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Food & Science (exp)

00.00 Introduction to this Class (Food and Science)

As you work through the course, if something doesn't work correctly, feel free to contact the teacher.

There are two quarters for this class. Each of the quarters in this class is worth .25 credits. Upon completion of all requirements in both quarters, you will earn .5 elective credits. The first quarter will cover units 1-4 and is worth .25 credit. The second quarter will cover units 5-7 and is worth .25 credit. I suggest that you refer back to this page often for it will answer many of the questions that students have had as they begin and work through the course. Assignments are submitted online.

After registering for the course and you are ready to begin, go through the materials presented in Topic 1 and Topic 2 then click on Unit 01 in Topic 2 and go through the unit 1 course content. This will give you lesson information and websites to use and the instructions to complete your assignments. There may be websites or other resources available here also to help you learn the materials.

It is critical that you submit an assignment to me at least every 30 days or you will automatically be deleted from the class. I need to stress that this happens automatically, meaning... I don't do it. It will just happen if you are not actively involved in finishing the class. If you are deleted from the roll for inactivity, you will have to re-register and resubmit any work that you did.

Remember that if you ever have questions or don't understand, feel free to email me. I'll do my best to help you understand. I will get back to you as soon as possible. Also make sure that you submit an assignment at least every four weeks otherwise, the system will automatically delete you from my rolls.

Once you have covered the course content in Topic 2 for a specific lesson in a unit then read the instructions and complete the assignment in a word document. Save this to your computer so that you always have a backup. To submit the assignment to me, click on the assignment button in Topic 3. Each assignment will give you specific, detailed information on what you are to do.

You will have a quiz/test for each of the units. Be thorough in your reading/viewing of the content presented and of the information from the websites so that you are prepared to take the quiz/test. The test and quiz information comes from the course materials and assignments. You have ONE ATTEMPT for each test.

Study beforehand because there are NO RETAKES!!! You will have a set amount of time to take the quiz/test. I suggest that as you go through a unit, you may want to take some notes as you read through the information.

Once you go into the test on the computer you must complete the quiz/test at that time. If you go out of the quiz/test, it will lock it up.

There is a final comprehensive test that is given by a proctor (another person) at the end of all of the assignments and tests. Once you have completed all your work, you will be given the information you need to send to start the process of taking your proctored final. I will check to see if you have completed all of your course work and tests/quizzes. If all is completed, I submit this information to the proctor manager. You will then need to go to Topic 4 and click on "Arranging to Take my Proctored Final Test" and follow the instructions there. Study really well for this because you have to pass this exam with at least a D or 60% or you WILL NOT receive credit for the ENTIRE course. There are NO RETAKES!!!

The final test will represent 25 percent of your grade so you want to do really well. Review and study well for it.

Make sure that you keep a copy of all of the assignments you submit in the event of a computer "hiccup" which might cause information to be lost. It is your responsibility to have backups/copies of everything that you submit. Assignments will be submitted online.

There will be some food experiences throughout the class, so you will need access to a kitchen and the ingredients to make the foods required. You may need access to a digital or traditional camera. Some of the labs that you will complete may need pictorial confirmation that you actually completed the lab. These can be submitted digitally (over the computer if you know how to do this) or through the regular postal service.

If you need the credit for this course for graduation, keep in mind that you must have ALL of your work submitted to me by April 15th so that I have time to receive it, grade it, and get your information to the proctor manager. This will allow you enough time to arrange for your final proctored exam. I will continue to grade things after April 15th, but there is no guarantee that things will be processed in time for graduation.

If I have any messages that I need to send, I will send a message to all class members.

Class Objective:
To expose High School students to the area of Food and Nutrition and how foods serve a direct purpose in good nutrition and good health.

This course is designed for students who are interested in the scientific principles involved in nutrition and food science. Attention will be given to selection and preparation of food and personal health and well-being.

Grading Policies:
Grades are earned on a point system. The accumulation of points given will determine the final grade. Grades will be figured from the total possible points at the end of the class. They will be calculated as percents and follow this breakdown. Students are expected to do their own work. Cheating or plagiarism is not tolerated.

To Figure your grade:
Add up all of the points that you have earned. Add up all of the points possible. Divide the points you have earned by the points possible and this will give you a percentage. Compare the percentage with the chart below to determine what grade you have earned.

100.00 % - 93.00 % A
92.99 % - 90.00 % A-
89.99 % - 87.00 % B+
86.99 % - 83.00 % B
82.99 % - 80.00 % B-
79.99 % - 77.00 % C+
76.99 % - 73.00 % C
72.99 % - 70.00 % C-
69.99 % - 67.00 % D+
66.99 % - 60.00 % D
59.99 % - 0.00 % F

Well, I'm excited to get started, so to do this, click on the first Unit in Topic 2 section.

00.01.01 Student Software Needs


Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.


01.00 The Basics (FoodSci)

In this unit you will learn some of the basics of kitchen and food safety, proper kitchen or lab management, and review the basic nutrients. You will explore the scientific method and how measuring, reliability, etc. are very important and also a brief exposure to food physics.

01.01 Food Science Intro and Review (FoodSci)

Welcome to class!

We will be covering some basics in this unit. First you will gain an understanding of Food Science. You will usually read the informaion in the course materials and then have an assignment covering that information. There will be a few quizzes/tests along the way. You might want to take notes as you go along to be prepared for the tests. Good luck!!!

Food Science

What Is Food Science? - A study of food science crosses many branches of science: biology, botany, zoology, physiology, chemistry, bacteriology, physics, and others. Organic chemistry and physics are two that are used extensively in studying food. If you have wondered why a foods, texture, flavor, or appearance is the way it is you were asking a food physics or food chemistry question. Foods are complex chemical substances. Food science is the study of the chemical composition and structure of food and changes that take place with varying procedures.

Imagine your life without all of the convenience foods that were developed and created using food science. Pringle's potato chips are an interesting example. Getting each Pringle's potato chip the same shape took technology and engineering. Food Science was used to develop frozen microwaveable pizza and Tang was invented by NASA scientists.

Food scientists continually discover innovative ways to preserve food so that it is nutritious and safe to eat. Many foods we frequently enjoy were produced through food science. For example, an apple or orange from a vending machine has been in a controlled atmosphere made possible through food science. Many foods that used to be packaged in cans now stay fresh in aseptic packaging; i.e., pudding, juice, and milk. Some other food processes that food scientists have developed include such things as freeze-drying, flash-freezing, irradiation, dehydration, and the benefits of food additives.

Food science discoveries provide many benefits. A great challenge is to provide safe food that everyone can afford. An ever-present challenge of food science is to feed and keep healthy an expanding world population. To effectively evaluate and confront these challenges and the many other scientific discoveries in our world, people within our society need a greater understanding of science than ever before.

Five Areas of Food Science

In the area of food production, scientists have done a variety of things ranging from soil improvement to changes in growing environment and fertilization to improve the end product. Many modern-day scientists are working on the actual genetics of microorganisms, animals, and plants. Many plants and animals have gone through genetic changes as people tried to improve their yields. Often times this would cause a genetic change over time. Scientists are now using biotechnology to actually change the genetic makeup of a product to speed the process up which would take many growth cycles or generations to see a change. By changing a gene they can alter an outcome relatively quickly.

Food processing focuses on taking the food from the farm to the point of being able to market it. This is where things such as packaging, preservation, and quality control are accomplished. It is critical that food be safe for consumption once it reaches the consumer. Often times this means it has to go through some type a process to ensure that it is safe. For some foods, it might mean canning, freezing, drying, or many other processes. All of the steps along the way are monitored to meet government standards and insure safe end-products. Packaging also becomes a big concern and food labels have become standardized to help consumers better understand what the food product contains. This will be studied in more detail later in this class.

Many of us take it for granted that we can pull a ready-made casserole or even ice cream from the freezer, and yet, foods go through a lot of research and development in the processing stage to help in the preparation stage. In food preparation, studies have to be done over and over to insure that the consumer will end up with a comparable product as was achieved in the research lab. Directions on packages have to be clear and easy to read.

Just walking down a grocery store isle can be overwhelming. What should you buy? What does it cost? Will it taste as good as it looks? Does it really have the nutrition it says on the label? There are many questions that can be asked. In the area of food evaluation , food technicians and scientists refine the taste, texture, quality, and appearance of different food items so that the consumer will be more inclined to want that product. Experts are used to help evaluate or make changes. This often is done during the food processing to determine whether it is cost effective to produce the food. Convenience foods such as frozen entrees are good examples of how evaluation has caused these foods to improve from their first inception.

Studying how foods are used or food utilization is a complex process and has created many new and innovative foods. Have you ever heard of tofu? Do you know what it is made from? If you guessed soybeans, you're right. Many foods are being used for other purposes than what many would have first thought. For example, with natural resources being limited, other sources of energy are always being explored. Did you know that plastic can be made from corn starch? It can, and corn is a renewable resource. Not only are foods being used in many different food products for human consumption but also for many other alternative uses.

Basic Nutrients

A brief review of the basic nutrients is necessary at this time. You should be familiar with the basic nutrients, and these will be studied more in depth throughout this course. In particular you will come to understand how the nutrients are part of food science. Resource: U.S.O.E Food Science Curriculum Guide

Water may not seem like a nutrient, but it is, and probably our most important one. Humans can live several weeks without food but only a few days without water. Water makes up almost two- thirds of the body. It is part of every cell. Water carries all of the other nutrients to the cells and takes wastes away. It also helps regulate body temperature. Every food has some water in it.

Proteins are the building blocks of the body. That means every
tissue is made of some form of protein. Even enzymes, antibodies,
and hormones are proteins. Without a steady supply of new protein, we couldn't grow new cells. Our wounds would not heal. Worn-out cells could not be replaced. Protein can also be used for energy if the body doesn't get enough calories from carbohydrates and fats. Excess protein is changed to fat and stored. Meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, and eggs are good sources of protein. Grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes (dry peas and beans) also contain some protein.


The main function of carbohydrates is to supply energy. That's a lot to do with over 100 trillion cells in the body needing a constant supply of fuel. Even when you don't think you are doing a thing, your heart is beating and your lungs are working. In fact, every organ is busy doing something.

There are three different kinds of carbohydrates. The simplest carbohydrates are sugars such as glucose, fructose, dextrose, and sucrose. Sugars are found naturally in fruits, milk, and some vegetables such as peas. Refined sugars from sugar beets and sugarcane are used for table sugar and as sweeteners in processed foods and home recipes.

Starches are more complex carbohydrates. They are found in rice, potatoes, vegetables, breads, and cereals. Complex carbohydrates are receiving new attention because they are so essential to health. Up until now, most people thought foods rich in complex carbohydrates were only starch and should be avoided. Now we understand that these foods are important in our diets, partly because they provide other important nutrients.

Fiber is the complex carbohydrate that forms the tough cell walls in plants. Even though humans can't digest fiber, it is important because it helps keep food moving though the digestive tract. Fiber may also help keep the intestines in good working order. All plants supply some fiber, but whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are especially good sources.

Approximately a pound of carbohydrate is stored in the liver in a form called glycogen. This glycogen is used when the body needs quick energy. Any other excess carbohydrate is converted to fat and stored as fatty tissue.

Scientists recognized that there other things in foods besides the a fore mentioned nutrients and in 1913 when the unknown ingredient was finally discovered. As it turned out, it wasn't just one ingredient but several similar chemicals that we now call vitamins. Although each has a scientific name, we know them best by their letter names A,B,C,D,E, and K and a few with other names like niacin.

Foods contain small amounts of vitamins, yet, without even these tiny amounts, the cells couldn't do their jobs. Vitamins are responsible for helping to form the material that holds cells together, for helping bones and teeth to use calcium, for helping the body use energy, and for many other critical life-support activities.

Like vitamins, the minerals in foods were hard to isolate because there were so many of them doing so many specialized jobs. Minerals do such diverse tasks as building strong bones or maintaining the right amount of water inside the cells. The major minerals we need are calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride. We also need certain other minerals in very tiny amounts. Some of these trace minerals are iron, iodine, fluoride, and zinc.

Fats are the nutrients that supply the most energy-more than twice as much as carbohydrates. They also carry four important vitamins (A,D,E, and K) through the body and supply some fatty acids that are absolutely necessary for good health. The fat that is stored in the body helps insulate, cushion, and protect us. Foods such as butter, margarine, oils, shortenings, and salad dressings are easy to pick out as fats. But not all sources of fat are so obvious. Whole milk, cheeses, ice cream, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, seeds, avocados, olives, gravies, sauces, bakery foods, fried foods, and even some candies contain fats.
01.1 nutrients01.1 nutrients
Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 1-- Assignment 1. This assignment has three parts, so make sure you do all three parts and do a thorough job.

01.01.01 You Are What You Eat (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 1: You Are What You Eat

Answer the following questions. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

PART I: Credit Information
1. Where will your credit certificate be sent when you finish this class.
High School:
High School Address:

2. What year will you graduate in?

PART II: You are what you eat
3. When you have money to spend on snack foods, what do you buy?
Self's Response ?
Teacher's Response? Sun Chip Corn Chips

4. What is your favorite food?
Self's Response
Teacher's Response? Homemade bread

5. What foreign food do you like best? Mexican, Italian, Chinese, Greek, etc.
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Italian. I love pasta!

6. Not feeling well? What do you crave?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Soda Crackers

7. What uncommon or rare food have you eaten?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? - Alligator

8. What foods turn you off?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Cold French Fries

9. If you were stranded on an island for a month, what one food would you take?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? - Milk

10. What one food do you like to prepare at home when you are alone and have to fix your own food?
Self's Response -
Teacher's Response? Grilled Cheese

PART III: Nutrient Review (Information to fill this out is found in content materials.)

11. What are the six basic nutrients?

12. Which nutrient is probably the most important?

13. What is the function of Ascorbic Acid?

14. What nutrients provide energy?

15. How does the body store excess energy?

16. If a person becomes anemic and needs iron, what foods should they eat?

17. What Vitamin should you take to help resist becoming sick?

18. What is the most concentrated energy source in the body?

19. How much of the body is made from water?

20. What should you eat if you have a hard time seeing at dusk?

01.02 Safety (FoodSci)

Unit 1.2-Safety

You will have the opportunity to explore many aspects of food science and actually perform some scientific experiments in which you will learn some of these principles. Realize that you won't be in a “traditional” science lab setting, but you must still carefully utilize safety rules in your own kitchen.

Basic Kitchen Safety
1. Read through the directions completely and get any questions you have answered before beginning.
2. Follow the directions exactly as written.
3. Locate any safety equipment in the area such as fire extinguishers before beginning.
4. Be aware basic safety and first aide procedures and have a first-aid kit handy.
5. Wash hands with soap and warm water before beginning and after finishing any lab experiments.
6. Avoid touching your face or mouth with your hands when conducting experiments.
7. If using volatile ingredients, use safety glasses.
8. Measure accurately.
9. Clean up any spills immediately.
10. Keep electrical appliances away from water and heat sources and turn off when not using.
11. Be mindful of sharp objects such as knives and broken or chipped glassware.
12. When using a flame use extreme caution.
13. Use hot pads or mitts when handling hot objects.
14. Avoid loose clothing, hair, or jewelry that might get in the way.
15. Be careful when you are using boiling hot water and wipe up all spills
16. Keep handles of pans and skillets from extending over sides of stove so they cannot be bumped
17. Use extreme care when you light the oven of a gas range. Follow directions.
18. When putting dishes and pans in and out of the oven, pull out the racks.
20. Turn off range when finished cooking.
21. If grease catches fire, turn off heat and pour generous amount of salt/dry baking soda on the blaze.
22. To avoid a steam bum, lift up the edge of the cover farthest from you.
23. Do not reach across an empty lighted burner.
24. Be careful when using sharp knives. The cook should learn to cut away from him/herself.

Handling Food Safely:

•Some foods should be washed before being used in preparation for human consumption: Fruits, Soiled Eggs, Whole Fish, Vegetables, Meats, Poultry.

•Perishable foods, leftovers, and any foods containing protein should be put in covered containers and stored in a refrigerator.

•Chlorine bleach or another sanitizer should be used on cutting boards where raw meat, fish, and/or poultry have been cut.

•A spatula or another utensil is used instead of fingers whenever possible. NEVER lick your fingers and continue with any activity without washing your hands.

•Food-borne illnesses can be caused by improper care of food. The Four F's that spread disease are: Food, Fungus, Flies, and Fleas.

•The symptoms of food poisoning: "NDV's" = Nausea, Diarrhea, Vomiting

•Food poisoning is preventable by use of good hygiene, keeping the lab sanitary and preparing, serving, and storing food properly.

Parasites from foods can become a problem when foods are not handled safely.

(Select the link "Parasites") and explore the following list of parasites on the website. Pay close attention to how humans can be infected by these specific parasites listed below.


Balantidium coli


Cyclospora cayetanensis



Diphyllobothrium latum

Giardia intestinalis



Metagonimus yokogawai



Opisthorchis felineus

Opisthorchis viverrini


Paragonimus wetermani

Taenia saginata

Taenia solium


Personal cleanliness involves the following:
-wash hands before food preparation, after sneezing, coughing, using rest room, and touching face or hair
-keep hair away from face
-wear clean clothes/apron (dirty clothing has bacteria)
-don't handle food with open cut or sore - STAPH
-avoid cooking and tasting with same spoon; licking of fingers is prohibited
-wash hands after handling raw meat/eggs

Kitchen cleanliness involves the following:
-wipe spills/remove dirty utensils
-wash cutting board that has had meat before cutting anything else
-don't wipe hands on dish towel - use separate towels so dishes don't get bacteria
-don't flip people with dish towels or use a dish towel/cloth that has been dropped on the floor. (The floor is an excellent place for staphylococcus to grow.)
-dust off cans
-wash surfaces/cutting boards with bleach periodically
-NO pets fed or wandering in kitchen and wash their bowl separately
-hot soapy water on dishes
-no food stored under sink - it becomes damp

Sanitation in food preparation and storage involves:
-keep food hot (above 140 degrees F) or cold (below 40 degrees F)
-check temperature in refrigerator and freezer periodically; freezer should be at zero degrees or below
-clean refrigerator often
-use freezer wrap, wrap meat loosely for refrigerator, leftovers stored with tight cover
-thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator not on the counter
-put foods away promptly
-refrigerate desserts made with dairy products
-never taste questionable food

Training Yourself To Be SAFE
Work habits to prevent falls
-no objects or spills left on the floor
-use a step ladder rather than a chair
-rugs must have non-skid backing

First aid for falls:
-don't move a person with broken bones unless necessary
-call medical help if head ache, dizziness, vomiting, or speech impairment results from head injury
-mild bruises/sprains need ice bag or cold water/cloths and elevation

Work habits to prevent cuts.
-keep knives sharp so you don't have to push as hard
-never catch a falling knife in mid air
-wash knives separately
-keep knives in a rack or separate from other equipment
-don't use knives for anything but cutting
-keep fingers away from mixer blades
-cut can lids completely off and throw out
-sweep up rather than pick up broken glass and wipe up tiny pieces with several damp paper towel thicknesses
-when a glass breaks in the kitchen sink, let the water out using several paper towels; then wipe out pieces with paper towels

First aid for cuts:
-stop severe bleeding with the pressure of a thick cloth; get medical help
-minor cuts - wash with soap and water, blot dry and bandage.

Work habits to prevent fire and burns.
-no flammable materials near hot appliances
-avoid loose clothing with long sleeves
-use dry pot holders not towels
-store flammable materials away from heat
-wipe off range after each use to avoid grease build-up
-to light gas range, light match first before turning on the gas
-if you smell gas don't turn on any appliances-ventilate room and call gas company
-turn pan handles in toward the back of range
-remove pan lids so steam escapes away from you
-keep appliance cords out of the way
-use both hands to remove a pan from oven
-turn off appliances/oven when cooking is finished
-lower food with spoon into fat - not fingers

In case of fire:
-turn off appliance
-use baking soda instead of water
-use a fire extinguisher
-if clothing catches on fire, drop to the ground and roll
-crawl on the ground to get out of smoke filled room

First Aid for Burns:
-cool it with cold water/prolonged ice will freeze tissue
-avoid ointments, grease and oil (contributes to the cooking process of the burn)

First Aid for Choking.
-if person can speak, cough or breath do nothing. Otherwise, do the Heimlich Maneuver procedure.

A number of work habits will prevent poisoning.
-use original containers with their labels
-securely close and lock cabinets
-store chemicals on a high shelf away from food containers
-follow antidote directions in well ventilated area if poisoning occurs
-never mix compounds such as bleach/ammonia
-use charcoal/hibachi outside only - gives off carbon monoxide

First Aid for Poisons:
-call medical help and if possible use antidote on label
-if fumes, get person to well ventilated area
-flush eyes with water if irritated

Work habits to prevent electric shock.
-keep water away from electrical appliances
-no electric cords near hot objects
-avoid octopus (one outlet with many cords)
-use heavy duty extension cord
-disconnect appliances before cleaning
-don't immerse electric appliances in liquid
-connect detachable cord to appliance first then plug it in
-don't use damaged appliances
-use only a wet/dry vacuum on wet floor
-keep metal away from the working parts of an appliance (no fork in toaster to pull out bread)

First Aid for Electric Shock:
-don't touch person connected to electricity
-turn off power, pull plug or pull person away with cloth loop
-administer CPR if qualified and call medical help

Resource: USOE Food Science Curriculum Guide

Now that you have read the information on safety go to the assignment section and click on "Unit 1-The Basics" then click on "Unit 1-Assignment 2" and follow the directions for the assignment.

Be SAFE!!!

Once you have completed the assignment go to course materials and read the information on measuring.

01.02 Safety links (FoodSci)

01.02.01 Safety Worksheet (FoodSci)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 2: Safety

DIRECTIONS: Copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and answer the questions. Copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

I. By using the clues listed determine the correct sequence for washing dishes. Use the numbers 1-8 to indicate the order.

________ A. The silverware is in the middle.
________ B. Pots and pans are next to last.
________ C. Glassware is just before the silverware.
________ D. Scraping, rinsing, and stacking dishes are first.
________ E. Dishes are washed just after the silverware.
________ F. Running the garbage disposal is just after rinsing and stacking.
________ G. Dishes and utensils used for mixing and preparation are washed before the pots and pans.
________ H. Washing the dishpans and/or sink is last.

II. Write a sentence predicting what might happen if dishes were not washed in the correct sequence.

III. Underline the safety hazards in the story below. Also, at the end of the paragraph, write what would have been a safer way to have done things. You need to list at least 10 items.

Fried eggs are Julie's favorite breakfast food. After she helped her little sister get dressed one Saturday morning, she sat down at the table to visit as her mother was mixing orange juice. Julie's mother asked her to make the fried eggs and toast because she had to go to work.

Julie first washed her hands but could not find a towel to dry them. Since the clean towels were in the basement she decided to let her hands air dry while fixing the eggs. She plugged the electric fry pan cord into the wall then into the fry pan and put some bread in the toaster. The fry pan didn't seem to be heating very fast. With some investigation, Julie noticed that the cord was cracked and a wire was beginning to show through. She put some masking tape around the worn place on the cord. The fry pan still wouldn't get very hot so Julie got out the hibachi. When the charcoal was hot she put some margarine and eggs in a frying pan.

After the toast popped up, Julie used a fork to pull it out because it was caught in the slot. Suddenly a terrible aroma darted past her nose -- like burning rubber or plastic. Julie noticed the fry pan cord was smoking so she hurriedly yanked it out of the outlet. The cord has melted against the fry pan.

Julie's breakfast wasn't very successful. Even so, she decided to scrub the kitchen so that her mother wouldn't be too upset. As she started to put the food away, she noticed some ants crawling underneath the table. She rushed to get the insect killer and thoroughly sprayed the floor. When the food was put away Julie got the pine cleaner and ammonia from behind the vegetable oil, mixed them and mopped the floor. There was so much of her mixture left that she put it in a milk jug under the sink.

That evening she went into the TV room where her mother was about to use the old Hoover to vacuum up some water. As Julie's mother plugged the cord into the outlet that had six other cords coming out of it, Julie told her mother about breakfast. Julie's mother told her she'd just have to be more careful in the future.

IV. List how the ten safety issues could have been fixed:

01.03 Measuring (FoodSci)

Unit 1.3: Measuring

Do you measure up? Being able to measure accurately and precisely is critical in food science. In this unit you will gain a basic understanding of measuring and the use of the Standards International (Metric) measuring. Learning to measure accurately will assure success in the preparation of a recipe. All ingredients are not measured the same, i.e. solids vs liquids, soft vs granules. There are different types of measuring utensils and measuring techniques to meet these differences - liquid vs dry measuring cups.

Basic abbreviations to include:

T and Tbsp. = tablespoon

min = minute

doz = dozen

qt = quart

gal = gallon

oz = ounce

lb = pound

c = cup

pt = pint

hr = hour

Here's the suggested method of measuring the following items:

Flour- level off with straight not the curved edge; There is a difference between sifted and non-sifted so follow the instructions on your recipe. (1/4 cup extra/cup)

Sugar- level off with a straight not curved edge.knife - shaking helps to level the sugar

Brown Sugar-packed has more sugar than if it is not packed

Shortening/Peanut Butter-pack, no air-water displacement method

Salt-level with a flat edge

OIL or Shortening-liquids in a liquid measuring cup -solids in a dry measuring cup or by water displacement method

Two important equivalents to know:

3 tsp = 1 tbsp

4 tbsp = 1/4 cup

Measuring is a critical part of food science. Just as we know that if you don’t measure accurately and precisely when making certain foods, when a scientist is doing an experiment it can ruin the experiment if measuring isn’t done correctly. When scientists are researching something new, it is critical to measure accurately and precisely every time an experiment is done or redone to insure that the results are valid and reliable. If something is achieved during the experiment, this might change the next time an experiment is done if measuring is not done correctly the second, third, fourth….., or hundredth time.

Accuracy in measuring is critical and knowing how what to use to measure and what to use for a certain substance is also necessary. Read the following and review the information for measuring.

A utensil used to make a precise measurement of any substance is referred to as a measuring device. The best measuring devices for liquids have handles and pouring spouts. When filled to the highest graduation, liquid cups hold the volume designated; i.e., one CUP, one pint, one quart, etc., and have a space above the highest graduation so the liquid does not overflow.

Solids are best measured in cups that are the size of fractions on a graduated liquid measurement cup or device. That is, a 1/4 measuring cup holds the same amount as 1/4 cup graduation on a liquid measuring device. The cups the size of fractions allow leveling of non-liquid (dry) ingredients. The results, again, are a more precise (accurate) measurements.

Precision, Mathematics, Measurement, and Food Science Scientists try to use the measurement device that is most precise for the characteristics of the substance being measured. Sometimes quantities of material are measured by mass and sometimes by volume. For example, an ice cube is a rectangular solid. Volume and mass each refer to the amount of space it occupies. One way to measure the volume is to measure the length, width, and height of the cube, then multiply the length x height x width.

Another way to measure the volume of the cube would be to let it melt and measure the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder. A graduated cylinder is more accurate than a beaker and might be more accurate than a measuring cup. It is easy to obtain the volume of a liquid because once the liquid is poured into the cylinder, the volume is the level the liquid reaches as indicated by the measurement marked on the sides of the container. If a liquid that forms a meniscus is measured, the volume is read from the bottom of the curve formed. Volume is estimated to 1/10 of the smallest division on the scale.

Mass can be measured with a number of different instruments. One often used by scientists is a triple beam balance. There are two kinds: a low-form or a high-form.

In many school laboratory and home situations, food is massed and the volume measured by using kitchen scales and standardized measuring cups. The accuracy of these tools can be checked using more precise tools (cylinders, balances, etc.) manufactured for scientific lab work.


1. A recipe is a formula that produces a specific product.

2. Recipes are easier to reproduce when both the originator of the recipe and the person duplicating it use standardized measuring devices and methods.

3. Solid foods are affected by particles that settle, crystal composition that allows air spaces in the matter, air that is or can be added, and packing from shaking or pressing the particles. In liquid foods, meniscus (a film that can form on the surface of some liquids, such as syrup) sometimes forms. It distorts the surface of the liquid and interferes with accurate measures. Any of the above can affect the weight/volume in measuring.

4. In confectioner's sugar, the crystals are finer than in ordinary table sugar, and in brown sugar the crystals are larger. In cake flour and self-rising flour, other ingredients are added. Hydrogenated shortening and lard differ in composition of crystals. All of the above make differences in weights and volume that make adjustments necessary in substituting different forms of the same ingredient.

5. With every measurement made or repeated for an ingredient, accuracy decreases. It is important, for accuracy, to use the measuring utensil closest in size to the desired unit of measurement.

6. Measurement utensils used in food preparation should be checked against standard devices because new ones might not hold a standard volume. If a utensil shows variation from the standard of more than 5%, do not keep or use it. Variance in measuring usually affects a recipe adversely.

The Metric System is most often used when doing scientific experiments. Metrics is the measure used in all physical and chemical sciences, including food science. People, therefore, need to have a knowledge of how to convert, estimate, and use metrics.

History of the Metric System

The metric system originated in France where it was adopted by the National Assembly on April 7, 1795. Most nations in Europe and Central and South America adapted it for commercial use during the middle and last half of the 19th Century. Following World War II, the Soviet Union and China made the use of metric units mandatory. India and Japan followed in the 1950s. Britain began a ten-year conversion to the metric system in 1965. South Africa completed the metric conversion by 1975. In 1969, New Zealand began an eight-year conversion to metric units, and in 1970 Australia and Canada announced their commitment to metricate.

Metric In the United States

Use of the metric system in the United States was made legal but not mandatory by an Act of Congress in 1966. Since that time, all U.S. customary units of measurement (used with foreign nations and in scientific fields) have been based upon metric standards. Legislation that would have made the use of the metric system mandatory failed in Congress by very small margins during the first 30 years of this century.


Twenty years ago, it appeared that the United States would connect to the metric system with a slow phase-in program. As yet, Congress has not authorized the go-ahead. Mostly this was due to consumer resistance among the general population. Science, however, uses the metric system. The scientific community has pointed out the fact that there are well-defined advantages and disadvantages to the metric conversion. Specific advantages realized by using the metric system am as follows:

1. Metric is a Universal System. It facilitates world trade which is constantly growing.

2. The Metric System is Easier to Use. The units are interrelated and are multiples/divisbles of 10.

3. Calculations are Faster. The system is particularly adaptable to computers and calculators.

4. Less Chance of Error. Decimals replace fractions which in the conventional system make calculations slower and increase chance of error.

5. Interchangeability of Machine Parts. Adoption of the metric system could lead to universal standards for machine parts and aid technology by permitting parts to be used on machines of different makes.

6. Standardization of Tools and Gauges. Universal acceptance of tools would reduce the number of each that would be need to be produced.

7. Especially Useful in the Laboratory. Tests and laboratory instruments are easily calibrated and more simple to read, and accuracy is easier to guarantee.

8. Eliminate Double Measuring System. Factories in both the U.S. and foreign countries must produce equipment for both metric and customary measurements. This double standard creates confusion and a greater cost. (Reference: "The Metric System", Wilmer Westbrook, Modern Textiles, August 1970.)

In the conversion to the metric system, the greatest disadvantage for Americans would be in the acceptance of the changeover-not in learning the system itself. There is also a concern as to the ultimate cost.

1. Reluctance to Change. Resistance to change is a natural human response. Educators and industry have a vital role to play in assisting the American population to more easily accept the changeover to the metric system of measurement.

2. Expense. The change to metric units by industry takes money. But, with careful planning, much of it can be phased into the normal costs of replacement of equipment and machinery. how to convert, estimate, and use metrics.

Will the U.S. go metric? It is already going metric. Many large American corporations are already converting to the metric system: IBM, Honeywell, General Motors, Regal-Beloit, ITT, and General Mills are a few. Since 1974, Fords and other cars have metric engines.

Film has long been measured in metrics: 35 mm, 16 mm, etc. Sports enthusiasts should now be very aware of the 100-meter race track, or the 50-meter swimming pool. We often read in the newspaper about narcotic officers confiscating a kilo of marijuana. The pharmaceutical industry has used the metric system for years. Many hospitals have converted to metric units for patient statistics and dispensing of drugs. All distances and elevation in the firing of weapons by the U.S. Army are measured in meters as is the basic triangulation by the U.S., Coast and Geodetic Survey. Most important of all, science is a universal (global) profession. It is necessary to communicate and replicate scientific work worldwide. Metrics is the international measuring system that science uses.


DEFINITION: Metre from Greek word metron meaning to measure. This is where the word metric comes from.

SPELLING: (all are lower case letters) meter or metre/abbreviation = m liter or litre/abbreviation =l

gram /abbreviation = g

celsius/abbreviation = C (the only capital used)

PREFIXES: (all are lower case letters)

kilo = k = 1,000 x base unit deci = d = .1 x base unit

hecto = h = 100 x base unit centi = c = .01 x base unit

deka = da = 10 x base unit milli = m = .001 x base unit

BASE UNITS: liter, gram, meter/metre


1. Use no periods after symbols and always leave a space between the number and the metric symbol; e.g., 14 cm not 14 cm.

2. Never use an s after a symbol; e.g., 14 cm not 14 cms.

3. Symbols should be in lower case except those designated; i.e., Celsius - C; e.g., 14 cm not 14 CM.

4. Commas should be omitted in figures representing large amounts-use a space instead; e.g., 14 000 cm not 14,000 cm.

Approximate measurements in metric measuring:

1 meter is a little over a yard

1 liter is a little less than a quart

01.03.01 Lab: Measuring (Oatmeal Cookies)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 1-Assignment 3: Measuring

DIRECTIONS: You may want to copy and paste the information below into a word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) then complete the assignment. Once you are finished, copy and paste the information back into the submission area of this assignment.

PART I: Convert the following measurements by using the GIVEN information to get the ESTIMATED information.

1 liter (l) = 1.06 quart
1 lb = 453.6 gm
1 ounce = 29.6 ml
1 kg = 2.2 lbs.
1 cup = 235.6 ml
1 Tbsp = 14.7 ml
1 tsp. = 4.9 ml

1/3 c. = _______ ml
2 tsp. = _______ ml
3 kg = _______ lb.
59 ml = _______ c.
2 lb. = _______ kg
4 fluid oz. = _______ gm
1/2 qt. = _______ ml
250 ml = _______ l

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks by converting the U.S. amounts to metric equivalents. Second, make the cookies using the metric measurements. Use the following chart to help you do the conversion. Write a parent or guardians's name that can verify that you made the cookies and also include a phone number that I can call if I choose to verify that you made the cookies.
1.25 ml = 1/4 teaspoon
2.5 ml = 1/2 teaspoon
5 ml = 1 teaspoon
15 ml = 1 Tablespoon
30 ml = 1/8 cup (1 fluid oz.)
60 ml = 1/4 cup
80 ml = 1/3 cup
120 ml = 1/2 cup
160 ml = 2/3 cup
240 ml 1 cup

95 Degrees Celsius = 200 Degrees Fahrenheit
120 Degrees Celsius = 250 Degrees Fahrenheit
150 Degrees Celsius = 300 Degrees Fahrenheit
175 Degrees Celsius = 350 Degrees Fahrenheit
205 Degrees Celsius = 400 Degrees Fahrenheit
230 Degrees Celsius = 450 Degrees Fahrenheit
260 Degrees Celsius = 500 Degrees Fahrenheit

Oatmeal Cookies
INSTRUCTIONS: Write the metric equivalents for the ingredients below and then use this receipe to actually make the cookies.

Metric equilvalent Metric Equivalent
_______ 1/2 cup margarine
_______ 7/8 cup oats
_______ 5/8 cup sugar
_______ 1/2 tsp. vanilla
_______ 3/8 cup lt. brown sugar
_______ 1/2 tsp. cinnamon
_______ 1 egg
_______ 1/2 tsp. nutmeg
_______ 7/8 cup flour
_______ 3/4 c. raisins
_______ 1/2 tsp. soda
_______ 1/2 cup chopped nuts

Preheat oven at 350*F (______C*).
1. Cream margarine and sugars (white and brown) together until ight and fluffy. Beat in egg. Add vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
2. In separate bowl, sift flour and soda together. Add oatmeal and blend.
3. Stir flour mixture into sugar/egg mixture. Add raisins and nuts. Blend.
4. Drop by tablespoons onto a greased cookie sheet. (Note: dought may be refrigerated.
5. Bake for 18-20 minutes or until done.

List the date, phone # and a person that can verify that you did make the cookies.

_____________________________ _________________________
(parent/guardian name) (parent/guardian phone #)