds the yolk in the center of the egg.

The air cell at the large end of the egg is formed by the separation of the two shell membranes as the contents inside the shell shrink during cooling. The vitelline membrane separates the egg yolk from the egg white.

The egg shell is made of calcium carbonate crystals mixed with protein. The shell is a semipermeable membrane, which means air can pass through it. This allows the developing chick to get air, but it also allows bacteria through to the egg we eat. The shell is often a little rough or slightly bumpy. As an egg ages, the shell becomes smoother.

Egg whites are 15% protein. The egg white is often called the albumen because that is the main protein in egg white. Ovalbumin is 63% of the protein in egg white. It also contains the sulfur in the egg white. conalbumin is 12% of the protein in egg white. It has the ability to bind iron.

The white is divided into thick egg white and thin egg white. The fresher the egg, the more thick egg white there will be. As an egg ages, thick egg white breaks down and becomes thin egg white. Ovomucin is a mucor protein that gives the egg white its jelly-like characteristic. Ovomucin is the protein that makes egg white thick. It coagulates slower than thin egg white. As an egg ages, the ovomucin breaks down and thick egg white turns into thin egg white. This protein does not coagulate when heated as quickly as other proteins. Because of this, the thin egg white will cook or set faster when heated.

The yolk is the yellow center part of the egg. It actually has more nutrients than the white. It is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. One large egg has 213 mg cholesterol.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Denatured Protein illustration.

The bloom is a thin film on the outside of the egg that helps seal the shell and helps keep bacteria out. The bloom is less effective if the egg has been washed. It is better not to wash the shell until just before using the egg.

The two inner and outer membranes separate the shell from the egg white. theses are semipermeable membranes.

The germ spot is a light spot on the yolk. It is the sight where a chick would develop if the egg were fertilized and conditions were correct for the chick to grow. Occasionally you will find an egg that has a blood spot in it. This is a fertilized germ spot, but it does not affect the egg. It s still usable.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of th lesson and take note of the Composition of an Egg and the Ins and Outs of an Egg illustrations.

Eggs need to be cooked using low temperatures because egg white is protein. Never boil an egg. Hard-and soft-cooked eggs should be cooked in hot water. To keep the shell from cracking because the air space in the end expands when heated, poke a pin hole in the large end of the egg before cooking it. Another thing you can do is put a little vinegar in the cooking water for hard- cooked eggs. If the shell cracks, the white will not leak out as much because the vinegar is an acid and acid makes egg white protein coagulate faster. Always pour cold water over hard- cooked eggs as soon as the cooking time is up. This makes the egg easier to peel and helps keep the dark gray-green ring from forming on the outside of the yolk. High heat and a long cooking time increase the chance that a gray-green ring will form around the yolk because these two conditions let the sulfur in the white combine with the iron in the yolk to form ferrous sulfide or iron sulfide. This is a chemical reaction.

Egg Basics Summary

A. The albumen is the white part of the egg.

B. The yolk is the yellow part of the egg.

C. The thin film on the outside of the egg that helps seal the shell and protects the egg from outside bacteria is called the bloom.

D. The cord which holds the yolk near the center of the egg is called the chalazae.

E. There is a light spot on the yolk known as the germ spot which would develop into a chick in a fertilized egg.

F. The air cell appears at the large end of the egg and increases in size as the egg ages.


A. Candling makes it possible to judge the thickness of the white, the position of the yolk, and the size of the air space.

B. The freshest eggs are Grade AA, followed by Grade A and Grade B.

C. Eggs are classified by size. The largest is jumbo. In decreasing size, the remaining classes are, extra large, large, medium, small, and pee-wee.

D. The egg carton has a lot of information for the consumer. The carton tells the following things about the eggs: quality, size, and inspection stamp.


A. One of the most important functions of eggs is to contribute nutrients whether used alone or in recipes.

B. The protein in eggs is used as a thickening agent since egg protein coagulates when heated. Eggs are used to thicken custards and puddings.

C. Because the egg white coagulates when heated, eggs also function to bind ingredients together in meat loaves, and hold crumbs together on breaded foods.

D. Eggs can also be used as leavening agents because the white can be beaten to hold large amounts of air.

E. Egg yolks act as an emulsifying agent in foods such as mayonnaise and salad dressings.


A. The yolk is a rich source of nutrients; it contains more vitamins and minerals than the white and also some fat.

B. Eggs contain high-quality protein and can be used as a meat substitute.

C. The only vitamin in egg white is riboflavin; while the yolk contains vitamins A, D, and the B complex. The sun changes some of the skin oils into vitamin D, so it is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin.

D. Iron and phosphorus are the minerals found in eggs.

E. Iron is part of the hemoglobin in red blood cells.

F. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the body cells and carbon dioxide away. A lack of red blood cells can cause anemia.

G. Egg substitutes are different from eggs because they are lower in fat, cholesterol, and calories.

Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Nutrient Density of an Egg illustration.

1. AS A LEAVENING AGENT - Eggs can be used as a leavening agent because the egg white can be beaten to incorporate air. This is affected by temperature, time, fat, acid, and sugar. The air held in the egg white foam expands when heated and leavens the baked product. The cream of tartar in the angel food cake recipe makes the foam more stable and helps the foam form faster. This allows the batter to raise better. Oiling the pan does not allow a baked product to cling to the pan and climb the pan to rise; also, fat decreases the stability of the egg white foam.

2. AS FOAMS - One function of eggs is their role in making foams. Foams are usually made by beating an egg white to incorporate air into the white. This makes foods light and fluffy. Maximum volume always results from beating eggs or egg whites at room temperature.

Egg whites make good foams because they can make colloidal dispersions. A colloidal dispersion is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution. The particles in the mixture are larger than in true solutions. The particles are dispersed in the mixture rather than dissolved in it. The large particles are called colloids. The large particles are bigger than atoms or molecules, but they are not big enough to settle out of the mixture. Egg white is a colloidal dispersion because the protein molecules in the egg white liquid are large particles which are too large to dissolve, but not large enough to settle out of the mixture.

When an egg white is beaten, the protein molecules surround the air bubbles. The protein has been denatured, so the foam made out of egg white is stable. When a protein is denatured, the hydrogen bonds break. This lets the protein structure change a little. The protein molecule unfolds and takes on a less compact structure. Denaturation is the first step in coagulation. Coagulation happens when the protein molecules unfold during denaturation, bump into other protein molecules, and combine together in clumps to become a solid. Heat will denature egg white protein; there are several other methods one can use to denature egg white protein. Freezing, irradiating, bombarding with sound waves, putting the food under pressure, and adding certain substances are other methods to denature protein. Beating or whipping will also denature egg white protein.

If coagulation has not occurred, denaturation can sometimes be reversed. A slightly beaten egg white will turn back to liquid if allowed to stand. If an egg white coagulates, it will not turn back to a liquid no matter how long it is allowed to stand. Coagulation is affected by different ingredients. Salt and acid will decrease the time needed to coagulate and sugar and liquid will increase the time needed for coagulation.

There are several things that determine how easy an egg white foam forms and how stable the foam will be. The following things affect egg white foams:

Beating: The higher the setting on the mixer, the faster the foam will form. If the foam is over beaten, it may cause the egg white to denature too much (the protein unfolds too much and loses its elasticity). This makes the foam less stable.

Egg Temperature: An egg white at room temperature will beat up faster than a refrigerated egg white.
Egg Freshness: Fresher eggs whip up faster and better than aged eggs.
Acid-Base Balance of Egg: A pH of 4.6 - 4.8 makes the highest volume and most stable egg white foam.
Added Substances: Cream of tarter is an acid and slightly lowers the pH. It makes the protein more stable. Adding sugar to an egg white makes the foam more stable, but it makes the foam form more slowly. That is why the recipe for meringue says to beat the egg white until foamy before adding the sugar. Fat makes an egg white foam less stable. Water makes an egg white foam less stable.

3. AS A THICKENING AGENT - Eggs are used to thicken foods like custards and puddings. As the egg cooks, the protein in the egg thickens. This, in turn, thickens the food. As a general rule, one egg will thicken one cup of liquid; also, two egg yolks can thicken about the same amount as one egg. Eggs lose their ability to thicken sauces if they are added to a hot liquid because the egg coagulates. Foods high in acid (like lemon juice) also make the egg less able to function as a thickening agent because the acid causes the egg white protein to coagulate.

As the protein in the egg coagulates due to the heat of cooking, it thickens. This causes the filling to thicken. The lemon juice is added after the egg because it is an acid, and acid makes egg protein coagulate faster. If the egg coagulates too fast, there will be poached egg pieces in the filling. This is also the reason that a small amount of the hot mixture must be added to the slightly beaten egg and the egg is NOT just poured into the hot mixture. The egg is slightly beaten to start the denaturation process. Then the protein must be heated very slowly to allow the protein to coagulate and thicken the mixture--not coagulate and cook.

Eggs function as a binding ingredient in foods (like meat loaf) because the egg protein thickens when heated and helps the food hold its shape. Foods coated in crumbs and fried are often dipped in beaten egg before being rolled in the crumbs because the egg helps bind the crumbs to the food being coated. In ice cream, eggs hold the ingredients together and inhibit the growth of ice crystals in the cream itself. Eggs are also a part of the binding and structure of baked products.

Eggs function as a binding ingredient in foods (like meat loaf) because the egg protein thickens when heated and helps the food hold its shape.

An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that normally do not combine with one another. An emulsifier coats the droplets of one of the liquids so it will mix with the other. An emulsion is another example of a colloidal dispersion. The surface tension of liquids can make two liquids repel each other. This happens with oil and water. Surface tension makes the molecules on the surface of a liquid attract to the other molecules of that liquid. The surface tension of the oil makes the oil molecules attract to themselves and the water molecules attract to other water molecules. The oil and the water repel each other. Adding an emulsifier will let the water and the oil mix together. Emulsifiers are substances whose molecules have a polar end which dissolves in water and a non-polar end which dissolves in oil. A molecule of the emulsifier holds a molecule of water next to a molecule of oil and does not let them separate. Nonwater-loving ingredients can then bind with water.

Eggs are very good emulsifying agents. The yolk contains chemicals that are both water soluble and fat soluble. The yolks of the egg will surround oil droplets and keep them suspended.

An egg yolk is a good emulsifier because it contains lecithin which is one of the best natural emulsifiers there is. Lecithin has a polar and a non-polar group. Emulsions can be thickened because beating shears the oils and increases the surface area so a more liquid phase is needed to surround the droplets. Adding too much oil at first makes a poor emulsion because you cannot whip the mixture fast enough to break up the fat globules quickly enough; the vinegar and yolk do not have enough time to surround the oil. Emulsions can hold only so much oil. If you add too much, you break the emulsion.

(Nutrition Comes Alive, The Nutrient Connection Developed by the Division of Nutritional Sciences Extension Service, Cornell University, 1986)
All foods are ready-to-eat. Values taken from Nutritive Values of Foods, USDA Bulletin.

Cheddar cheese, 1 oz. piece 7 g
Low-fat cottage cheese, 1/2 c. 15 g
Part-skim mozzarella cheese, 1 oz. 8 g
Processed American cheese, 1 oz. 6 g
Whole milk, 1 c. 8 g
2 percent milk, 1 c. 8 g
Buttermilk, 1 c. 8 g
Chocolate milk, 1 c. 8 g
Eggnog, 1 c. 10 g
Vanilla milk shake, 11 oz. 12 g
Ice cream, 1 c. 5 g
Chocolate pudding, 1/2 c. 4 g
Baked custard, 1/2 c. 7 g
Fruit-flavored yogurt, 8 oz. 10 g

Baked bluefish, 3 oz. 22 g
Fish sticks, 3 oz. 15 g
Fried haddock, 3 oz. 17 g
Canned salmon, 3 oz. 20 g
Canned sardines, 3 oz. 20 g
Fried scallops, 6 16 g
Fried shrimp, 3 oz. 17 g
Canned tuna, 1/2 c. 15 g
Bacon, 2 slices 4 g
Beef, 3 oz. 23 g
Hamburger patty, 3 oz. 20 g
Canned corn beef, 3 oz. 22 g
Beef and vegetable stew, 1 c. 16 g
Chili con carne, 1 c. 19 g
Roast lamb, 3 oz. 22 g
Beef liver, 3 oz. 22 g
Ham, 3 oz. 18 g
Boiled ham lunchmeat, 1 oz. 5 g
Pork chop, 2 oz. 18 g
Bologna, 1 oz. 3 g
Brown and serve sausage, 2 links 6 g
Hot dog, 1 medium 7 g
Veal cutlet, 3 oz. 23 g
1/2 chicken breast, 3 oz. 26 g
Chicken drumstick 12 g
Chicken and noodles, 1 c. (home recipe) 22 g
Roast turkey, chopped, 1.2 c. 22 g

Lima beans, baby, 1/2 c. 7 g
Snap beans, 1/2 c. 1 g
Bean sprouts, 1/4 c. 1 g
Black-eyed peas, 1/2 c. 7 g
Broccoli, 1 medium stalk 6 g
Corn, 1 ear 4 g
Green peas, 1/2 c. 4 g
Baked potato, 8 oz. 4 g
Spinach, 1/2 c. 3 g
Sweet potato, 5" x 2" 2 g
Hard roll, 1 5 g
Spaghetti, tomato sauce, cheese, 1 c. 9 g
Spaghetti, canned, 1 c. 6 g

Large egg 6 g
Egg white 3 g
Egg yolk 3 g

Bagel, 1 6 g
Barley, 2 Tbsp. 2 g
Biscuit, 2" diameter 2 g
Boston brown bread, 1 slice 2 g
Cracked wheat bread, 1 slice 2 g
French or Vienna bread, 1 slice 2 g
Italian bread, 1 slice 2 g
Raisin bread, 1 slice 2 g
Rye bread, 1 slice 2 g
Pumpernickel bread, 1 slice 3 g
Enriched white bread, 1 slice 2 g
Whole wheat bread, 1 slice 3 g
Grits, 1 c. 3 g
Farina, 1c. 3 g
Oatmeal, 1c. 5 g
Bran flakes, 1c. 4 g
Corn flakes, 1 c. 3 g
Puffed oats, 1 c. 3 g
Wheat flakes, 1 c. 3 g
Wheat germ, 1 Tbsp. 2 g
Angelfood cake, 1/12 a tube cake 3 g
Chocolate cupcake, q 2 g
Oatmeal cookie with raisins, 1 3 g
Saltine crackers, 4 1 g
Rye wafer, 1 1 g
Graham crackers, 2 1 g
Macaroni, 1/2 c. 2 g
Muffin, 1 (blueberry, corn, bran) 3 g
Egg noodles, 1/2 c. 3 g
Buckwheat pancakes, 2 4 g
Plain pancakes, 2 4 g
Pie crust, 1/6 pie 2 g
Cheese pizza, 1 piece 6 g
Popcorn, 1 c. 1 g
Soft pretzel, 1 2 g
Thin pretzel twists, 10 6 g
Rice, 1/2 c. 2 g
Cloverleaf roll, 1 2 g
hamburger or hot dog roll, 1 3 g
Hard roll, 1 5 g
Spaghetti, tomato sauce, cheese, 1 c. 9 g
Spaghetti, canned, 1 c. 6 g
Waffle, 1 7" 7 g

Almonds, chopped, 1/4 c. 6 g
Dry beans, 1/2 c. 7 g
Brazil nuts, 6 to 8 5 g
Cashew nuts, roasted, 1/4 c. 1 g
Filberts, (hazelnuts), chopped, 1/2 c. 3 g
Lentils, 1/2 c. 8 g
Peanuts, roasted, 1/2 c. 18 g
Peanut butter, 1 Tbsp. 4 g
Split peas, 1/2 c. 8 g
Pecans, chopped, 1/2 c. 11 g
Pumpkin kernels, 1/4 c. 10 g
Sunflower seeds, 1/4 c. 9 g
Walnuts, chopped, 1/4 c. 6 g

Essential Amino Acids

Non-Essential Amino Acids
Aspartic Acid
Glutamic Acid

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 3.

06.03.01 Lab: Egg Experiments (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 3: Proteins

INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following experiments with eggs and submit your findings in the submission area of this class. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Preheat two fry pans over medium-low heat on the stove. Add 1 tsp. butter or margarine to each fry pan. Crack a fresh egg into one pan and an aged egg (leave out of the refrigerator for two or three days) into the other. Notice the difference in how much each of the eggs spread when put in the pan and how tall the yolk stand in the center of the fried egg.

Put 2 cups water in a saucepan and place over high heat until the water boils. Reduce the heat so the water is simmering. Break one fresh egg into a small bowl and carefully slip it into the simmering water. Cover and cook 3-5 minutes. Remove egg from water with a slotted spoon. Follow the same procedure with an aged egg.

Use a crayon to mark two fresh eggs and two aged eggs. Place one fresh egg and one aged egg into a saucepan with 2 cups of water. Place one fresh egg and one aged egg into another saucepan with 2 cups water. Put each pan on a burner and bring the water to a boil. Reduce the heat, cover, and simmer the eggs for 15 minutes. Immediately place one pan of eggs under cold running water. Allow the other pan to sit to cool. Peel the eggs and cut them in half lengthwise.

Prepare scrambled eggs in two ways and compare the difference.

Directions for CORRECTLY prepared scrambled eggs.

Beat 2 eggs with a wire whisk until blended. Pour eggs into a lightly greased skillet over low heat. Stir occasionally until a fluffy, soft, smooth mass forms. Note: If you stir the eggs too much, tiny pieces will result. Label Scrambled Correctly'

Directions for INCORRECTLY prepared scrambled eggs.

Beat 2 eggs plus 1/3 c. milk with a wire whisk until blended. Pour eggs into a lightly greased skillet over high heat. Stir constantly. Label Scrambled Incorrectly.


INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the answers to the questions regarding the egg experiments.


1. Compare how much the fresh egg spread to how much the aged egg spread in the fry pan.

2. Which took longer to coagulate, the fresh egg or the aged egg? Why?

3. When the fresh egg was cooking, which part of the egg coagulated first; which part coagulated last? Why?


4. What is a desirable appearance for a poached egg?

5. How do low-quality eggs look when poached in rapidly boiling water?

6. What happened to the amount of thin egg white as the egg aged?

7. Compare how much the fresh egg spread during cooking to how much the aged egg spread during cooking.


8. Compare the position of the yolk between the fresh eggs and the aged eggs. What causes the difference?

9. Compare the color of the outside of the yolk of the fresh, cooled egg to the aged, cooled egg.

10. Compare the color of the outside of the yolk of the fresh, uncooled egg to the aged, uncooled egg.

11. Which hard-cooked egg had the darkest ring around the yolk? What would account for this?

12. What two things cause a gray-green ring to develop around the yolk of hard-cooked eggs?


13. Compare the two products. How do they look?

14. What causes the difference?

15. What effect has temperature on eggs (protein)?


INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions:

16. Explain what happens during the denaturization of protein?

17. How does denaturization of proteins occur?

18. What factors affect the stability of an egg foam?

19. What are the functions of protein in the body?

20. Compare and contrast complete and incomplete proteins.

06.04 Vitamins and Minerals (FoodSci)

Unit 6.4: Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals play an important role in bodily functions. Deficiencies in them can result in deficiency diseases in which a lack of a specific nutrient has occurred. Beriberi is a disease in which the nervous system becomes stressed and can cause partial paralysis, mental problems, physical weakness, and even death. Scurvy is another deficiency disease caused by the lack of Vitamin C.

It was determined by a Dutch army doctor that rice with hulls helped prevent the disease. The amount needed was first thought to be an amine, and it was thought it was necessary for life, so it was called a vitamine which vita comes from the Latin term "life."

Vitamins are organic substances needed for life. Vitamins don't actually provide energy, they help the body function. Vitamins are often a critical part in bodily functions or in the enzymes that are part of a reaction in the body. Most vitamin molecules have attached hydrogen atoms and hydrocarbons and a six sided ring that includes carbon and nitrogen atoms or carbon.

Minerals are inorganic elements the body needs. Minerals often work in conjunction with specific vitamins. Such is the case with iron absorption increasing when vitamin C is present.

(Select the link "Vitamin")

Fat soluble vitamins -- Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.

Water soluble -- Vitamin C, Thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Niacin, Pyridoxine B6, Folate, Cobalamin B12, Pantothenic acid, Biotin.

(Select the link "Mineral")

Major Minerals -- Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Sulfur

Trace Minerals -- Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluoride, Selenium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Manganese, Cobalt

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 4.

06.04 Vitamins and Minerals links (FoodSci)

06.04.01 Vitamin/Mineral Comparison (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 4: Vitamins & Minerals

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

For this assignment, you are a nutrient scientist and the project manager you work under is going to a food conference put on by the U.S. government that will determine whether the company you work for will continue to receive funding. This could mean your job will continue or the project is stopped. Your project manager has asked you to create a chart of some kind using paper and pencil or a computer that compares and contrasts vitamins and minerals. Make sure you do a good job using proper grammar and writing skills and present it in a way that is appealing. Include the following items in your chart:

Name of vitamins/minerals
Function of vitamins/minerals
Whether fat-soluble, water-soluble, major mineral, or trace mineral
Food sources
Deficiency Diseases
Amount recommended daily

06.05 Water (FoodSci)

Unit 6.5: Water

As far as human life is concerned, oxygen is the most important element. Water is the most important compound. In the human body, water is vital. Water is second only to oxygen in importance to the body. People cannot survive without oxygen, and people cannot survive without water. A healthy adult may live for weeks without food but only a few days without water. A person can lose all reserve carbohydrate and fat and about half the body protein without real danger, but a loss of 10% of total body weight of water is serious, while a loss of 20% to 22% is fatal. Water makes up 67% to 75% of the total body weight.

Water is involved in all body processes. Water is an efficient heat conductor and serves to maintain the uniform body temperature essential for health. As a protector of internal organs, water is indispensable; it serves as a cushion and prevents the transmission of shock from the outside. It also serves as nature's solvent for many chemical compounds and is the medium for many chemical reactions to occur.

Water, in plant and animal foods and in the human body, transports other substances either in solution or suspension. Within the body cells, water migrates in and out.

When the water is inside of the cells, it is part of the INTRACELLULAR FLUID (fluid contained within a cell). When water is outside of the cells, it is part of the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (fluid present outside the cells). Extracellular fluid is further divided into INTERSTITIAL FLUID (water between cells) and INTERVASCULAR FLUID (water in the bloodstream). Water shifts freely between one compartment to another. This aspect is very important. For example, if the blood volume falls, water can shift from the areas both inside and around cells to the bloodstream to increase blood volume. The opposite is also true if the blood volume becomes too high.

Water also acts as a temperature regulator in the body. The body secretes fluids in the form of perspiration which evaporates though skin pores. This evaporation requires heat energy and thus as the perspiration evaporates, heat energy is taken from the skin, cooling it in the process.

Water is an important vehicle for removing body waste products. As part of the digestive juices, it helps to change consumed food into nutrients the body can use. Within the bloodstream, it also helps to carry those nutrients to the body cells in need, and carry away cellular waste products. Waste products are then excreted from the body. Most unwanted substances in the body can be removed from the body via the urine.

Water helps to form the lubricants found in the joints of the body. It is also the basis for saliva, bile, and amniotic fluids (the important shock absorbing fluid which surrounds and unborn fetus).

The recommended water intake for adults per day is 8 cups. If enough water is not consumed, the body first signals by making the person feel thirsty. But this mechanism is not always reliable, especially during illness, in elderly years, and when involved in vigorous athletic events. Children who are ill, especially with a fever or diarrhea, are especially susceptible to dehydration.

Water and Food Science

Water is a big part of foods. Some foods are composed of 80% or more water. Water is also a medium for cooking food and with this process we now need to discuss temperature, vapor pressure, osmosis, diffusion, soft and hard water, and boiling point.


A thermometer is the most common instrument used to measure temperature. When the bulb is heated, the liquid expands and rises in the tube. When the bulb is cooled, the mercury (or other liquid) in the tube contracts and the height of the liquid column decreases. The height of the liquid column, measured by a scale on the tube, can therefore be used to measure temperature. (The degrees on a Celsius scale correspond to the degrees on a kinetic scale.)

On a Celsius thermometer, the temperature scale is based on the fact that the freezing and boiling point of pm water is constant under normal atmospheric pressure. On the Celsius scale, the difference between the freezing and boiling points is divided into 100 equal intervals. Each interval is a degree. The freezing point is labeled zero degrees Celsius (0 C). The melting point at which water boils is labeled 100 C.


The boiling point of a liquid occurs when the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure resting over its surface. Since atmospheric pressure changes at different altitudes, the boiling point changes as well.

Vapor pressure is created by the molecules that vaporize from the surface. As temperature increases, more molecules are vaporized. At the boiling point, vapor pressure is high enough to push aside the atmospheric pressure. Bubbles of vapor form in the interior of the liquid and rise to the surface as they are released.

At sea level water boils at 100 C (212 F). For every 960 feet above sea level, the boiling point of water is decreased 1 C (1.8 F).


Example: The average altitude along the Wasatch Front in Utah is 4500 feet. To calculate the boiling point of water on the Centigrade scale:

4500/960 = 4.7 100 - 4. 7 = 95.3 C

on the Fahrenheit scale:

4.7 x 1.8 = 8.5 212 - 8.5 = 203.5 F

Remember: pressure and temperature affect the boiling point of water.


Water molecules have spontaneous movement. They diffuse or intermingle. This can be seen if you drip food coloring or ink into a clear glass of water. Water will actually let other molecules move among the water molecules so freely that the water carries or transports them. In diffusion, there is no membrane. (Gases and solids also diffuse. For example, light breaks up and is spread out by a prism.)


Water is the medium for transporting the food materials to be used in the body. In a state of solution or suspension, simple sugars, amino acids, fats, minerals, and vitamins are passed through the intestinal walls and are then carried to the cells by blood and lymph, the two most fluid tissues of the body.

Osmosis occurs where a semipermeable membrane (a membrane which water can pass though but some other particles cannot) separates two bodies of fluid. In plant and animal cell membranes, they are semi permeable. In the body, the particles which cannot pass through are called ions and the membrane that the water passes through is the cell wall. As long as the number of particles or the concentration of ions in both of the cell compartments remains equal, osmosis helps to maintain that equalized state in each compartment. If particles are added to a compartment, then the concentration of the ions is increased.

Because particles cannot easily pass through these membranes, water shifts from the compartment of low concentration to the compartment of high concentration. (It always shifts from high to low concentration.) This same thing can occur in the cell walls of plants and animals which humans consume as foods.


Water may be soft or hard, depending on mineral content, and the degree of water purity has an effect on foods processed or prepared in it.

Natural soft water may contain some organic matter but no mineral salts.
Artificially softened water is produced when calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are replaced by sodium (Na).
Temporary hard water contains bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. These salts are changed to insoluble salts when water is boiled and they are deposited as crust on the inside of cooking utensils.
Permanent hard water contains salts which form insoluble precipitates such as calcium, iron, and magnesium. Sulfates of magnesium, chloride, and calcium cannot be removed by boiling.
Distilled water has most of the chemical impurities removed by boiling the water and condensing the steam which is collected again as water.

1. Hard water is usually alkaline and may have a significant influence on the color and texture of cooked vegetables (giving a slightly yellow color in boiled white vegetables), and it can prolong cooking time for some vegetables, owing to reactions of pectic substances with the salts in hard water.

Even though soft water is generally free of insoluble salts and is preferred for food preparation, hard water is considered beneficial from a health standpoint. Hard water causes cloudiness in tea and coffee and other beverages.

2. Divalent ions such as Ca +2 and Mg +2 may react with pectic substances in plant material and alter its texture.

3. Magnesium (Mg) influences the absorption and extendibility and viscosity of dough.


Water effects the appearance, texture, and flavor of foods. All living substances contain water and this applies to foods of both plant and animal origins. Water is also an important cleansing agent not just for the body but also for foods and cooking utensils. Water is also the medium form in which changes in foods take place when cooked.

Water is used to make many items which humans eat and drink: cocoa, variety of teas, soup, oatmeal and other hot cereals, puddings, Jello, lemonade and other punches, etc. In addition, water is used to cook many of the foods we eat: pasta, vegetables, etc. Water is not only an essential constituent of food, but also serves important functions in food preparation:

As a solvent. It dissolves a greater variety of substances than any other solvent. It distributes flavor, color, and nutrient components throughout food which influences the palatability, color, and nutrient value of food. However, too much water in the cooking process can destroy or lose water-soluble nutrients.
As dispersing medium of food components. Particles of starch and protein are dispersed throughout the water medium allowing for the formation of starch gel.
As a medium in which chemical changes occur. Leavening agents such as soda and acid ingredients

As far a human cells are concerned, there are three types of solutions:

Isotonic - solute concentrations are the same on either side of the cell.
Hypotonic - a solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of solute than there is solution inside the cell.
Hypertonic - the solution outside the cell has a higher concentration of solute than the solution inside.
Water is a medium in which to disperse the many components found in foods. For some components, water acts as a solvent. A solvent is the liquid in which the solute is dissolved. For example, water (a solvent) will dissolve substances such as salt, sugar, and water-soluble vitamins and minerals (any of which would be the solute).

Solutions are also ionic or molecular. These two types are categorized by their molecular structures. One example is a crystal of table salt which is made up of sodium and chloride. The sodium ion donates on electron from its outer shell to a chloride ion which lacks an electron in its outer shell. Two oppositely charged ions are the result of the swapping. These two ions are bonded together by an electrostatic force. When the salt crystals are placed in water, the polar water molecules reduce the attraction between the chloride and the sodium and pulls them apart. This happens because the ions become hydrated. both acids and bases ionize in water which is why baking powder reacts, giving off gas to leaven quick breads.

Another example of ionic or molecular solutions is seen in the attraction between molecules of water when heated. Heat actually gives water molecules the energy they need to attract other molecules. The solubility of substances increase in temperature of the water. Sugar and other substances are, therefore, more soluble in hot water than in cold.


Saturation occurs when no more solute can be dissolved in a solution. For example, this occurs often when making candies. As mentioned, the greater an increase in temperature of water, the greater the solubility of the water. High solubility of sugar in water is an advantage for frostings, candies, and confections. One problem, however, is that substances will absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which makes the candy become sticky and soft. This is why candy made on a sunny can turn out totally different from candy made on a rainy day when the same recipe is used.

If a lump of sugar is dropped into a beaker of water, it gradually disappears. The sugar is said to dissolve in the water. Careful examination of a drop of this water under a microscope does not reveal the dissolved sugar. If more sugar is added, it also dissolves. However, if this process of adding sugar is continued, a point at which no additional sugar dissolves is finally reached. (saturation)

The sweet taste of the liquid indicates that the sugar is present in the water. The molecules of sugar have become uniformly distributed among the molecules of water; some degree of sweetness is detected in all parts of the liquid. The mixture of sugar in water is homogeneous throughout. It is an example of a solution.

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, the composition of which can be varied within characteristic limits. The dissolving medium is called the solvent; the substance dissolved is called the solute. The simplest solution consists of molecules of a single solute distributed throughout a single solvent. In the example of the sugar-water solution, sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.

The rate at which a solid dissolves in a liquid depends on the solid and liquid involved. As a rule, the more nearly the solute and the solvent are alike in structure, the more readily solution occurs. However, the rate of solution of a solid in a liquid can be increased in three ways.

1. By stirring. The diffusion of solute molecules throughout the solvent occurs rather slowly. Stirring or shaking the mixture aids in the dispersion of the solute particles. It does so by bringing fresh portions of the solvent in contact with the undissolved solid.

2. By powdering the solid. Solution action occurs only at the surface of the solid. By grinding the solid into a fine powder, the surface area is greatly increased. Hence, finely powdered solids dissolve much more rapidly than large lumps or crystal of the same substance.

3. By heating the solvent. The rate of dissolving increases with the rise of temperature. If heat is applied to a solvent, the molecular activity increases. As a result, the dissolving action is speeded up.


(Select the link "Polarity") Read the information presented about The Biology Project, an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona.

Domestic Water Use: WORLDMAPPER

(Select the link "Domestic Water Use") Open PDF Poster and discover the High and Low Domestic Water Use rankings for the countries listed. Learn about which countries are the highest and lowest users of domestic water. Read through the PDF document.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 5.

06.05 Water links (FoodSci)

Open PDF Poster and discover the High and Low Domestic Water Use rankings for the countries listed.

06.05.01 Lab: Potatoes and Water (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 5: Water

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.
There are two parts to this assignment. Complete the experiment and then document your findings and submit them in the submission area of this class.

PART I: Follow the directions below.
1. Take two potatoes and cut them into about 1/4" slices.
2. Split the potatoes into two equal piles. and place each pile in a bowl big enough that the potatoes are completely in the bowl.
3. Label the bowls "plain water" and "salt water."
4. Fill both of the dishes with water.
5. In one of the bowls add about two tablespoons of salt and mix until the salt dissolves.
6. Place one pile of potatoes in a the salt water bowl and one pile of potatoes in the plain water bowl.
7. Let the potatoes sit for 30 minutes.
8. A bowl big enough that the potatoes are completely in the bowl.
9. Compare the differences between the potatoes in each bowl.
10. Document your findings.

INSTRUCTIONS: Read the following summary and then answer the questions on PART 2 below.


(Source: Deathwatch, Robb White, Dell Publishing Co., 1972, pp.44-106.)

DEATHWATCH is a novel about a young man named Ben who struggles to stay alive against great opposition. "Medec was not the kind of man Ben would ordinarily have chosen as a companion for a quiet hunting trip. The only time Madec ever laughed was when he told some story about how smart he was. He was a cold man who liked to hurt things, and he was dangerous with a gun, but Ben needed money to pay for another semester of college, so when Medec offered to hire him as a guide to hunt bighorn sheep in the desert mountains, he agreed. It was a mistake that very nearly cost Ben his life.

As they started to hunt, Madec would shoot at anything that moved. He desperately wanted a big ram he could mount in his office and tell everyone about. 'You may not know this,' Madec said, 'but the chances of getting a permit to kill a bighorn are about one in a million.' As they hunted Madec tried to talk Ben into leading him to as many bighorns as he could so he could shoot them all and then pick the best one to take home with him. Before long, Madec spotted some sheep on the ridge. Taking aim he shot. He tried to convince Ben to stay at the Jeep as he went to see what he had shot. Ben knew he wanted to see what shape the horns were in so he could be selective. Ben ignored Madec and followed him. Madec was coming down the mountain saying he missed when Ben saw the dead body. Madec had shot an old prospector by mistake. When Ben returned from the Jeep with a blanket to take the body off the mountain, Madec had turned into even more of a mad man.

Medec shot two holes in the prospector's body with Ben's gun and told him he was going to make it seem like he had killed the old man. He made Ben strip down to his shorts and turned him loose in the desert. Madec then began to hunt Ben instead of bighorn sheep.

With no water, Ben's body could stand this beat for only two days; probably less than that since he had no clothing to protect him and contain his sweat. If he could find a catch basin somewhere in these hills and could squeeze as much as a quart of water out of the sand, it would do him no good at all. A quart of water would not add even an hour to the forty-eight hours he could hope to live. To survive here for as long as two and a half days would require that he find a full gallon of water. To make it for three days, he would have to have more than two gallons of water. Four days-five gallons. And he didn't even have two full days. He had already used up eight of his forty-eight hours, for he had not had a drink of water since before they started stalking bighorn.

Ben found the prospector's camp but Madec had found it first. The next day, he saw a small water basin off the side of a cliff. He jumped up and ran to get there but Mad Man Madec started shooting at him. One bullet cut open the side of his eye. Finally giving up he rolled over on his back and sat up, waving his arms around. Then he pushed himself up to his feet. Ben made a helpless gesture with his arms and turned away from the basin.

Two days had passed and Ben was close to death. In his mouth and throat he could feel death as a strange, unwettable dryness which his saliva could not diminish. He could feel it in the swelling of his tongue which had started back in his throat and seemed about to choke him with its dry mass. Twenty more hours? or was it nineteen now? As Ben walked, he began to recognize he was approaching the last stages of thirst; he was weak from it and spells of dizziness were coming faster. The flesh of his tongue was peeling off and, of all the pains of his body, he was most aware of the aching of his lips.

The first symptoms of severe thirst had come during the time he was running. He had felt then that sudden loss of strength, a lassitude that made him think that he could not possibly raise his foot and swing it forward and put it down again. Even running, and knowing that his life depended on his running, he had felt a desire to sleep-to sleep as he ran, to sleep anywhere, anyhow.

Ben knew what the next symptoms would be. Toward the end after the lassitude and sleepiness and odd lack of hunger, a man dying of thirst begins to get dizzy. He vomits and his head aches. He aches all over. Finally the intolerable itching begins, an itching which affects every inch of his skin and does not stop until he dies. During this time, a man is tortured with hallucinations; he sees water within reach and knows that it is there and he will, as many men have, scoop up dry sand with his hand and try to drink it.

Ben hoped he could endure the physical symptoms, but he was afraid of the hallucinations; afraid that he would not recognize them when they came, afraid that there was no way he could stop them. He was a pitiful sight as he worked his way up the side of the mountain.

It was pure, raw rage that at last swept him upward, rolling, sobbing, grabbing with knees and legs and skin and toes. If he did not go, Madec could sit in the Jeep cracking walnuts on the steering-wheel spokes and watch him die.

A curious thing has been noticed about people who are dying of thirst. The dehydration of their bodies is so extreme and the loss of salt so serious that the consistency of their blood changes radically. Sweating eventually ceases and the mucous membranes, usually moist and full of fluid, dry up and peel off. There is no saliva in their mouths or throats, and even the corners of their eyes, always flowing with moisture in normal time, become so dry that any speck of dust in their eyes causes excruciating pain. And yet, if these people are rescued before they die, even people in the last moments of life and completely dehydrated, they almost always cry.

Ben worked his body upward, and at last rolled over into the darkness of the narrow corridor. Ben crawled on toward where light showed a slight bend in the tunnel. The floor began to slope downward and was very smooth, the stones almost gleaming in the subdued light coming from the far end.

He got around the bend slowly. And there lay the lake. A lake of dark, sparkling clear water, held there by the stones.

Lying on his stomach, Ben had drunk as much as he could. It was as though he had actually felt this water flowing straight though the walls of his intestines and being taken up by his blood and distributed through his body. He had drunk once more and was asleep almost before he rolled away from the puddle.

When Ben awoke, his tongue had shrunk to its normal size, his throat, though raw, felt good. His eyes were wet again and he felt strength in his body. He was hungry. Since the first night on the low range of mountains, he had not felt particularly hungry and, in the last hours, had felt no hunger at all. But now his stomach was gnawing at him.

He started to look around and for the first time in hours Ben thought of his enemy. Madec was still waiting out there somewhere...


INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the experiment, answer the following questions.

1. What are the characteristics of the "salt water" potatoes? ______________________________________________________







2. What are the characteristics of the "plain water" potatoes?








3. What scientific process involving water occurred to create the differences in the potatoes?














INSTRUCTIONS: After reading the summary from Death Watch, answer the following questions.

1. What are the roles of water in the maintenance of body functions? (Describe as many as you can).












2. What changes occurred in Ben's body when his body became dehydrated? (List as many as you can).













07.00 Basic Food Science Principles (FoodSci)

This unit will discover the role of acids and bases and explain processes associated with milk protein and cheese.

07.01 pH - Acids and Bases (FoodSci)

Unit 7.1: pH-Acids and Bases

The pH scale is a numerical scale between 0 to 14 in which acidity is expressed and is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The word acid comes from the the Latin term which means sour. What do you think of when you hear lemon, pickles, or vinegar? These are all acids. Acids can change the color of some foods or flowers. When eaten, bases taste bitter or salty. Some cleaning agents are bases such as a bar of soap and another example is table salt. Physically, a base is slippery.

A strong acid has many hydrogen ions present. To make the acid weaker, hydroxide ions are added. As the number hydroxid ions and hydrogen ions equalize neutralization occurs in which the acid has reacted to the hydroxide ions from the base and water is produced. This is a neutral situation. If something has a value of 7.0 on the pH scale, this indicates it is a neutral solution like water.

The pH of a soluction can be measured in different ways. There are special meters used and also dip papers which are dipped into the solution and thenwhen the paper dries, the color is compared to a scale to determine the pH value. The papers aren't as exact as meters.

Scientist measure the concentration, the amount of a substance in a specific amount of volume, using moles. This is the easiest means for expressing the concentration of a solution. The amount of molarity or number of moles of solute per liter of solution is often used by scientist or chemists to state the concentration of a solution. Molarity is determined by the number of moles of solute divided by the volume of a solution.

Titration is often used to determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution. To accomplish this, an indicator is added to the solution to determine the pH. A measured amount of a basic solution of a predetermined concentration is added. The indicator will change colors when the two solutions mix and neutralize each other. By determining the point at which neutrilzation occurs, scientists and chemists can calculate the acidic concentration of the solution.

(Select the link "pH in Foods")

Facts about pH

1. Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity which proves it has few ions (free electrons). An ion is an atom or a group of atoms that carries a positive or a negative charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. A free electron or other subatomic-charged particle is also referred to as an ion.
2. Pure water can be used to measure the ions or pH of a substance dissolved in the water. Please note that some substances do not dissolve completely, others do.
3. An acid can be defined as any water-soluble and sour compound capable of reacting with a base to form salts that are hydrogen-containing molecules that will give up a proton to the base and accept an unshared pair of electrons from that base.
4. A base is fundamentals foundation or a main ingredient. It is the starting place and acts upon the acid. A base is the compound that reacts with the acid to form a salt because the molecules (ions) are able to take a proton from the acid and share a pair of electrons with the acid. (A salt consists of positive ions from a base and negative ions from an acid.)
5. The pH scale can be used to measure acidity or basicity of any water solution by measuring the ion concentration which is expressed as the concentration of H3O+ (hydronium ions) in powers of 10, from 10-14 to 10. (Hydronium is a hydrated hydrogen ion. A regular hydrogen ion in water is expressed as 1420.)
6. For example, a substance can measure 10-9, which is expressed as -9. By eliminating the because the scale is logarithmic, we say the pH of the substance is 9.
7. The pH scale is shown graphically as:

acid ------- neutral ------ base
0 ----------- 7 --------- 14

8. Pure water has a pH of 7. It is neutral.
9. As the hydronium ion increases as a neutral solution, it is more acidic. The pH goes from 7 toward 0.
10. If the pH solution falls between 7 and 14, the solution is basic.
11. A small strip of pH paper (litmus paper) dipped in a solution will test (through the visible change of color) the pH of most substances.
NOTE: In foods, acids and bases give distinctive tastes. Acids are sour (lemon juice, vinegar). Bases are salt (sodium chloride or table salt).

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 1.

07.01 pH - Acids and Bases links (FoodSci)

07.01.01 Lab: Changing ph (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 1: pH-Acids and Bases

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment. There are two parts to this assignment.

Take 9 cups and label them 1-9. In each of the cups pour the following:

1. Pour 1 Tbs. of lemon juice in a paper cup.
2. Pour 1 Tbs. of Gatorade in a paper cup.
3. Pour 1 Tbs. of water in a paper cup.
4. Pour 1 Tbs. of water with 1 tsp. of baking soda added and stirred in a paper cup.
5. Pour 1 Tbs. of window cleaner in a paper cup.
6. Pour 1 Tbs. of vinegar in a paper cup.
7. Pour 1 Tbs. of grapejuice in a paper cup.
8. Pour 1 Tbs. of water with 1 tsp. of table salt added and stirred in a paper cup.
9. Pour 1 Tbs. of grape juice in a cup
Take some concord grape juice and add 1 tsp. to each of the cups. Document your findings on the following page and explain at the bottom what is happening. The 9th cup will be your indicator to make your comparisons to the other samples.


INSTRUCTIONS: Perform the experiment from above and document your findings.

Sample Description
Color of Liquid

Mark what the sample is after the test:

Sample #1:
Lemon Juice

Sample #2:

Sample #3:

Sample #4:
Baking Soda/Water

Sample #5:
Window Cleaner

Sample #6:

Sample #7:
Grape Juice

Sample #8:
Salt Water


After completing the experiment, explain in a paragraph or two what happened and why.




















07.02 Coagulation and Coalescence (FoodSci)

Unit 7.2: Coagulation and Coalescence

Open the attachment "Milk" and print the illustrations to refer to as you go through the unit.


(Resources: Food Science and You, and The Epicurean Laboratory.)

Milk is an excellent source of protein. Because proteins have a large molecular structure, they do not dissolve in water. The proteins in milk are a colloidal dispersion. Colloidal dispersions are explained in the egg unit. There are two kinds of milk proteins: casein and whey or serum. Casein are approximately 80% of the milk proteins, and whey or serum proteins make up the other 20%.

The casein proteins in milk are combined with some of the minerals in milk and form micelles. Micelles are groups of molecules; the micelles in milk form a colloidal dispersion.

The light reflected from the micelles makes the milk white. Casein proteins are coagulated by acids. If an acid is added to milk, the casein proteins separate from the rest of the liquid and the milk curdles. Casein proteins are not effected very much by heat, however.

Casein proteins in milk cluster together and work like tiny sponges to hold water in the milk.
They can contain and hold as much as 70% water in each protein cluster.
Refer to the printout and take note of the CASEIN PROTEIN CLUSTER.
Acids, salt, or high heat will cause the casein protein clusters to lose water.
The serum proteins, also called whey, are in colloidal dispersion in the water content of milk and are coagulated by heat, but acids and salt do not coagulate them. This is important in making yogurt and cheese. Commercially, the coagulation of milk to make cheese is accomplished with the use of rennin-an enzyme which has the capability to disable the stabilizing subunit of casein causing the normally separate casein micelles to clump together in the presence of dissolved calcium. Rennet (the commercial name for the enzyme rennin) has the power to join things that are dispersed and to disperse things that come together.

Milk is also a source of fat. Fat globules float in the water contained in milk. There are many different types of fat in milk. The fat in milk tends to be low in cholesterol. Higher levels of butter fat in milk usually mean higher prices for the milk product. As fresh milk sets, the fat droplets cluster together; eventually, the clusters get large enough that their lower density lets them float to the top. The milk seperates. To stop this from happening, most milk sold commercially is homogenized. When milk is homogenized, it is forced through very small holes under pressure. The fat globules are made small enough so they stay dispersed or separated in the milk so they do not cluster together.

Milk also contains some carbohydrate in the form of natural sugar. The sugar in milk is called lactose. It is a type of sugar found only in milk. Lactose gives milk a slightly sweet flavor. When milk is digested a special enzyme produced in the cells of the body burns the calories provided by lactose. This releases energy. Some people can not drink fresh milk because they are unable to digest the lactose in the milk. They lack the enzyme lactase in their digestive system. Without lactase, the lactose is not split into glucose and galactose so it can be absorbed in the body and burned for energy. As the lactose ferments in the digestive tract, it gives off gas and a variety of acids. (Lactose intolerant people lack lactose - the enzyme that lets the body use the energy in lactose). Lactose caramelizes when the milk is heated and turns the milk a tarnish color.

Milk is an excellent source of a variety of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and magnesium help keep the micelles in milk stable. Calcium helps strengthen bones and teeth. Milk is a good source of riboflavin, which is a vitamin that can be destroyed by light, so milk should be stored in light-proof containers. The butter fat in milk contains vitamin A. Many milk products are fortified with vitamin D.

Fresh milk is categorized by the amount of butter fat in it. The butter fat level is determined by federal standards. Skim milk has had all the fat removed. One percent milk is 1% butter fat, and two percent milk is 2% butter fat. Whole milk must contain at least 3.5% butter fat. As the fat is removed, milk appears more translucent because light does not have as many fat particles to reflect off. It is light reflecting off the fat that makes milk appear white. Refer to the printout and take note of the MILK DIAGRAM which illustrates the percentages of different components within milk.

Milk is marketed in other forms besides fresh:

Evaporated milk has been heated under a small amount of pressure until 60% of the water evaporates. Carrageenin (a vegetable gum) is added to the milk before it is processed to stabilize the casein proteins.
Condensed milk has 50% of the water removed and sugar added. Sugar is added so that it is 44% of the final product. The sugar content is high enough to inhibit bacterial growth in the condensed milk.
Dried milk or powdered milk is made by removing all the water from fresh milk.
There are several fermented milk products. Buttermilk, sour cream, and yogurt are made by adding a bacteria to fresh milk and allowing it to ferment for a period of time.
Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk is flash-heated at higher temperatures than regular pasteurized milk; then it is flash-cooled, destroying additional bacteria and allowing longer shelf life. In addition, the processing plant seals the UHT milk (sometimes called parmalet milk) in several layers of aseptic packaging: polyethylene, paper, aluminum foil with a polyethylene lining. (This is the same packaging used for egg substitutes such as Egg Beaters, pancake mixes, some juices, and chopped tomatoes). Once opened, UHT milk keeps in a refrigerator for at least 10 days. It does taste a little sweeter than the milk most Americans are used to drinking. It has been used in Europe and Asian countries since the 1960s. UHT milk also comes in low-fat and chocolate versions.


A foam is a mixture made by whipping or beating a liquid to trap air bubbles in it. The amount of fat in the milk has an effect on the stability of the foam. The higher the fat content, the more stable the foam. The viscosity, or thickness, of the cream increases in direct proportion to the amount of butter fat. Temperature also affects the viscosity of cream. The viscosity of cream increases as the temperature of the cream decreases. The more viscose the cream is when being beaten, the better the foam will be. The amount of cream being whipped also affects the formation of the foam. Smaller amounts produce more stable foams. Sugar makes the foam less stiff and smaller in volume. It also makes it take longer to form a foam when sugar is added too early. The rule of thumb is: produce foam then add sugar.


Cooking effects both types of milk proteins (casein and serum). When cooking with milk, one needs to be careful so that the milk does not scorch or curdle. Remember that the serum (whey) proteins are denatured by heat. These solid substances precipitate out of the milk solution. These serum (whey) proteins settle to the bottom of the pan and scorch easily. Because this happens when milk is heated at too high a temperature, milk must be cooked on low heat or in a double boiler which keeps the temperature in the top container below the boiling point of water.

Another problem when cooking milk is that a skin often forms over the top of the cooked milk. The casein and serum (whey) proteins clump together on the surface as the water in the milk evaporates when heated. Pulling the skin off the top of heated milk will remove nutrients that are in the skin. The skin on the top of the cooked milk can hold in steam and increase the chance that the milk will boil over while cooking. Creating a foamy surface reduces the chance that the skin will trap steam and the milk boil over. Stirring constantly will reduce skin formation. Adding fat also reduces skin formation, and covering the cooking pot keeps the surface from losing water (drying out) and forming the skin.

The third problem when milk is heated is curdling. Using high heat increases the chance that the casein proteins will curdle. A low pH increases curdling also. This happens because the calcium and magnesium ions which make the casein micelles in milk more stable are removed from the casein micelles when an acid is added to milk. When salt is added to hot milk, curdling is increased.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 2.

07.02.01 Lab: Making Yogurt (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 2: Coagulation and Coalescence

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment. There are two parts to this assignment.

Part I: Make and analyze yogurt.

Bacteria must get food from their surroundings. They can use many substances as food. In yogurt, the bacteria use lactose (the sugar found in milk) as food. They feed on lactose and give off lactic acid as waste product. This gives the yogurt its characteristic sour taste and helps to thicken the product. Yogurt is simple to make. Variation can be made by omitting the non-fat dry milk or by trying the recipe with whole milk or low-fat (2%) milk.

Make the following yogurt recipe and complete the questions on PART 1 regarding the recipe. This recipe is different from the one made with Rennin.

Ingredients needed:
1 quart skim milk
1/2 c. nonfat dry milk
1/4 c. commercial plain yogurt

Equipment needed:
Medium saucepan
Set of measuring cups
Candy thermometer
Glass container to hold one quart liquid
Small bowl
Wooden spoon

Stir together skim milk and nonfat dry milk in a saucepan until dissolved. Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until milk reaches 165 F to 170 F on the thermometer. Heating the milk will kill any potentially harmful bacteria. Cool the milk to 110 F.

Pour about 1/4 cup warm milk into a small bowl and stir in the commercially prepared plain yogurt (which acts as a culture starter) until well-blended. Add this mixture to the warm milk in the saucepan and stir until blended. Pour into the clean glass container and cover. This mixture must be kept warm (90 F to 120 F).

Choose one of the following ways to accomplish this:
-Use a commercial machine specially designed for yogurt-making. This is probably the most reliable way because it will keep the mixture in the correct temperature range. This eliminates the hassle of constantly checking the temperature.
-Wrap the container of yogurt mixture in a towel and set it in front of a heat duct or radiator.
-Place the container in an oven with a pilot light or in a warm oven kept at 100 F.
-Place the container of yogurt mixture into a large bowl of warm water (about 115 F). Check the temperature of the water often, and add hot water as needed.

Let the yogurt culture stand undisturbed for 6 to 12 hours. The yogurt is ready if it moves away from the side of the container in one piece when you tilt it. Refrigerate the finished yogurt to stop the growth of the bacteria; let it chill several hours before eating.

Serve the yogurt plain or mixed with fruit, honey, sugar, or thawed, undiluted orange juice concentrate. But, before adding any flavoring, be sure to reserve 1/4 cup of plain yogurt to start the next batch.

Part II: Make and analyze different whipped milk products.
Whip 1/2 cup of each of the milk products listed. Whip the milk product until it reaches its maximum volume and stiffness. Compare the results in the worksheet below and answer the questions regarding the experiment.

Cold, heavy whipping cream
Light cream
While milk
Heavy whipping cream at room temperature
Cold, heavy whipping cream plus 1/4 c. sugar


INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the yogurt recipe. Have two other people and yourself do sensory tests on the yogurt and then answer the questions.

1. Sensory Tester's Name: __________________________________

Sensory Tester's Phone Number: __________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

2. Sensory Tester's Name: __________________________________

Sensory Tester's Phone Number: __________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

3. Your Name: __________________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

1. What gives yogurt it's characteristic sour taste? ______________


2. Why is the yogurt kept warm for the 6-12 hours? _____________




3. What does refrigeration do to the yogurt after the 6-12 hour waiting period?





INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the milk foam experiment, fill in the information below and answer the questions. 1-low 5=high

Type of milk product

Increase in Volume

Rate Stability

1. Which milk product produced the most stable foam? ______________________________________________________

2. Which milk product increased in volume the most? ___________


3. Explain the differences in volume and stability between the cold, heavy whipping cream and the room temperature whipping cream.







4. Explain the differences in volume and stability between the cold, heavy whipping cream and the cold, heavy whipping cream which had the sugar added.







07.03 Research Project (FoodSci)

Unit 7: Research Project

A big part of food science is the research and development that is done on existing food products and new food products. Society often determines the direction that food research will go. An example of this is when the television was created, the "TV dinner" also was created. We now live in a time where convenience foods that can be prepared rather quickly and easily are commonplace.

A food science background will enable you to prepare, preserve, and evaluate food for nutrition, appearance, and taste. In this unit, you will have the opportunity to practice some procedures used by food scientists. You will also pose questions about food, and then collect facts in a precise way to produce an explanation.

Food scientists make discoveries as they attempt to answer questions and solve problems. These discoveries come about through carefully planned investigations.

The explanation and prediction of what will happen to food under various conditions is the ultimate goal. Home economists and other scientists use the scientific method to carry out their investigations. Review the information found in Unit 1.4: Food testing. If you remember, you were to decide on a project in the first unit and work on it as you finished the course work for this class. Also, here's a brief synopsis of the scientific method.


Observing substances and events is an important aspect of all natural sciences. A good observer uses all five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Collecting data, an important part of observing, can be done by writing a description or using a measurement device, such as a balance beam or a measuring cup. Food scientists conduct experiments in laboratories to control environmental conditions. Before food scientists conduct experiments, they find out as much about the observations others have conducted on the same topic as possible. New experiments can then be planned and carried out to extend existing knowledge. Food scientists then report their findings to others.


Scientists try to analyze and organize the data. In addition, they try to develop general principles that can help to classify the data. The overall goal is to find relationships that enable them to form a hypothesis, a testable statement. With a hypothesis, scientists can set up and predict further experiments.


When predictions can be made, food scientists construct models to show how things work. A model is an explanation in visual, verbal, or mathematical form. It shows relationships among data or events. When a model has been successfully applied, it may become part of a theory. A scientist cannot prove a theory. Theories are used to predict what will happen in new experiments.


Testing takes place in every stage of a scientific investigation. Food scientists try to predict what will happen in the tests based on hypotheses, laws, or theories. All three are constantly open to modification or abandonment based on new information.

It is important to create an environment in which you have reliable controls so that the thing you are testing is the only thing in which there are variences. For example, if you were testing the time to cook something, you would want to use the same stove, burner, and cooking equipment, to eliminate as many possible things that might distort the test.

Often times tests are redone multiple times to ensure that the results are consistant.


(Source: Utah State University Magazine, Spring 1995, article by Dennis Hinkamp, p. 7.)

Long before people were concerned about the fat content of food, Utah State University scientist Dr. Von Mendenhall and his colleagues in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences developed a tasty and visually appealing turkey bacon product. This was in 1975. They also began experimenting with various uses for rabbit meat. The meat was lean, high in protein and rabbits are inexpensive to raise. They ground, cured, and cut the meat into links and thus was born the Hop Dog. However, the public was not ready for such products.

Today, Dr. Mendenhall and his fellow workers spend their time developing various ways to use turkey other than the traditional use of the stuffed turkey at Thanksgiving time. There is turkey bacon, turkey bologna, turkey franks, turkey pastrami, turkey ham, and other varieties. Turkey variety meats generally are lower in fat than the same product produced from the traditional meats of beef and pork.

In their research, the scientists tried to develop simulated shrimp, crab, and lobster but found that, although the meat fibers were similar, the natural seafood flavors and the natural turkey flavors were not comparable.

Additional research to further the fish industry resulted in ways to can a trout product that resembles tuna. This product, if successful, would be a low-fat product. Again, the problem will be with the taste and texture. Fat carries much of the flavor of any food and contributes to the texture people are familiar with in cheese, meat, fish, and milk.

A current project that the Foods and Nutrition Department is working on is mechanically tenderizing low-fat cuts of beef and pork. It isn't difficult to produce a low-fat meat product, but it is difficult to make it tender and juicy. They have developed a machine that massages the cuts of meat in a tumbler and adds moisture to them. The meat is them flash dried at ultra high temperature, has grill marks put on, and is packaged under oxygen-free conditions to preserve the color and flavor. The result is a charcoal-flavored steak that consists of 3 percent rather than 30 percent fat. If the public accepts this product, it may well show up at the fast-food outlets as a low-fat steak sandwich.

The department used the same proms to produce a low-fat Canadian bacon. This, combined with no-fat mozzarella cheese developed by the department, would make a low-fat pizza. Convenience and snack foods are other products being developed by the USU Science Department. Beef jerky combined with vegetables placed on a skewer stick and freeze-dried can form a Stew-on-a-Stick.

The department, along with similar departments at many other universities, continues to lead the way into futuristic food research. They developed the first fluid milk in a special packaging for the NASA Space Station project. Scientists at Brigham Young University developed other astronaut foods, such as Tang. Someday, they may develop the type of food fictitiously shown on such space shows as Star Trek.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 3.

07.03.01 Research Project (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 60 points possible 180 minutes

Unit 7-Asisgnment 3: Research Project

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

This assignment might need to be submitted differently than the rest of the assignments you have sent in this far depending on what you chose to do at the beginning of the class. If your research project is not conducive to sending it through the submission tool in the class, then send it the most efficient way you can find.

You were prompted in Unit 1 of this class about this project and were to choose a research project topic. Hopefully you have been considering some ideas and possibly working on your project as you have gone through the rest of the units. If not, it's time to get started. This project needs to be considered very seriously because it is worth more than the other assignments. I realize that you will take a lot of time and effort in making your project. There are lots of web sites on the Internet that have to do with science projects that you might want to search and explore. I'm going to allow you to determine how you want to submit your project to me depending on how you choose to present your project. If you submit by postal mail, realize that you won't get it back.

At the beginning of this assignment, you need to include the following information:

Your name
Introduction to the project
How you used the "scientific method" on your project
Analysis of your project
What you learned from the project

There are also many options you could use to present your project:
computer created paper with digital photos
PowerPoint slide show

These are just a few and you could do one or a combination of these options or another method you feel would cover the material and be appealing. Be creative and thorough. Make sure you use the scientific method for your project. Good luck.

07.04 Food Science Careers (FoodSci)

Unit 7.4: Food Science Careers

There are hundreds and hundreds of careers that relate to food science. We all need food and eat food. This creates lots of jobs. In this lesson you will have the chance to explore lots of careers and determine one that you might have an interest. Anything that deals with production, processing, preparation, and evaluation of food. It's a part of every day life and so we are all exposed to these careers.

Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 4.

07.04.01 Career Research (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 4: Food Science Career

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

You've learned about lots of different topics in food science as you have gone through the units in this class. All of these concepts relate to different careers in food science. Your last assignment has 3 parts. First to explore 10 different careers. Second is to choose one to focus on and submit it to me as a resume. Third, to do a Geospatial activity about culinary arts programs.

Submit it along with a list of the 10 careers you explored and your geospatial activity.

Part 1: List 10 food science careers you explored and circle the one you chose to write your resume about. Attach your resume to the list and get them both to me.

REMEMBER to complete the unit 8 assignment when you have completed all the assignments so that I can post your grade and credit.

1. __________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________

5. __________________________________________________

6. __________________________________________________

7. __________________________________________________

8. __________________________________________________

9. __________________________________________________

10. ________________________________________________

Part 2: Resume about a Foods Career
In the resume you are to pose as a person that has worked in that food science career for 10 years. You will create a resume giving me background information for a person in that field and you may want to include things such as education needed for this career, possible work experience a person would have in this career, special skills, abilities, hobbies, etc. that a person might have for this career.

Treat this as though you were going for a new position in which you would get a substantial raise if you get the job. Your resume is going to be the first impression that the potential employer is going to have of you. Make it professional, concise, and eye-catching.

Part 3: Geospatial Activity about 2 Culinary Arts Programs

DIRECTIONS: Use Google Earth to locate 2 culinary Arts Programs. If you do not have Google Earth loaded onto your computer, go to the URLs for this lesson and load Google Earth.

In the search box of Google Earth type in Culinary Arts Programs
Click on the magnifying glass to start the search.
Click on the links for the culinary arts program you are interested in which then Google Earth will fly you to that program's location.
A pop-up placemark will appear.
Click on the website link above "your rating".
The Culinary Arts Program website will open.
Explore some of the programs and then write 1-2 paragraphs about 2 of the programs. You should end up with 2-4 paragraphs total for the entire geopatial activity.
Go back to the list of Culinary Arts Program on the left and choose one more

You may want to create this in a word document then copy and paste the information for all 3 parts of the assignment into the submission tool in the TOPIC OUTLINE area #3.

07.04.02 Unit 6 and 7 Test (FoodSci)

computer-scored 115 points possible 45 minutes

Unit 6 & 7 Test: Nutrients and Food Science Principles
This test will cover the information from Units 6 & 7. You will have 45 minutes to take the test once you begin. Below you will find a final review in Word or PDF format. Feel free to open these and review all the information presented. This will be a great way for you to prepare for the test. Good luck.