# Food & Science - class closed 5/9/2012 OLD

### 00.00 Introduction to this Class (Food and Science)

 As you work through the course, if something doesn't work correctly, feel free to contact the teacher. There are two quarters for this class. Each of the quarters in this class is worth .25 credits. Upon completion of all requirements in both quarters, you will earn .5 elective credits. The first quarter will cover units 1-4 and is worth .25 credit. The second quarter will cover units 5-7 and is worth .25 credit. I suggest that you refer back to this page often for it will answer many of the questions that students have had as they begin and work through the course. Assignments are submitted online. After registering for the course and you are ready to begin, go through the materials presented in Topic 1 and Topic 2 then click on Unit 01 in Topic 2 and go through the unit 1 course content. This will give you lesson information and websites to use and the instructions to complete your assignments. There may be websites or other resources available here also to help you learn the materials. It is critical that you submit an assignment to me at least every 30 days or you will automatically be deleted from the class. I need to stress that this happens automatically, meaning... I don't do it. It will just happen if you are not actively involved in finishing the class. If you are deleted from the roll for inactivity, you will have to re-register and resubmit any work that you did. Remember that if you ever have questions or don't understand, feel free to email me. I'll do my best to help you understand. I will get back to you as soon as possible. Also make sure that you submit an assignment at least every four weeks otherwise, the system will automatically delete you from my rolls. Once you have covered the course content in Topic 2 for a specific lesson in a unit then read the instructions and complete the assignment in a word document. Save this to your computer so that you always have a backup. To submit the assignment to me, click on the assignment button in Topic 3. Each assignment will give you specific, detailed information on what you are to do. You will have a quiz/test for each of the units. Be thorough in your reading/viewing of the content presented and of the information from the websites so that you are prepared to take the quiz/test. The test and quiz information comes from the course materials and assignments. You have ONE ATTEMPT for each test. Study beforehand because there are NO RETAKES!!! You will have a set amount of time to take the quiz/test. I suggest that as you go through a unit, you may want to take some notes as you read through the information. Once you go into the test on the computer you must complete the quiz/test at that time. If you go out of the quiz/test, it will lock it up. There is a final comprehensive test that is given by a proctor (another person) at the end of all of the assignments and tests. Once you have completed all your work, you will be given the information you need to send to start the process of taking your proctored final. I will check to see if you have completed all of your course work and tests/quizzes. If all is completed, I submit this information to the proctor manager. You will then need to go to Topic 4 and click on "Arranging to Take my Proctored Final Test" and follow the instructions there. Study really well for this because you have to pass this exam with at least a D or 60% or you WILL NOT receive credit for the ENTIRE course. There are NO RETAKES!!! The final test will represent 25 percent of your grade so you want to do really well. Review and study well for it. Make sure that you keep a copy of all of the assignments you submit in the event of a computer "hiccup" which might cause information to be lost. It is your responsibility to have backups/copies of everything that you submit. Assignments will be submitted online. There will be some food experiences throughout the class, so you will need access to a kitchen and the ingredients to make the foods required. You may need access to a digital or traditional camera. Some of the labs that you will complete may need pictorial confirmation that you actually completed the lab. These can be submitted digitally (over the computer if you know how to do this) or through the regular postal service. If you need the credit for this course for graduation, keep in mind that you must have ALL of your work submitted to me by April 15th so that I have time to receive it, grade it, and get your information to the proctor manager. This will allow you enough time to arrange for your final proctored exam. I will continue to grade things after April 15th, but there is no guarantee that things will be processed in time for graduation. If I have any messages that I need to send, I will send a message to all class members. Class Objective: To expose High School students to the area of Food and Nutrition and how foods serve a direct purpose in good nutrition and good health. Overview: This course is designed for students who are interested in the scientific principles involved in nutrition and food science. Attention will be given to selection and preparation of food and personal health and well-being. Grading Policies: Grades are earned on a point system. The accumulation of points given will determine the final grade. Grades will be figured from the total possible points at the end of the class. They will be calculated as percents and follow this breakdown. Students are expected to do their own work. Cheating or plagiarism is not tolerated. To Figure your grade: Add up all of the points that you have earned. Add up all of the points possible. Divide the points you have earned by the points possible and this will give you a percentage. Compare the percentage with the chart below to determine what grade you have earned. 100.00 % - 93.00 % A 92.99 % - 90.00 % A- 89.99 % - 87.00 % B+ 86.99 % - 83.00 % B 82.99 % - 80.00 % B- 79.99 % - 77.00 % C+ 76.99 % - 73.00 % C 72.99 % - 70.00 % C- 69.99 % - 67.00 % D+ 66.99 % - 60.00 % D 59.99 % - 0.00 % F Well, I'm excited to get started, so to do this, click on the first Unit in Topic 2 section.

### 04.01 Elements, Compounds, Solutions, Mixtures links (FoodSci)

 Periodic tablehttp://periodic.lanl.gov/default.htm

### 04.01.01 Lab: Mayonnaise (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 1: Elements, Compounds, Mixtures, Solutions

Click on the "Mayonnaise" link in the URL's and follow the directions for making mayonnaise.

**********************HELPFUL HINTS*********************

* Read the recipe very close as you make it.
* Notice it says to have your equipment at room temperature before you start.
* You can use a high-speed blender instead of a food processor.
* Use very FRESH eggs for your experiment.
* You can reduce the recipe for a smaller recipe if you choose.

Once you have completed the experiment, complete the information asked for then submit this along with a picture of your mayonnaise. You can send this picture as a digital picture or a photograph that is sent through the postal service.

INSTRUCTIONS: Fill out this form once you have completed the experiment and submit it to me.

1. Type a name and number of a person that will verify that you made the mayonaise.

Parent/Guardian Name:_______________________________

Phone #: ____________________

2. What type of a mixture is mayonaise?

3. What is a colloid?

4. How does emulsifying occur?

5. What does the egg do for the mayonaise?

6. What role does lecithin play?

**REMEMBER to send a picture of the mayonaise you have made to receive full credit.**

### 04.02 Enzymes (FoodSci)

 Unit 4.2: Enzymes Enzymes are organic catalysts (proteins) produced by living cells which can be destroyed by heat. They are responsible for some of the changes that take place in the flavor, color, and texture of foods. Browning results from the fresh fruit being exposed to air. This browning takes place IMMEDIATELY after the cut fruit is exposed to air and is a process called oxidation. Browning is not a reversible process. Fruit which has browned cannot be restored to its original color by placing it into a solution. High-acid fruits do not brown when exposed to air. Fruits such as bananas deteriorate in texture as they sit in a liquid solution. Prevent browning by covering the fruit immediately after peeling or slicing with a juice containing Vitamin C or a citric acid solution, salt water, or anything that covers the surface of the fruit and slows the oxidation process. Placing peeled fruit in water to prevent it from turning dark causes loss of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and natural sugars. When air comes in contact with a fruit which is low in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), the air oxidizes or browns the surface of the fruit. Because oxidation or browning takes place during the first few minutes that fruit is exposed to air, it is important that we cover fruit as soon as it is peeled. Enzymes break down food as the digestive process takes place. Saliva is the moisture in the mouth. It moistens food and contains the enzyme ptyalin (tie' a lin) which is the first enzyme to start the breakdown (or digestive) process before the food enters the stomach. Saliva begins to break apart the starch molecules by changing the starch into simple sugars while the food is in the mouth. A cracker which has been chewed thoroughly before swallowing has been changed by the action of the enzyme saliva into simple sugars that the body can use for energy. The enzyme action stops when the cracker comes in contact with acid in the stomach. No more starch is digested until the cracker reaches the small intestine. The flavor of sugar (or sweetness) can be detected while the cracker is still in the mouth. Because of the importance of enzymes in saliva to the break down of the starch in food, people should slow their eating process, and chew more thoroughly before swallowing their food. Commercially, cottage cheese and other cheeses are produced by two methods: one uses rennet (an enzyme that coagulates milk) to curdle the milk, the other uses lactic bacteria. Cheese making depends on the bacteria that produce lactic acids to cause the casein micelles to aggregate, trapping fat globules and the whey in the protein. Streptococcus lactis is used to produce buttermilk commercially. Acid-producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilous, when added to milk and kept at controlled temperatures (110 F or 43 C) and time controlled (usually 4 hours), will produce a milk product known as yogurt. The two kinds of bacteria consume the lactose in milk as an energy source, excrete lactic acid as a waste product, and produce a safe and edible product-yogurt. Sour cream and cottage cheese can be made without the help of bacteria by purposely adding cultures as is done in commercial ventures. Bacteria derived from the atmosphere will also sour the milk and, over time, will cause it to curdle. Plain milk and cream is fairly stable when heated, but prolonged heating and acids added from other foods cause the casein micelles and whey proteins to become unstable and curd. YOGURT FACTS A. Yogurt is milk that has been made sour under specific conditions: * 1. Two types of bacteria are involved: lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilous. They are different from other bacteria that cause milk to spoil. * 2. The bacteria use sugar (lactose) found in the milk for food. As they consume the lactose, an acid (lactic acid) is released. The sweet lactose becomes sour. This gives yogurt its flavor. (Note: lactic acid bacteria can be purchased in yogurt cultures.) * 3. The bacteria can grow in whole or skim milk, but they grow better if the milk is warm. The water content of the milk and the sugar (lactose) and the warm temperature combine to provide a perfect condition for the bacteria to grow. Cold temperatures slow the process. * 4. The high acid content of the bacteria and milk mixture causes proteins in the milk to break apart and form curds. (Curds are easy to see in cottage cheese.) At 100EF or 38 C curds will form in about 5 hours. If yogurt is placed in a refrigerator, curd formation stops. * 5. Adding powdered milk (usually skim milk) to the milk mixture adds more protein and more curds result. (Boiling the milk to let some water evaporate will do the same thing.) B. Yogurt is served in many different ways: * 1. It is a main dish and/or a dessert. * 2. Fruits, herbs, and spices may be added. * 3. It is a good topping or dip for fruits and vegetables. * 4. It can be added directly to batters. C. Yogurt contains a very delicate balance of curds and whey. Heat, salt, acids, and vigorous stirring will disrupt the balance causing curds to form in protein clusters making the yogurt look odd and changing texture. D. If yogurt is stirred and returned to a refrigerator, water (whey) will separate from the curds, and a day or two later, the water will form in a layer on top of the yogurt. Enzymes play many important roles in food science. (Select the link "Enzymes") Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 2.

### 04.02.01 Lab: Making Cottage Cheese (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 2: Enzymes

INSTRUCTIONS: Click on the "Cottage Cheese" link in the URL's and follow the directions for making cottage cheese.

Write a person's name and number to verify that you did make the cottage cheese and then answer the questions below.

**********************HELPFUL HINT*********************

You can reduce the recipe if you prefer.

Parent/Guardian Signature: ____________________

Phone # ___________

1. What are five foods that are made using enzymes?

2. What is the role of enzymes in digestion?

3. Where does the enzyme come from when making cottage cheese?

4. What can affect enzyme activity?

5. What is the relationship between an enzyme and a substrate?

**REMEMBER to send a picture of the cottage cheese you have made to receive full credit.**

### 04.03 Fermentation (FoodSci)

 Unit 4.3: Fermentation History of Fermentation The use of natural biological processes to obtain useable products is certainly not new. Since recorded history, microbes have been involved in the preparation and processing of items in the daily diet of humans. Lacking any knowledge of microorganisms, or of ways in which contamination of food by them could be avoided, man learned to live with microbially infected foods. Usually the actions of these microbes ultimately made the food unacceptable, either by altering the appearance or odor of the food to a point which it was no longer appetizing or by producing poisonous toxins, some of which were lethal. Occasionally, however, microbial infections of food materials made it appear more appetizing and the taste enhanced. Ultimately, microbial infections of these foods were exploited, so the fermented foods and beverages now form a large and important sector of the food industry. Today the main groups of microbes involved in the industry include the yeasts, molds, and bacteria Nobody knows exactly when cheese making began, but legend generally has it that its origin lies in the Middle East. A Bedouin, preparing for a journey across the desert, filled his skin pouch with ewe's milk for refreshment along the way. After hours in the hot sun, and weary from the jostling ride on the camel, the Bedouin opened the pouch made from the dried stomach of a sheep only to discover that the rich milk was no more. In its place lay a thin watery fluid surrounded by a thick white mass - whey and curds. Having nothing else to drink, he tried the liquid and found it tasted good; then he nibbled at the gummy curds and was equally pleased with the discovery. Arriving at his destination, he shared the remaining curds with his tribesmen, who were no less satisfied then he. Thus, quite by accident, cheese was introduced into man's diet. Today, the manufacture of cultured dairy products represents the second leading fermentation industry (next to alcoholic beverages), accounting for approximately 20% of all fermented foods produced world wide. While no such legend exists for the discovery of sauerkraut, it undoubtedly was also discovered by accident and trial and error methods. In the days before refrigeration facilities became available, a number of techniques were devised for preserving seasonally produced vegetables. One of the most efficient of these involved packing vegetables tightly in a vessel with salt or brine. This technique is thought to have originated in the Orient where, even today, it continues to be used extensively. Only in the last 60 years has it been shown that this method of preserving vegetables involves a microbiological fermentation. In cheese making, the mystery surrounding the nomad's discovery can be easily explained. The four essentials of cheese making were acting together that memorable day in the desert: milk plus a slight churning motion coupled with heat and rennet (the product of an enzyme produced in the membrane lining of ruminate animals stomach). The cheese discovered by the Bedouin was probably what we would call cottage cheese or cheese curds. Similar legends attend the origin of aging, curing or ripening which has lead to the many various cheese flavors we have today. We now know that in the production of sauerkraut, lactic acid bacteria proliferate in the brine. These bacteria produce acids which lower the pH. The combined action of the salt and acid lowers the activity of enzymes responsible for the breakdown of vegetable tissue. At the same time oxidative changes in the tissues are inhibited and thus prevent spoilage. Anaerobic Fermentation Although respiration and breathing are often thought of as the same, they are in fact two different processes. Breathing is the exchange of gases between an organism and its external environment. Respiration occurs within all living cells. Cellular respiration involves breaking the chemical bonds of organic molecules and releasing energy that can be used by the cells. 04.3 cellular respiration Most students are not familiar with fermentation which occurs in some of the less complex organisms such as bacteria and yeasts. Fermentation reactions are anaerobic, proceeding without oxygen being present. Anaerobic reactions involve cellular food products and/or glucose sugar as their reactants. And without oxygen they can produce combinations of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH), carbon dioxide (CO2), and lactic acid (C2H4OCOOH) as their products. We have used the products of anaerobic respiration (fermentation) to our advantage, supplying ourselves with food, drink, and even fuel for automobiles. Yeasts are used as tiny "fermentation factories" producing carbon dioxide and alcohol. Certain bacteria and molds ferment milk, producing carbon dioxide and lactic acid. It has been stated that the fermentations are the result of growth of bacteria, yeasts, molds, or combinations of these. Stated more precisely, the changes that occur are caused by the enzymes liberated by these microorganisms. Some foods usually said to be fermented are actually cured by the enzymes naturally inherent in the foods. Throughout the centuries fermentation has been one of the most important methods for preserving food; It still remains one of the most important methods. Relatively few people, however, are aware that the many food products consumed regularly are prepared and/or preserved by fermentation processes. It is essential to understand that the lactic acid bacteria produce acid which in effect inhibits the growth of many other organisms. Most species convert sugars to acids, alcohol, and carbon dioxide. The fermentative yeasts produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide from sugars. They require oxygen for growth but not for fermentation. The molds have the greatest array of enzymes, are aerobic, and will grow on most foods to produce various types of digestion. The changes that occur during fermentation of foods are the result of the activity of enzymes. The enzymes arise from three sources: Those that are produced by the microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation, those that are native to the food, and those that are produced by the microbial flora that happen upon the unfermented food. A good fermentation is one in which the enzymes produced by the fermentative microorganisms play the primary role. There are relatively few pure culture fermentations. An organism that initiates a fermentation will develop until its byproducts of growth inhibit further growth and fermentation. During this initial growth period other organisms develop. They in turn are followed by other more tolerant species. This succession of growth of different species may be referred to as a natural sequence of growth. The use of starters or inocula should be based upon these facts. In general, growth will be initiated by bacteria, followed by yeasts and then molds, if conditions are suitable for growth of these microorganisms. Now let us try to relate these biological processes to biotechnology. What is biotechnology? "In the broadest and simplest terms, biotechnology is defined as the collection of industrial processes that involve the use of biological systems."(Harlander, 1991). We have been using bacteria, yeasts, and molds for centuries to produce a host of fermented foods including buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, butter, cheese (over 700 kinds), pickles, sauerkraut, sausage, breads, crackers, pretzels, doughnuts, grape nuts (you thought it was a cereal brand name?), wines, beer, spirits, soy sauce, coffee, cacao, vanilla, tea, citron, ginger, and more. Biotechnology is also used in some food processing related areas including processing aids, ingredients, rapid detection systems, and biosensors. Enzymes acting as protein catalysts, are used extensively in the food processing industry to control texture, appearance, and nutritive value, and for the generation of desirable flavors and aromas. Because they are isolated from plants, animals, or microorganisms, their availability is dependent upon the availability of the source material. Using genetically engineered microorganisms for the production of enzymes eliminates the need to rely on source materials while ensuring a continuous supply of enzymes.(Harlander, 1991). The new technologies have allowed researchers to target the genetics of plants, animals, and microorganisms and to manipulate them to our food production advantage. What might be in store for tomorrow's food advancement? Predictions include: Environmentally hardy food-producing plants that are naturally resistant to pests and diseases and capable of growing under extreme conditions of temperature, moisture, and salinity. An array of fresh fruits and vegetables, with excellent flavor, appealing texture, and optimum nutritional content, that stay fresh for several weeks. Custom designed plants with defined structural and functional properties for specific food-processing applications. Cultures of microorganisms that are programmed to express or shut off certain genes at specific times during fermentation in response to environmental triggers. Strains engineered to serve as delivery systems for digestive enzymes for individuals with reduced digestive capacity. Cultures capable of implanting and surviving in the human gastrointestinal tract for delivery of antigens to stimulate the immune response or protect the gut from invasion by pathogenic organisms. Microbially derived, high-value, "natural" food ingredients with unique functional properties. Microsensors that accurately measure the physiological state of plants; temperature-abuse indicators for refrigerated foods; and shelf-life monitors built into food packages. On-line sensors that monitor fermentation processes or determine the concentration of nutrients throughout processing. Biotechnologically designed foods to supply nutritional needs; meat with reduced saturated fat, eggs with decreased levels of cholesterol, and milk with improved calcium bioavailability.(Harlander, 1991) Diagram of respiration and fermentation 04.3 Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 3.

### 04.03.01 List of Fermented Products (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 3: Fermentation

DIRECTIONS: Visit your nearest grocery store and identify ten different food products that use fermentation in their production. For example, pickles are one food type. Do not list ten varieties of pickles. They are only one type.

Grocery store visited: ________________________________

Date visited: ______________________

List 10 types of food products that use fermentation in their production and give at least one example of each.

TYPES OF PRODUCTS

EXAMPLES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Fill in the answers to the following questions in the blanks provided.

1. What discovery came from the milk that was in the dried stomach of a sheep skin pouch? _________________

2. What method is used when packing vegetables in a salt brine?_____________

________________________________

3. What two things do yeast produce?

________________________________

________________________________

4. What are three things predicted to happen in the future from fermentation?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

### 04.04 Leavening Agents (FoodSci)

 Unit 4.4: Leavening Agents A leavening agent is a substance (yeast) or a material (baking powder) used to produce fermentation or gas that separates and pushes apart proteins in dough and batters before they can coagulate and/or form permanent networks. The leavening agent, whether fermented yeast in sour dough or water turned to steam in cream puffs, makes the mass or aggregate of the final product light and tender. Air, steam, and carbon dioxide are the main leavening agents in quick breads, cake, and other pour or drop batters. NOTE: Yeast breads are not generally considered to be pour or drop batters or quick since fermentation is a slower process than the reactions from mixing acids and bases or the changing, at high temperatures, of liquid to steam. Yeast breads are categorized as dough. (Select the link "Bread") CHEMICAL LEAVENING AGENTS Baking soda and baking powder are chemical leavening agents. They work by producing carbon dioxide during a chemical reaction. Steam is a natural leavening agent. It is produced when the liquid in a baked product is heated above 212 F. Steam is produced by a change in the physical state of water. Baking soda and baking powder produce chemical instead of physical changes. Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and an acid with a dry dilutant, usually cornstarch, added to separate the mixture. There are two types of baking powder-single-acting and double- acting. Single-acting baking powder begins to react as soon as the chemical gets wet because the acid is soluble in cold liquids. Homemade baking powder (made from soda and cream of tartar) is single-acting. Double-acting baking powder is the kind sold almost exclusively in the United States. Double-acting baking powder is able to react twice because it is made with two different acids. One is dissolvable in cold liquids, and the other must have heat to react. The first reaction is the smallest; most of the carbon dioxide is given off when the baking powder is heated. Carbon dioxide is the only gas given off by baking powders produced in the U.S.A. The law requires baking powder to produce 12 grams of carbon dioxide for every 100 grams of baking powder used. Since all of the carbon dioxide comes from the baking soda in baking powder, at least 25 percent of baking powder must be baking soda. Baking soda is a salt with the chemical name sodium bicarbonate. The chemical formula for soda is NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a compound formed from a strong base, sodium hydroxide, and a weak acid, carbonic acid. The compound is a base because the base it is made from is stronger than the acid. A base has a pH of more than 7.0. (See AN EXPLANATION OF THE pH SCALE in Resource section.) Baking soda gives off carbon dioxide when dissolved in a liquid and heated. The correct amount of soda and acid creates a good product. If not enough soda is used, sourness results. Too much creates a bitter, yellowed product. The chemical equation for the reaction that occurs when soda is heated is: 2NaHCO3 --- C02 + Na2CO3 + H20 Heat is important because it promotes chemical reactions. Heat also maintains the structure of the final product by coagulating the protein strands and the starch gel formed from the flour and eggs in the food mixtures. The carbon dioxide gas makes the quick bread rise. Water vapor goes off as steam. Sodium carbonate makes foods taste bad and makes the quick bread a yellowish color. It also can give the quick bread a corn bread texture. To stop sodium carbonate from forming, an acid needs to be added to quick bread recipes that call for soda. Adding an acid to the quick bread recipe changes the way the sodium bicarbonate reacts when heated. The chemical reaction will take place in two steps when an acid is added. In the first step of the new chemical reaction, the soda reacts with the acid to form a salt and a new acid. In the second step of the reaction, the my acid breaks down to form water and carbon dioxide. For example, if one chooses to use cream of tartar for the acid, the first step of the chemical reaction would work like this: 01.4 leavening reaction Many recipes that call for soda and an acid also call for less salt in the recipe because a salt is produced during the two-step reaction. (Select the link "Baking Soda") STEAM AS A LEAVENING AGENT Any recipe that calls for a liquid will produce some amount of steam when the product is heated. However, not all baked products call for sufficient liquid to produce enough steam to act as a leavening agent. Only those quick breads that are classified as pour batters have a high enough liquid concentration that the liquid will produce a sufficient amount of steam to leaven the product. Steam is the leavening agent in popovers and cream puffs. Steam contributes a little leavening in cakes and pie crusts. The baking temperature for quick breads, whose primary leavening agent is steam, needs to be quite high. Usually the baking temperature will be around 400 F. The high temperature is needed to change the liquid to steam quickly- before the gluten sets. The quick bread must rise before the protein in the gluten and the eggs coagulates and the structure of the quick bread becomes set. Popovers are pricked with a fork and baked the last few minutes to allow the steam to escape from inside the popover. This helps keep the popover from becoming soggy. (The trapped steam would condense as the popover cooled when removed from the oven, and the condensation would make the popover soggy.) Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 4.

### 04.04.01 Lab: Bread (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 120 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 4: Leavening Agent

Click on the "Bread" link in the URL's and read the first and second pages labeled:

Introduction to How Bread Works

and

Bread Basics.

Go to the following experiments and perform them:

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Experiment 3

INSTRUCTIONS: Include a name and phone number of an adult that will verify that you did the experiments.

Adult's name: _____________________Phone #: __________

What happened in Experiment #1: ______________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

What happened in Experiment #2: ______________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

What happened in Experiment #3: ______________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

### 04.04.02 extra credit Lab: Bread (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 120 minutes

If you would like to earn some extra credit, go to Let's Bake on the bread web site and make the bread.

Unit 4-Assignment 4: Extra Credit

Name:
EHS Username:
Class Name & quarter:
Assignment name:

INSTRUCTIONS: Include a name and phone number of an adult that will verify that you made the bread for extra credit. Answer the rest of the questions.

Adult's name: _____________________Phone #: __________

How did your bread turn out?___________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

Write three descriptive words for the following test tastes on your bread:

Taste: _____________, ______________, ______________

Smell: _____________, ______________, ______________

Touch: _____________, ______________, ______________

Feel: _____________, ______________, ______________

Sound: _____________, ______________, ______________

### 04.05 Food Additives (FoodSci)

 Unit 4.5: Food Additives A food additive is a substance that a food producer purposefully adds to a food or food product with a specific purpose in mind. They are placed in foods for a variety of reasons such as to improve the storability of a food, make a food easier to prepare, make foods easier to process, make a food healthier, and to even make some foods more appealing. Of course there are concerns about using additives with foods. Some people worry that in the long term, there might be adverse problems that aren't evident now. There are people taht are senstive to certain additives or may even have food allergies because of the additives. Others worry that unnecessary additives might be placed in foods. Even with all of these concerns, there are many valuable reasons for having additives. Some foods are made safer to eat because of additives. Such is the case in additives that help prevent rancidity in fats such as thylenediamine tetraacetic acid or EDTA. Some foods have improved nutritional value because of additives. Some of these additives have actually reduced disease rates related to nutrition such as goiter in which a person's diet is lacking enough iodine. Salt is often iodized now which has almost eliminated the disease, goiter in the United States. Vitamin D has been added to milk since the 1930s. Many other additives have been used to fortify foods to make them more healthy. Millions of people have been able to be fed and lessen world hunger because food additives make it possible to ship foods without as much food quality loss or deterioration. (Select the link "FDA Website"), and learn more about food additives from the Food and Drug Adminstration's (FDA) website. The FDA is the government entity that determines what foods and drugs are approved for consumption or other purposes in the United States. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 4-Assignment 5.

### 04.05.01 Lab: Natural vs Artificial Food Coloring (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 4-Assignment 5: Food Additives

DIRECTIONS: Find at least 10 items that are colored. Possible samples are listed under materials and equipment. Follow the insturctions and put your results on the next page provided in this slide show.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT:

1. Samples of colored juices and waters;

e.g., beet juice, tomato juice, sodas, teas, maraschino cherries, grenadine, fruit syrups, jellies, water from canned and cooked vegetables, powders like paprika, saffron, or tumeric mixed into 1/2 cup water, and anything else you can think of.

2. 2-cup saucepan (not aluminum)

3. Vinegar

4. White wool yarn (be sure it is not acrylic)

5. Scissors

PROCEDURE:

1. Put a sample of a colored liquid in a saucepan with a few drops of vinegar and a 3" piece of white wool yam.

2. Heat to boiling.

3. Lift out the yarn and rinse under cold water. If the wool retains the color of the liquid, the substance contains artificial coloring made from coal tar.

4. Repeat as often as desired using a different colored liquid each time.

5. Record your observations on next page of this slide show.

OBSERVATIONS:

The protein in wool reacts with the coal tar dyes in an acid environment so that chemical bonding occurs. The molecules interlock, forming a new stable substance. Natural dyes do not form this bond with wool, so the yarn will become white again when washed.

This is good consumer knowledge. Check your results against labels. You should get positive results when the use of FDA-certified color is indicated on labels.

Unit 4-Assignment 5: Food Additives

Name:
EHS Username:
Class Name & quarter:
Assignment name:

INSTRUCTIONS: Find at least 10 items that are colored. Possible samples are listed under materials and equipment. Follow the instructions and fill in the type of sample you used and mark whether you found it be a natural or artificial coloring.

Name of Sample / Natural / Artificial

1. ____________________ _____ _____

2. ____________________ _____ _____

3. ____________________ _____ _____

4. ____________________ _____ _____

5. ____________________ _____ _____

6. ____________________ _____ _____

7. ____________________ _____ _____

8. ____________________ _____ _____

9. ____________________ _____ _____

10. ____________________ _____ _____

### 04.05.02 Unit 4 Exam (FoodSci)

 computer-scored 60 points possible 90 minutes

Take the Unit 4 Test: Food Chemistry.
This test will cover all the information from Unit 4.

### 05.00 Unit Five: Nutrition(FoodSci)

 This unit will explore human physiology, cellular biology, molecular structures, and metabolism.

### 05.01 Human Physiology(FoodSci)

5.1: Human Physiology

In integral part of science is how the food that is developed, discovered, and improved is used by the human body. With this in mind, we need to take a look at the human digestive track and review how food is used by the human body.

(Select the link "Digestive Process")

(Select the link "Digestive System")

 Digestive Processhttp://www.kidshealth.org/misc/movie/bodybasics/digestive_sy...Digestive Systemhttp://www.kidshealth.org/parent/food/general/digestive.html

### 05.01.01 Human Physiology(FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.1Physio Assignment" to submit the assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Using the website on digestion, fill out this study guide. This will be a great resource to you when you take the test for this section. So, as always, keep a copy for yourself.

1. The digestive process happens when you _________________.

2. The body has about ____________ pints of blood.

3. In the digestion process, blood is used to _________________

______________________________________________________

4. What do the walls of the stomach, intestines, and other digestive organs do to food as it moves along the digestive tract?_________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

5. What are 10 parts of the human digestive system?

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

________________________ ___________________________

6. What does food provide for the body?_______________________________

__________________________________________________________________

7. What happens to proteins in the digestive track so that the body can use them?_____________________________________________________________

8. What other three factors are mentioned in the reading, besides food, impact how we feel? __________________, ____________________, ___________________

9. What is the term that doctors often use when referring to the digestive track? ______________________________ __________________________

10. Where is amylase found and what is its purpose in the chemical digestive process? __________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

11. An adult stomach will hold ____________ cup of food empty and up to _________ cups when full.

12. What are the three parts of the intestines and where are they found?

Intestinal Part Where found in intestinal track

a. ___________________ ___________________________________________

b. ___________________ ___________________________________________

c. ___________________ ___________________________________________

13. What do villi do in the intestinal wall? ________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

14. What is the role of the gall bladder and pancreas in the digestive track?______

__________________________________________________________________

15. What is the muscular valve at the end of the esophagus called and what does it do?______________________________________________________________________

16. What kind of acid is present in the stomach to break down foods? ___________________________________________________________________

17. What is chyme? ________________________________________________

18. What enzyme from the pancreas breaks down fatty acids? _______________

19. What is absorption? ____________________________________________

20. Where are salt removed from waste in the body? ________________________

21. Diarrhea can lead to ________________________ in the body?

22. What are three symptoms of appendicitis? ___________________________, _____________________________, __________________________________

23. What is the condition when the contents of the intestines do not move along fast enough? _______________________________________

24. Cystic Fybrous is an inherited disease affecting what two organs?

_______________________________, __________________________________

25. Hepatitis is caused by a ____________________ ______________________

### 05.02 Cellular Biology(FoodSci)

Unit 5.2: Plant and Animal Cells

Cells differentiate in both plants and animals. Although the groups of cells that form muscle tissue are different from the groups that form bone or blood, and cells that form roots of plants are different from those that form leaves.

The protoplasm for all living cells in the human body comes from the foods people eat. How well cells work, how much energy a person has, and how an individual grows all depend on how food is selected, prepared, ingested, and digested.

All plants and animals grow by reproducing cells. In large organisms such as people, the billions of cells perform many different roles. The cells combine to form body tissue and several different tissues also combine to form organs and to function as various parts of the body, from the brain to the big toe.

Other forms of life such as microorganisms are made up of a very few cells or even one single cell and are also capable of carrying on all of life's processes. A basic understanding of cell structure and function is important to understanding how food functions in and for the human body. It is also essential to understanding the actions of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.

Since the cell is the basic unit of all living things, you might think it is a simple structure. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The cell is complex in its makeup and its function. Many scientists have spent their lives studying it. Even with all of our advanced knowledge scientists are not yet able to explain how cells differentiate to become skin, muscle, nerves,etc.

The main parts of any cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell wall. In plants, the cell walls are thick and rigid. Animal cell walls are thinner and more pliable.

(Select the link "Plant and Animal Cells")

The nucleus of the cell is the control center. It directs cell division or the formation of new cells. The cytoplasm contains the parts which convert food material into energy and new cell material. The cell wall or membrane holds everything together and controls the passage of material into and out of the cell.

Cells are remarkably diverse. Cells are never formed by nonliving things. They are found in nonliving matter (such as wood) only if it were once alive.

WHY ARE CELLS SO SMALL?

Every bit of food and information (stimuli) needed by a cell must enter through the cell membrane. When cells are small, no part of their complex machinery lies too far from the area outside the cell. If a cell were larger, fewer of its interior structures could be near the cell membrane. Cells perform better if supply lines are short and cannot be cut off. Multicellular organisms, like humans, grow as their cells grow and divide. When cells reach a certain size, they stop growing or they divide to keep all parts of a cell very close together.

As it grows, a cell's volume increases faster than its surface area . As it takes in more nutrients, the cell grows, and it creates more wastes. The membrane has to accommodate the cells needs, but the membranes also limits cell growth because the surface of the cell is less than the volume. The volume cannot grow faster than the surface area of the membrane, because the surface area of the membrane allows food in and eliminates wastes.

Click on the words "surface area" above to view an illustration of the ratio of surface area to volume in cells.

CELLS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

We are familiar with chemical reactions in test tubes, but chemical reactions associated with life processes, also take place in living cells. A chemical reaction is a process making or breaking chemical bonds. In plant cells, for example, light energy forms chemical bonds of molecules in large chains of glucose (sugar).

Substances with more than one kind of atom are called compounds. Atoms in compounds are always in definite ratios. For example, oxygen is a substance that is classified as an element. Hydrogen is also an element because its atoms are of one kind. Water, however, is a compound because it contains hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms, and they are always in the definite ratio of 2 hydrogens to one oxygen.

Because atoms in compounds occur in definite ratios, scientists can write chemical formulas for substances, such as 1120 for water. Chemists can also classify substances into two broad groups: organic and inorganic.

With few exceptions, organic substances contain the element carbon. Inorganic substances are elements other than carbon and compounds are elements with carbon. The categories are for convenience. Foods contain carbon, so does the human body. So, the study of foods and nutrition is considered to be based, among other things, upon organic chemistry.

Substances undergo changes when their conditions are changed. A change in condition could be an increase in temperature, a mechanical deformation, exposure to another substance, or any number of other alterations. NOTE: If the same substance remains after the change, a physical change has taken plain. If popping of popcorn is reviewed, students can see it was a physical change.

Whenever matter undergoes a change and a new substance with new characteristics is formed, a chemical change has taken place. Chemical changes often form compounds. For example, sodium is a soft, silvery metal that reacts with water. Chlorine is a yellow-green, corrosive, poisonous gas. If the two are brought together they will form a white crystalline solid that does not chemically react with water and is not poisonous. It is called sodium chloride. We know it as table salt.

Chemical properties of a substance describe and are concerned with how a material will react with another material. Decomposing compounds into elements involves chemical properties. Burning, digesting, and fermenting are examples of chemical changes that decompose elements into compounds.

Enzymes start many chemical reactions. Enzymes are made in living cells, and they start reactions but are not used up in the reaction. It is sort of like a spark plug causing a gasoline engine to ignite.

Enzymes are also responsible for some extremely undesirable changes in food. Enzymes can cause both positive and negative reactions. They often cause fruits and vegetables to turn brown or gray. To inactivate enzymes, food can be briefly immersed in boiling water and then dried or frozen. Enzymes in food are also inactivated when oxygen is excluded, sulfur dioxide is used, or the pH is lowered.

Enzymes are catalysts in the chemical process. Different kinds of enzymes are and can be produced in cells found in any living entity. They are proteinaceous substances produced by living cells.

Catalysts make a reaction go faster. A common example of a catalyst is an enzyme in cells of an avocado speeding up the rate at which oxygen can combine with smashed avocado cells and turn guacamole brown.

Enzymes, like microorganisms, can help or hinder food preparation and use of food in the body. Sometimes enzymes are beneficial; sometimes they are not. You will remember browning can be a problem in food preservation. Most browning in fruits and vegetables is caused by enzymes. On the other hand, enzymes made in the cells of the human body are essential to human health and well-being.

Fruit ranks high as one of the most abundant, attractive, and appealing foods. Most of the fruit consumed in the U.S. is eaten in the fresh form. Because of improved methods of refrigeration in storage and transportation, most of the fruits can be purchased in all sections of the country some time during the year. All fruits provide enjoyment in eating, stimulate the appetite, and contribute importantly to the food value of the diet.

The flesh of certain fresh fruits darkens on exposure to air. Bananas, apples, peaches, and pears are familiar examples. A phenolic compound called substrate must be present for browning to occur. The browning occurs when oxygen comes in contact with the substrate. An enzyme catalyzes, or speeds up, the reaction. To avoid browning, the enzyme can be denatured.

Browning is slowed by preventing oxygen from coming in contact with the substrate. Fruits which brown easily should be prepared immediately before serving to prevent darkening. Putting pealed fruit in water causes the loss of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and natural sugars. However if they must be held, a little lemon juice or other acid fruit juice sprinkled over them helps to keep their original color.

Chilling helps in preventing the darkening of fruit. Cooking also will keep pared fruit from darkening. For example, slicing apples for a pie need not be treated if the pie is to refrigerated or cooked immediately. All fresh fruits are perishable, and it is therefore particularly necessary to be able to recognize the signs of good quality. In general, good quality fruits look fresh and bright in color and are free from blemishes-not underripe; no signs of overripeness, such as softness, mold, or decay.

Fruits, because of their flavor, texture, aroma, and color stimulate the appetite. Fresh and frozen fruits should have stimulating flavor and color. The firmness and freedom from decay help the purchaser to judge quality.

SUMMARY of BROWNING

1. High-acid fruits do not brown when exposed to air. When air comes in contact with a fruit which is low in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), the air oxidizes or browns the surface of the fruit.

2. Browning results from the fresh fruit being exposed to air and being affected by the oxygen in the air. This browning takes place immediately after the cut fruit is exposed to air and is a process called oxidation or enzymatic browning. The discoloration is the work of an enzyme known as polyphenoloxidase which oxidizes phenolic compounds in the tissue of the fruit and causes them to condense into brown or gray polymers. This same kind of action takes place in humans during browning of the skin.

3. Browning is not a reversible process. Fruit which has browned cannot be restored to its original color by placing it into a solution.

4. Bananas deteriorate in texture the longer they sit in a liquid solution.

5. Because oxidation (or browning) takes place during the first few minutes that the fruit is exposed to air, it is important that we cover fruit as soon as it is peeled.

6. Enzymatic browning can be discouraged by several means. a. Chilling the food below about 40 F (4 C) will slow the enzyme down.

b. Boiling temperatures will destroy the enzyme. Boiling also means cooking and cooking means altering the flavor and texture of the fruit or vegetable.

c. Chloride ions (salt) inhibit the enzyme so that salt solutions will retard discoloration but at the cost of flavor.

d. Immersing the cuts in cold water limits the enzyme's access to oxygen and slows browning somewhat.

e. Various sulfur compounds combine with the phenolic substances and block their reaction with the enzyme; they are often applied commercially to dried fruits.

f. The enzyme works very slowly in highly acidic conditions. Ascorbic acid inhibits enzymatic browning.

To prevent browning (or oxidation), cover the fruit immediately after peeling it with a juice containing a high Vitamin C content, water, or salad dressing.

The importance of remembering that the cell is the basic structure of all living things helps one understand what causes a number of problems and poses solutions in food preparation and utilization. Many chemical changes take place within the cells of living things.

 Plant and Animal Cellshttp://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm

### 05.02.01 Cellular Biology(FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.2CellBio Assignment " to do this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Perform the following experiments and submit your responses in the submission area for this class. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

CUT OR TORN LETTUCE FOR A SALAD EXPERIMENT

EXPERIMENT: Make a decision on whether it is better to cut or tear lettuce for a salad.

1. Prepare a head of iceberg lettuce by removing the center core. Cut the lettuce head in half.

2. Chop the lettuce with a knife and place in a zipbag.

3. Tear the lettuce with your hands and place in a zipbag.

4. Place the zipbags in the refrigerator for a few days and then determine which method is best by observing, tasting, evaluating and recording the results on your worksheet.

PREVENTING GUACAMOLE FROM BROWNING EXPERIMENT

EXPERIMENT: Can you bring yourself to eat black avocado guacamole?

1. Peel and mash a ripe avocado. Divide into three separate small bowls.

2. In one bowl add a small amount of an acid such as lemon, lime, orange juice, or a commercial preparation (Fruit Fresh).

3. Wrap the second bowl tightly with an impermeable plastic film such as Saran Wrap and press it onto the surface of the mashed avocado.

4. Leave the third bowl exposed to the air.

5. Refrigerate all three bowls overnight.

INSTRUCTIONS: After performing the two experiments above, answer the questions below and submit them in the submission area of this class.

1. What did you observe with the lettuce?

a. Chopped lettuce?

b. Torn lettuce?

2. Why do you think this happened?

3. Which method would you prefer to use to have the freshest salad?

4. What did you observe in the three bowls of avocado guacamole?

a. Guacamole with juice added:

b. Guacamole wrapped in plastic:

c. Guacamole left out in the air:

5. Why do you think this happened?

6. Which method would you use in making avacado guacamole?

### 05.03 Metabolism(FoodSci)

Unit 5.3: Metabolism

Metabolism occurs when cells use nutrients in chemical reactions which provide energy for basic activities and processes in the body.

(Select the link "Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism")

Basal metabolism is the energy used by the body for basic life supporting functions when the body is at rest. The basal metabolic rate is the amout of heat or kcalories needed for basic bodily functions disregarding any kcalories needed for extra physical activity.

Search the Internet for a website with a "Basal Metabolism Calculator" to learn more about basal metabolism and you can even find out what your basal metabolism is by filling out the information requested.

When you did the basal metablic calculator, you received a printout that indicated the caloric intake for basal metabolic function and also the caloric intake when activity is introduced into the scenario. Any activity is going to increase the body's need for more calories. The converse is also true. If the caloric is higher than the need present for basal metabolism and activity then those extra calories will be turned into fat in the body.

It is important for a person to find out what their caloric intake should be to maintain the best bodily function and performance. It is very important that any person that determines they need to lose weight, should contact their health care professional to insure that it is done safely. Crash diets aren't effective and lead to malnutrition and stress the body.

Physical Activity

Extreme dieting slows metabolism where exercise increases metabolism. When muscle cells are used, they use the energy avaialbe by catabolizing the simple sugars in the blood and then use their glycogen stores.

With exercise, muscles become toned and the cells are more active which means they need more kcalories to function. Therefore, active, muscular people need more calories than less muscularly developed people.

During exercise, have you ever felt your muscles become tired, or even had a burning sensation. This is caused by a buildup of lactic acid in the muscles. Metabolism has to have oxygen to occur. Lactic acis is a waste product that forms when carbohydrated are not completely metabolized. This can occur when cells don't have enough oxygen to break down the carbohydrates. Thus, when a person slows down and gets enough oxygen, this helps with the lactic acid buildup.

 Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolismhttp://www.biocab.org/Metabolism.html

### 05.03.01 Metabolism(FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.3Metab" to do this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Go to a website with a basal matabolic calculator and put in the ifnormation for the following scenarios. For the last response, use your ow ninformation to find your basal metabolic rate. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Metabolic Rate

1. A 16 year old 5'4" female that weighs 126 pounds. ________calories

2. A 17 year old 5'11" male that weighs 164 pounds. ________calories

3. A 32 year old 5'5" nursing mother that weighs 135 pounds. ________calories

4. A 71 year old 6'0" male that weighs 181 pounds. ________calories

5. A 24 year old 5'6" female athlete that weighs 131 pounds. ________calories

6. A 44 year old 6'4" male that weighs 269 pounds. ________calories

7. A 5 year old 38" female that weighs 45 pounds. ________calories

8. A 22 year old 6'2" athlete that weighs 180 pounds. ________calories

9. A 19 year old 5'6" pregnant female that weighs 129 pounds. ________calories

10. A 12 year old 5' male that weighs 100 pounds. ________calories

11. Put in your information and find your calories. ________calories

### 05.04 Good Nutrition(FoodSci)

Unit 5.4: Good Nutrition

In the past the United States has used the BASIC FOUR as one food guide that divides food into groups according to their common characteristics:

Bread and Cereals - 4 servings a day
Fruits and Vegetables - 4 servings a day
Milk and Milk Products - 4 servings a day
Meats, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, Nuts, and Beans - 2 servings a day

The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowances) is another guide to good eating. It, along with the basic four, was meat to assure good nutrition. Currently being used is the United States Department of Agricultures's FOOD PYRAMID. It is designed to focus attention on the fact that most people in the United States eat too much fat and sugar. It was developed to help consumers better understand the relationship of food intake to health. (Background information and resources are available from the USDA.)

The U.S.D.A. reviews recommendations every decade. Many designs were considered (squares, circle, bowl, triangle, etc.) to be used for presentation of the recommended food guidelines. The triangle was chosen over the others because it could indicate which group was needed in the greatest or least amount.

The pyramid is a guide to daily food choices because it prescribes the number of servings of each food category that we should eat to provide us with all the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (the five classes of essential nutrients) we needed for optimum health. The food groups that should be ingested in the largest quantity form the base of the pyramid. If we use the pyramid as a guide and drink eight glasses of water a day, we will provide our bodies with all the food basis that are necessary for a healthy life.

There is no one perfect food although milk comes close and so does liver. It is the combinations and varieties of foods, however, that give good nutrition. Perhaps more than any single substance, food in some way effects almost everything we do - how we look, feel, act, and grow. It even affects our abilities - how well we function mentally, physically, socially, and emotionally. Six out of 10 leading causes of death in the United States are linked directly to diet e.g. heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity (overweight) and some cancers (80% of cancer can be prevented by proper nutrition). One might assume that we would know or want to know as much as possible about something as important as proper nutrition. If good food choices aid appearance, health and performance, then it seems reasonable that what we eat is important to us.

Adolescent Nutrition Facts

1. Food is what people eat.
2. Nutrition is how the body uses food.
3. The two most important times effecting growth are the pre-school and teen years.
4. What age level grows at a faster rate than infancy? Teenagers
5. At what time in their lives do teenagers have the ability to determine the body size they will have for life. The teen years - 12 to 17 years of age.
6. The period of growth and change for teenagers is from 12 to 17 years of age.
7. What will influence the way teenagers grow? What they eat.
8. If teenagers do not eat properly now, will their bodies be able to make up for it in later years. No.
9. Why do teenage boys be less likely to have malnutrition than teenage girls? Because, as a rule, boys eats more and diet less than girls.
10. The three major nutritional problems affecting teenagers are? Being too heavy, too thin and having a deficiency of a mineral - iron.
11. At what time in his life is a boy's nutritional requirements the most important? During the time he is becoming a man are higher than any other time in his life.
12. Nutritional requirements for a teenage girl are exceeded by what two events in her life? Only during pregnancy and the period following child birth.
13. What a teenage girl eats will effect the kind of pregnancy she will have years later. True.
14. What teenage girls and boys eat will effect the health of children born to them even though reproduction occurs years later. True.
15. How much will a teenage boy grow in one year? A teenage boy will grow as much as four inches in height and gain as mush as 15 pounds in one year.
16. What does growth involve? Growth involves more than increases in height and weight: body fat is lost while bones increase in density and muscles develop in size and strength.
17. List 5 ways that malnutrition is likely to occur in teenagers. Malnutrition is likely to occur in teenager due:

a. to poor food habits
b. extreme dieting
c. lack of knowledge about nutrition
d. limited food selection
e. limited funds or lack of emphasis on good foods.

18. What a teenager eats will effect the skin, hair, weight, vitality and outlook on life. True.
19. If a teenager doesn't look or feel well what suffers? The quality of life will suffer.
20. Teenagers with poor eating habits tend to pay less attention to what they are doing and los interest easily.
21. The endocrine glands that manufacture or secrete hormones during adolescence are growing and developing as part of the growth of the entire body. True.
22. Good nutrition is essential for the growth hormones to develop properly. True.
23. The teen years are a period and mental stress; good nutrition reduces the stress level in teens.
24. What influences teenage eating habits the most? They are influenced by friends more than by parents.
25. Teenagers have a great need for what nutrients? Protein, vitamins, especially B and C. and minerals, especially iron.
26. During the growth spurt, ample supplies of all nutrient are need for muscle, bones and blood.

(Select the link "Dietary Guidelines")

(Select the link "Food Guide Pyramid")

 Dietary Guidelineshttp://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/htm...Food Guide Pyramidhttp://www.mypyramid.gov/

### 05.04.01 Good Nutrition(FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "A5.4GoodNut" to submit this assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions and then fill in the food guide pyramid with each of the categories represented and the recommended servings for a day in each category. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

1. List ten things outlined in the dietary guidelines:

1. _____________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________
6. _____________________________________________
7. _____________________________________________
8. _____________________________________________
9. _____________________________________________
10. _____________________________________________

2. Write a 100 word essay telling how can you use the information from the MyPyramid web site in your life. (What benefits will you have if you follow the food pyramid?) _____________________ _____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

### 05.05 Unit 5 Test(FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 70 points possible 60 minutes

Go to section 3 "Assignments, Quizzes, Tests" of the homepage of the class and click on "Unit5 Test Quiz" to do this assignment. Follow the instructions there.

### 06.00 Unit Six: Nutrients (FoodSci)

 Unit 6: Nutrients This unit will teach you about recommended daily allowances, carbohydrates, fats & lipids, Proteins & amino acids, vitamins & minerals, and water.

### 06.01 Carbohydrates (FoodSci)

 Unit 6.1: Carbohydrates Nutrients A nutrient is a substance needed for the body to develop and function properly. There are many nutrients, but six are absolutely necessary. We are told, for example, that the "ultimate" breakfast should have foods that, together, provide some of each of the daily needs for all six nutrients. Each nutrient plays a specific role in the body. Together they supply energy, provide materials for growth and maintenance, and control body function. Nutrients that do similar things are grouped together. A healthy mind and body require oxygen, exercise, sleep, eater and nutrients. Nutrients are found in the foods we eat. Nutrients and water must be ingested (taken into the body and digested) in order to nurture and sustain life. 6 MAJOR CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS 1. water - "The" essential for all body functions 2. carbohydrates - "go" foods 3. fats - concentrated "go" foods 4. proteins - "grow" foods 5. vitamins - "glow" foods 6. minerals - "glow" foods The nutrients are either used to produce energy for the body to "grow and go" or they are used to regulate body systems. Explain the difference and have students categorize the nutrients: Body Regulators Water Vitamins Minerals Fiber Energy Producers Protein Carbohydrates Fats Now that you have had a brief review of what the nutrients are, what they do, and where you can find them, we will be going into more depth on each nutrient. Our first focus will be carbohydrates. Open the attachment labeled "Basic Nutrients" and study the chart. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the body. The term carbohydrate refers to a group of compounds which have a similar structure. They are the most abundant organic molecules on earth and are produced by living organisms (plants not animals). All carbohydrates are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), and contain the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen as occurs in water. Carbohydrates are identified by the number of saccharide units in their structure. Sugars and starches are carbohydrates. Sugar is the quick energy source for cells in both plants and animals, excluding humans. When sugars are digested in the cells, they are oxidized. Oxidation occurs when oxygen molecules interact with other molecules and strip away some of their electrons. Starch is formed by many sugar molecules bonding together. Sugar molecules also bond to starch to form crystals. Oxygen molecules have an affinity for electrons and will pull them away from any other molecule that has electrons in weak or loose bonds. Oxidation of a molecule changes the original appearance and properties of the molecule. It also releases energy held in a molecule's bonds. For example, when wood burns, the oxygen in the air reacts with wood, the becomes ashes, energy is released. DNA in cells masterminds oxidation. MONOSACCHARIDES are sugars in their simplest form. They are carbohydrate molecules which serve as building blocks for the more complex carbohydrates. Dietary monosaccharides include: Glucose (sometimes called dextrose, grape sugar, and corn sugar) is the most prevalent monosaccharide. It is found in fruits, vegetables, honey, corn syrup, and molasses. It is a structural unit of all common dietary disaccharides and the basis for all polysaccharides. Fructose (sometimes called levulose) is the second molecule used for sucrose. It is the sweetest of all the sugars and is found in honey, molasses, fruits, and vegetables. Galactose does not occur in a free form in foods but is produced when lactose or milk sugar is digested, or when milk products are fermented. DISACCHARIDES contain two units of monosaccharide. Sucrose, more commonly known as table or regular sugar, is the most common one used. Sucrose is extracted from either beet or cane sugar. Sucrose is the crystalline form resulting when one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose combine to form sucrose and water. The chemical formula for producing sucrose illustrates how this formation of sugar takes place. (Glucose and fructose have the same chemical formula but differ in molecular structure.) glucose + fructose = sucrose + water C6H1206 + C6H1206 = C12H22011 + H20 The body uses sugar by reversing this process. It is called the hydrolysis of sugar. Lactose is hydrolyzed in the body by an enzyme lactase which breaks down the lactose into two monosaccharide-glucose and galactose. The galactose is then further broken down in the liver to form glucose. Glucose is used by the body for energy. POLYSACCHARIDES OR POLYMERS contain many molecules of monosaccharide. The main ones are: Starch is the most abundant dietary carbohydrate and is reduced to sugar by digestive processes. Dextrin are short glucose chains formed from starch. Cellulose is the unique structural component used primarily by plants. Human bodies cannot digest cellulose. Poly means many. Mer means parts. Polymer means many parts. Polymers are long chains of molecules. Polymers have a carbon nucleus with hydrogen cross bonded to them. HUMAN-MADE POLYMERS Plastic Nylon Grease NATURAL POLYMERS Cotton Wool Hair Skin Protein Gelatin Polysaccharides Pure sugars (sucrose) are solid at room temperature and will liquefy or decompose when heated. The melting point is about 320 F (160 C). At that temperature, it forms a colorless liquid. With continued heating, it becomes yellow, and with additional heat, the color change progresses to brown and then to nearly black. This process is known as caramelization. It is a chemical process. Care must be taken not to let the process go too far otherwise a bitter, burnt flavor develops. Caramelized sugars can be used in many ways especially to produce color. Sugar has gained a poor reputation in that too much of it will be stored in the body for emergency purposes. Some people will gain weight; develop diabetes, heart, or other diseases; or have poor teeth as a result of an improper sugar balance. Sugar plays an important role in food preparation. It has several functions in food preparation and in the body: 1. Used by the body for energy. 2. Enhances food flavors. 3. Promotes tenderness, fine texture, greater volume, and browning in baked products. 4. Stabilizes egg white foam. 5. Increases tenderness of starch-thickened gels, gelatin products, and egg dishes. 6. Promotes production of carbon dioxide by yeast. 7. Acts as a dehydrating agent in pectin gel formation. 8. Lowers the freezing point of mixtures (ice cream). 9. Increases the boiling point of mixtures (candy). Sugar crops up as an added ingredient in such unlikely places as (among others) soda crackers, spaghetti sauce, soups, salad dressing, ketchup, table salts, and many medicines. Sugar also comes in many disguises. For example, the following (among others) are forms of sugar: honey, syrup, corn sugar, corn syrup, molasses, invert sugar, brown sugar, sucrose, fructose, glucose, dextrose, maltose, and lactose. Sugar tastes good to most people. Bacteria that cause tooth decay love it too. When exposed to sugar, especially sucrose, the bacteria in the mouth thrive on it and form an acid that weakens tooth structure and forms decay. If a person was monitoring their intake of carbohydrates, they could calculate how many kcalories they were getting by understanding that one gram of carbohydrates has 4 kcalories of energy. If you were eating a bowl of cold cereal that has 12 grams of carbohydrates, this would equal 48 kcalories from carbohydrates. POLYMERIZATION Polymers were mentioned earlier and so what do you think of when you hear the word slime? Something gooey, wet, slippery, etc. Slime is actually a synthetic polymer. It can be made at home with the following recipe: Mix 10 ml of polyvinyl alcohol with a few drops of 4% sodium borate. (The alcohol can be purchased at most chemical supply stores and some educational supply stores. The sodium borate can be made using water to dilute a small amount of borax soap.) Stir the alcohol as the sodium borate is dropped in. The solution will thicken and can be experimented with. This is polymerization. What happens is that the need of atoms for electrons determines how they will bond. It takes 2 electrons to fill the first level, 8 for the second, and 18 for the third around the atom. The same processes is used to form the polyethylene of common plastic wrap. Gelatin is a substance of long protein molecules that polymerize as the gelatin sets. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON GELATIN Gelatin is a natural substance extracted from the collagen (connective tissues), bones, and skin of animals and fish. It is an incomplete protein which, when softened and heated in water, dissolves or bonds with the water molecules. After bonding, the mixture needs to be kept cool since high temperatures will liquify it. Freezing will cause a gummy look and the surface will crack. The conversion of collagen to gelatin is most rapid at temperatures close to the boiling point of water, and this fact should be considered in the cooking of meat. If meat is cooked well enough to gelatinize the collagen, the fibers will be dry and dense. Observation of roast juices upon cooling will disclose the gelatin that has been formed by the connective tissues heated to a high temperature for a long period of time. The acids found in fresh pineapple, protease enzyme, will break down the gelatin proteins preventing the bonding of gelatin. This is why fresh or frozen pineapple should not be used in any gelatin mixtures. Canned pineapple is all right to use because the acids have been destroyed by the cooking process. Formula for use: 1 Tbsp. of gelatin granules can turn 2 cups of liquid into a solid. Too much gelatin will result in a rubbery texture. When gelatin is sprinkled on cold water, the granules suddenly take up large quantities of water and swell into a delicate, tender mass. Heating this mass will liquify it. (Select the link "Importance of Carbohydrates") Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 1.

### 06.01 Carbohydrates links (FoodSci)

 Importance of Carbohydrateshttp://fnicsearch.nal.usda.gov/fnicsearch/result-list/fullRe...

### 06.01.01 Basic Nutrients Worksheet (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: There are three parts to this assignment. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

Part I. Create a chart or table about the basic nutrients. Include the following information in the sheet: The names of all 6 basic nutrients, what each of the nutrients do for the body and where we can get each of the nutrients.

Part II. CALORIES IN CARBOHYDRATES DIRECTIONS: Knowing that sugars and starches are both carbohydrates and that one gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories, peruse four food labels and figure the calories from the carbohydrates found in any food product. List the food product and calculate the calories from carbohydrates.

Part III. Summarize your findings in two paragraph about how this information impacts what you might eat and also the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates.

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### 06.02 Fats and Lipids (FoodSci)

 Unit 6.2: Fats and Lipids LIPID - The scientific term used to depict fats and oils. The terms are interchangeable, but fats or oils are more commonly used in everyday language. The three will be, for the most part, the term used in this unit. Fats need to be included in food supplies because they perform a number of critical functions in the human body. Among these are: (1) insulation, (2) the repair of walls of arteries and veins, (3) for energy storage, and (4) as a solvent for vitamins A, D, E, and K. They provide linoleic acids and calories (9 per gram). Fats should not be eaten in excess, and eating them in excess is easy to do in the American culture because they are such an integral part of our everyday food preparation. Fats in our foods that come from plants are oils; that is, they are liquid at room temperatures. This is true of peanut oil, sunflower oil, vegetable oil, etc. Fats from foods provided by animal sources are generally solid at room temperature. The exception is vegetable shortenings which are chemically modified plant oils that remain solid at room temperature. Chemically, all fats and oils are built from glycerol molecules and fatty acids that are long chains of from 4 to 24 carbon atoms (Feeling, 1991, p.96). Fats contain 3 fatty acid chains bonded to one glycerol molecule. The fatty acids that bond with the glycerol molecule can be identical or different. There are many different kinds of fats each with specific characteristics. The varying combination of these characteristics is what makes each fatty acid unique. Saturated fats contain the most hydrogen. If a carbon chain has only single bonds, there are some places free where hydrogen atoms can attach to the carbon chain. When single bonded fats have all the hydrogen atoms added that the carbon atoms have room for, the fats are called saturated fats. Saturated fatty acids tend to raise the blood cholesterol level in many people. Some health authorities suggest limiting intake of saturated fatty acids to that of total fat intake. Saturated fats are generally less healthy than unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond. The double bond has used up one place a hydrogen atom could connect to; and the chain, therefore, is not connected (saturated) to all possible hydrogen atoms. Polyunsaturated fats contain the least number of hydrogen molecules, so the carbons have many double bonds where hydrogen potentially could have connected to the carbon atoms. In single-bonded fats, the carbon atoms move and the saturated molecules form zig-zag chains. In double bonds, the chain is inflexible and it wrinkles, or kinks, at every place where there is a double bond. All fats are composed of two building blocks: glycerol and fatty acids. Fats are created when three fatty acids attach themselves to the three prongs of one glycerol molecule (Freelig, 1991, p.97). The unsaturated fats are not flexible enough to pile on top of each other easily, in nicely stacked rows. The saturated fats can pile up nicely with their saw-tooth chains fitting into one other in a zig-zag manner. They form crystals and stay solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are liquid molecules and are liquid at room temperature. Most solid fats have both saturated and unsaturated fats and both crystalline and liquid molecules. The longer the fatty acid chains, the higher the melting point of a fat will be. All dietary fats are made up of mixtures of these three types of fatty acids. The temperature where a fat smokes is the temperature at which the fatty acid is breaking down creating acrolein. This substance irritates the eyes and nostrils as it enters the air. There are many types of fats, and they should be matched to the use intended and flavor desired. For example, butter and oil are valued for flavor, but they have a low smoke point. On the other hand, if a fat has a high smoke point, it can remain liquid on the surface of a flour product, such as a scone or doughnut. (Freeland-Graves, 1987.) Fats add flavor and tenderness to foods. In salad oils, taste is more critical than the melting point. Hard fats make better biscuits because they keep the gluten strands shorter and prevent toughness. Hard fats in pie crust separate the gluten strands, and the melting fat lets the other ingredients cook in loose layers, creating flaky pastry. Frying food is faster than baking or broiling because oil heats much hotter than water before it boils. Oil, a liquid, also transfers heat faster than air, which is composed of gases. Cooking oil, in a deep fryer for example, needs to be hot enough to keep the water in the food (French fries) at a boiling point. The water that escapes from the potatoes will keep hot oil from soaking into the French fries. The flavor of fried food comes from oil reacting with proteins, starches, and sugar in the surface areas of the foods. This also promotes browning. MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS Two liquids that mix together (e.g., vinegar and water) are miscible. Two liquids that do not mix (e.g., oil and water) are immiscible. Oil and water do not mix because water is made of polar molecules and oil is not. Polar molecules work just like magnets. The negative side of a polar molecule will attract the positive side of another polar molecule. Oil molecules are not attracted to polar molecules. Oil is also lighter (less dense) than water. If you shake oil and water together in a beaker or bottle, the two will separate as soon as the shaking stops. If oil and water are to be mixed in food preparation, as in salad dressings, they need a third agent, preferably one that has a molecule that is both water-loving (hydrophilic) and oil-loving (lipophilic). An emulsifier is such a substance. Soup is a common emulsifier. So are egg yolk, mustard, honey, and some herbs. That is why egg yolks are used in making mayonnaise and mustard is used in some other types of dressings. Some emulsions are temporary (French dressing), and some are permanent emulsions (salad dressing and soups made with a stabilizer or starch). FAT IN FOODS (IN GRAMS) All foods are ready-to-eat. Values taken from NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS, USDA. Whole milk, 1 c./8 g 2% milk, 1 c./5 g Nonfat milk, 1 c./0 g Processed American cheese, 1 oz./9 g Cheddar cheese, 1" cube/6 g Ice cream, 1 c./14 g Ice milk, 1 c./6 g Egg, whole/6 g Bacon, 2 slices/8 g Hot dog, 1/15 g Chicken drumstick, fried, 2 oz./4 g Pork chop, loin, broiled, 2.7 oz./25 g Pizza, 1 slice/4 g Hamburger patty, broiled, 3 oz./15 g Coconut, 2" x 2" x 1/2" piece/16 g Peanuts, 1/2 c./36 g Peanut butter, 1 Tbsp./8 g Avocado, California, 10 oz./37 g Olives, green, 8 medium/4 g Brownie, 1 3/4" x 1 3/4" x 7/8"/4 g Milk chocolate candy, 1 oz./9 g REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF LIPIDS Cook foods in fat heated below the smoking point but above 212 F or 100 C (sea level) which is the boiling point of water in a food. 1. Fat boils at a higher temperature. 2. More fat is absorbed in foods that have more sugar, liquid, leavening, and other fat. 3. The degree of browning is dependent on time, temperature, and the sugar and protein near and on food surfaces. 4. Crispness is due to dehydration of the outer surfaces of food. 5. The smoke point will be decreased by: a. Adding emulsifiers to fat. b. Using iron and copper pans (they accelerate oxidative reactions). c. The use of wide, shallow pans (accelerates oxidation). d. Adding small particles of food, such as crumbs. e. The repeated use of fat. f. The prolonged use of fat. 6. Used fat can be freshened by adding 15-20% new fat, by straining the used fat, or by adding a slice of bread to reheated fat. PROPERTIES OF LIPID FATS WILL ABSORB FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (Vitamin A, D, E, and K) To demonstrate this, you can take two carrots and cut them into small pieces. Cook the carrots in 1 cup water for 10 minutes. Cover the pan and cook slowly so that the water is not lost in steam. Drain and save the cooking water and let it cool. Measure 1/4 cup cooking water into a shaker bottle and add 1/4 cup mineral oil. Shake mixture for at least one minute. Allow to settle. When oil and water separate, observe the color change in the oil layer. It should take on an orange color which is the carotene or vitamin A. OIL HAS A HIGHER BOILING POINT THAN WATER This property of lipids is best shown in the cooking of pasta. It is possible to illustrate this by bringing 2 quarts of water and 1 tsp. of salt to a full boil. Add pasta slowly, stirring so that boiling continues. When the water foams and is close to boiling over, add 1 to 2 Tbsp. oil to the boiling water and pasta and observe what happens to the boil. Observe how long it takes for the water to resume boiling. The oil will have a calming effect of the foaming water and will keep the water from boiling over because the oil has a higher boiling point than water. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 2.

### 06.02.01 Fats and Lipids (FoodSci)

 Unit 6-Assignment 2: Fats and Lipids INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment. HONEY MUSTARD SALAD DRESSING TEMPORARY EMULSION DIRECTIONS: Make the following dressing and then answer the questions on the worksheet at the end. 1. Place 2 Tbsp. red wine vinegar or cider vinegar and 2 Tbsp. oil in a small container with a tight lid. Shake well and record what happens. 2. Add 1 Tbsp. honey and 1 Tbsp. Dijon mustard. Shake. Observe and record the difference. 3. Add salt and pepper to taste. Shake. Pour over favorite salad vegetables. Makes one cup. ICE CREAM DIRECTIONS: Carefully study the following recipe for ice cream and answer the question by completing the chart on the worksheet at the end. RECIPE 5 eggs 1 pint whipping cream 1 cup sugar 1 can evaporated milk 1/2 cup white Karo syrup 1 can water 1 Tbsp. vanilla additional whole milk if needed ice and rock salt Optional: crushed pineapple or strawberries Separate eggs. Beat whites until stiff. Add sugar and beat again. Beat together yolks, syrup, evaporated milk, and one can water (use milk can to measure). Add to whites but don't stir. Beat whipping cream until thick (don't overheat). Add vanilla and mix with the other mixture. Add flavor-pineapple or strawberry. Pour mixture into ice cream mixer. Add additional milk until mixture is 2" from top of freezer with paddles in. Place cover on container and put container into the tub. Surround the container with ice adding 4 parts ice to one part salt (use rock salt). If turning freezer by hand, turn until you can't turn any more. If using an electric mixer, follow directions given by the manufacturer. Then let stand 1/2 hour. Serves about 8. Part 1: INSTRUCTIONS: Answer these questions once you have made the honey-mustard dressing. 1. What two liquids were immiscible? _____________________________ _____________________________ 2. What two agents acted as peace makers or emulsifiers? ______________________________ ____________________________ 3. In your own words, explain how an emulsifier works. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Part 2: INSTRUCTIONS: After examing the ice cream recipe, complete the chart by telling the purpose and contribution of each ingredient in the recipe. Give the scientific reason for its use, and the result obtained because of that ingredient. If you aren't sure, use the Internet to learn more. INGREDIENTS ---------- PURPOSE/CONTRIBUTION ----------- RESULTS Egg - yolk Fat from egg Egg - white Sugar Karo syrup Whipping cream Whole milk Evaporated milk water Vanilla Pineapple or Strawberries Rock salt Ice

### 06.03 Proteins (FoodSci)

 Unit 6.3: PROTEINS Open the attachment labeled "Protein Illustrations" and print the sheets that appear. They will be referenced throughout this lesson. Approximately one-half of the non-water mass of the human body is protein. Proteins compose some structural parts of the body such as cartilage and tendons. Protein will be discussed here, using eggs because the white of the egg gives such visibility to protein reaction in food preparation. One-half of the protein in the body, however, is used as catalysts within the cells. These catalysts, you will recall, are called enzymes. Enzymes, then, are proteins. Body cells require energy. The body makes enzymes from protein, but it eats its own protein only during starvation. Enzymes allow energy-producing reactions to occur within the cells without raising temperatures so high that the energy-producing reactions would injure the cells. Some on the energy produced does appear as heat in the cell, but most is used to produce other products whose synthesis requires input of energy. If all the energy were kept in the cell in the form of heat, the cell would die. Proteins are a type of molecule found in all animals and plants. Like polysaccharide, proteins are polymers. They are very large molecules because each protein molecule is made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. The amino acids form proteins by linking into long chains called polymers. When human beings eat proteins, the body breaks them apart and uses the amino acids to build new proteins necessary for growth and repair of body tissues. Proteins from animal sources are complete proteins because they contain all of the amino acids the human body needs. Eggs are a primary source of complete protein and have unique physical and chemical properties that illustrate the nature of the protein molecule. All amino acids have a simple chemical backbone with an amine group (the nitrogen containing part) at one end. At the other end is the acid part. This backbone is the same for all amino acids. The difference between them depends on a distinctive structure, the chemical side chain, that is attached to the backbone. It is the nature of the side chain that gives identity and chemical nature to each amino acid. Twenty amino acids with 20 different side chains make up the proteins of all living tissue. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Amino Acid #1 illustration. The amino acids that make up proteins differ from fats and carbohydrates in that they contain the element nitrogen. Proteins differ from each other in the sequence of the amino acids that form a particular chain. They also differ in the way that the protein chain (also called a peptide chain) is linked, coiled, or twisted. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Amino Acid #2 illustration. Chemically, the backbone of every chain is -C-C-N-. This backbone is also called a peptide chain. If two amino acids join in a chain, it is called a dipeptide. A number of amino acids in a chain are called polypeptide. Molecules of water bind to both the backbone and polar groups of proteins. Polypeptide and proteins are formed from amino acids by a condensation reaction in which one amino acid loses -OH from -COOH and another loses -H from -NH2 to form a peptide bond. Repetition of this reaction (polymerization) converts dipeptide to polypeptide and these in turn to proteins. A strand formula for an amino acid, with the variable group R, has been used in the diagram. Breakdown of proteins to polypeptide to amino acids is the reverse process, an enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. There are 30 to several thousand amino acids contained in different proteins. All amino acids are similar in shape, but each one contains a unique side chain that allows formation of different chains of different lengths and chains with unique combinations of sequencing. A strand of protein is not a straight chain, however. The amino acids are attracted to each other at several different places along the strand. This attraction causes the strand to coil and fold. Each unique protein folds naturally because of its own special type of bonding and its own special shape. Some proteins are shaped like springs. Some are shaped like doughnuts. Some water soluble ones are shaped like a ball of steel wool. Some resemble flat sheets of paper that have been accordion pleated. Some look like a tangled yarn ball. The shape of the amino acid chains, as the fold, determines what the protein does inside the plant or animal (human) cell. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Polypeptide and Protein illustration. Eight of the amino acids are known to be essential to human life. Since proteins cannot be synthesized (put together) within the human body, the essential amino acids must be provided by the foods eaten. Different amino acids have different names. The names of the eight amino acids are: lysine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, valine, and phenylalanine. Some animal protein from eggs, dairy products, kidneys, and liver contain all the essential amino acids. Other animal and some plant proteins from corn, wheat, gelatin, soybeans, peanuts, potatoes, poultry, fish, and red meats in various combinations, can also provide the complete proteins that contain the amino acids essential to the body's health and well-being. DENATURED PROTEINS When proteins, for any reason, lose their natural folded shape, they are called denatured, which means unnatural. Most proteins, once they become denatured, cannot fold back again into their normal shape. For example, when an egg is fried, the loss of water molecules and the heat changes (denatures) the protein. The changes are visible, and they cannot be reversed. The egg cannot be uncooked. It is easier for a human body to digest denatured protein. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Denatured Protein illustration. In some proteins, amino acids that have affinity for water molecules are folded to the inside, and those with less tendency to bond with water molecules are on the outside of the folded protein chain. Denaturing can expose the water-bonding molecules to the outside. EGG PROTEIN Proteins change dramatically when cooked. Many foods that contain proteins, such as eggs and meat, are cooked specifically to change the proteins and that changes the nature of the food. As noted above, eggs are one of the foods that contain all the essential amino acids. But, eggs are important in cooking because of another unique property: egg whites and egg yolks mixed together are liquid at room temperature and solidify irreversibly when they are heated. (This is the opposite of water and other common cooking ingredients such as fats and sugars which, when heated, change irreversibly to liquids and then to gases.) Hydrogen bonds affect the nature of the protein molecule in both raw and cooked eggs. Proteins in eggs, meats, and other foods, consist of long molecules. If these molecules are poorly bonded to each other, they are liquid-like. By cooking the egg, hydrogen bonds form between the protein molecules and thicken the proteins. We perceive that the egg coagulates and changes color from transparent to opaque. The changes that take place in eggs when they are heated are due to the fact that eggs contain many different types of proteins. The most abundant of these is globular. It is the globular protein, for example, that makes hard-boiled eggs hard. GLOBULAR PROTEINS Globular protein is the name given to a protein with long chains of amino acids which fold around each other to form a fairly compact ball, much like a ball of yarn. Heat will cause all of the egg's proteins to unfold and expose amino acids that were once on the inside of the protein strand. As the globular protein unfolds, it will network and form weak bonds with amino acids of other unfolded proteins. The unfolding is generally irreversible. Further heat will cause egg's protein networks to solidify. Overheating creates too many bonds among the proteins and squeezes out water. This can result in food textures that are runny, lumpy, and/or rubbery. COAGULATION In food mixtures, milk and eggs are the most common source of proteins. If a protein containing food mixture is heated, the proteins become more solid; that is, they coagulate. This is because heat causes protein molecules to move faster through the water in the food mixture, and the molecules collide and bond with each other in large, three-dimensional networks. In other words, the bonds between the protein molecules that become solid when heated, give structure to the mixture because the liquid within the mixture is held in the network of coagulated protein. If the mixture is overheated, some of the liquid is squeezed out. This is the reason that custard, for example, that is baked too fast at a temperature which is too high will tend to separate and weep. It is also why scrambled eggs turn rubbery or watery. Egg whites are about 10% protein and about 90% water and coagulate at around 60 C or 140 F. Egg yolks are about 15% protein and about 50% water. They also contain around 35% fat. This causes them to coagulate at about 68 C or about 154 F, which is slightly higher than the temperature at which the whites coagulate. If more ingredients are added to eggs in a mixture, the coagulation temperature of egg proteins will change. That is because the other ingredients dilute the egg proteins, and it takes more heat to move them to a place in the mixture where they can collide and bond. Salts, acids, and alcohol each have the capacity to neutralize negatively charged parts of the protein molecule, so that the protein molecule will bond more easily. Cream of tartar, for example, contains acid which can cause egg whites to coagulate without heat. Lemon juice will do the same thing, but the water in the lemon juice will prevent a good foam from forming. Vinegar and salt can be used to seal the cracks in eggs that are being boiled because, as protein in the egg white leaks out of the cracked shell, coagulation of protein molecules seals the crack. Vinegar in water used to poach eggs denatures the protein on the surface and keeps it from failing apart before coagulation can take place. Whipping egg whites also denatures proteins because it makes the bonds of the protein break apart; then the long, unfolded strands of proteins surround air bubbles. The molecules of protein near the surface denature (uncoil) due to exposure to the air of the water in the amino acids, and some of them collapse, forming small bubbles and resulting in a finer foam. Foams can be stabilized by heating (for example, baking a meringue). EGGS Fats coat denatured proteins and stop them from bonding (coagulating). That is why a bit of egg yolk (which contains fat) dropped into egg white will stop production of a good meringue. Whipping egg whites in a bowl with residue of fat or oil also inhibits production of a good meringue. An in-depth study of eggs will help students understand the nature and versatility of eggs as a food source of protein and other nutrients and as an important ingredient in the preparation of other foods. Exquisitely simple, yet enormously complex, the egg is one of nature's marvels. It is one of the most nutrient dense of foods and one of the most inexpensive food sources of complete protein. PARTS OF THE EGG The chalazae (kuh-LAY-zuh) is a dense cord-like white strand made mostly of mucin. It is connected to each side of the yolk. It holds the yolk in the center of the egg. The air cell at the large end of the egg is formed by the separation of the two shell membranes as the contents inside the shell shrink during cooling. The vitelline membrane separates the egg yolk from the egg white. The egg shell is made of calcium carbonate crystals mixed with protein. The shell is a semipermeable membrane, which means air can pass through it. This allows the developing chick to get air, but it also allows bacteria through to the egg we eat. The shell is often a little rough or slightly bumpy. As an egg ages, the shell becomes smoother. Egg whites are 15% protein. The egg white is often called the albumen because that is the main protein in egg white. Ovalbumin is 63% of the protein in egg white. It also contains the sulfur in the egg white. conalbumin is 12% of the protein in egg white. It has the ability to bind iron. EGG COMPOSITION CONTINUED The white is divided into thick egg white and thin egg white. The fresher the egg, the more thick egg white there will be. As an egg ages, thick egg white breaks down and becomes thin egg white. Ovomucin is a mucor protein that gives the egg white its jelly-like characteristic. Ovomucin is the protein that makes egg white thick. It coagulates slower than thin egg white. As an egg ages, the ovomucin breaks down and thick egg white turns into thin egg white. This protein does not coagulate when heated as quickly as other proteins. Because of this, the thin egg white will cook or set faster when heated. The yolk is the yellow center part of the egg. It actually has more nutrients than the white. It is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin A, vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. One large egg has 213 mg cholesterol. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Denatured Protein illustration. The bloom is a thin film on the outside of the egg that helps seal the shell and helps keep bacteria out. The bloom is less effective if the egg has been washed. It is better not to wash the shell until just before using the egg. The two inner and outer membranes separate the shell from the egg white. theses are semipermeable membranes. The germ spot is a light spot on the yolk. It is the sight where a chick would develop if the egg were fertilized and conditions were correct for the chick to grow. Occasionally you will find an egg that has a blood spot in it. This is a fertilized germ spot, but it does not affect the egg. It s still usable. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of th lesson and take note of the Composition of an Egg and the Ins and Outs of an Egg illustrations. COOKING EGGS AGED VS. FRESH EGGS Eggs need to be cooked using low temperatures because egg white is protein. Never boil an egg. Hard-and soft-cooked eggs should be cooked in hot water. To keep the shell from cracking because the air space in the end expands when heated, poke a pin hole in the large end of the egg before cooking it. Another thing you can do is put a little vinegar in the cooking water for hard- cooked eggs. If the shell cracks, the white will not leak out as much because the vinegar is an acid and acid makes egg white protein coagulate faster. Always pour cold water over hard- cooked eggs as soon as the cooking time is up. This makes the egg easier to peel and helps keep the dark gray-green ring from forming on the outside of the yolk. High heat and a long cooking time increase the chance that a gray-green ring will form around the yolk because these two conditions let the sulfur in the white combine with the iron in the yolk to form ferrous sulfide or iron sulfide. This is a chemical reaction. Egg Basics Summary I. PART OF AN EGG A. The albumen is the white part of the egg. B. The yolk is the yellow part of the egg. C. The thin film on the outside of the egg that helps seal the shell and protects the egg from outside bacteria is called the bloom. D. The cord which holds the yolk near the center of the egg is called the chalazae. E. There is a light spot on the yolk known as the germ spot which would develop into a chick in a fertilized egg. F. The air cell appears at the large end of the egg and increases in size as the egg ages. II. SIZE AND GRADE OF EGGS A. Candling makes it possible to judge the thickness of the white, the position of the yolk, and the size of the air space. B. The freshest eggs are Grade AA, followed by Grade A and Grade B. C. Eggs are classified by size. The largest is jumbo. In decreasing size, the remaining classes are, extra large, large, medium, small, and pee-wee. D. The egg carton has a lot of information for the consumer. The carton tells the following things about the eggs: quality, size, and inspection stamp. III. FUNCTIONS OF EGGS A. One of the most important functions of eggs is to contribute nutrients whether used alone or in recipes. B. The protein in eggs is used as a thickening agent since egg protein coagulates when heated. Eggs are used to thicken custards and puddings. C. Because the egg white coagulates when heated, eggs also function to bind ingredients together in meat loaves, and hold crumbs together on breaded foods. D. Eggs can also be used as leavening agents because the white can be beaten to hold large amounts of air. E. Egg yolks act as an emulsifying agent in foods such as mayonnaise and salad dressings. IV. NUTRITIONAL CONTRIBUTION OF EGGS A. The yolk is a rich source of nutrients; it contains more vitamins and minerals than the white and also some fat. B. Eggs contain high-quality protein and can be used as a meat substitute. C. The only vitamin in egg white is riboflavin; while the yolk contains vitamins A, D, and the B complex. The sun changes some of the skin oils into vitamin D, so it is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin. D. Iron and phosphorus are the minerals found in eggs. E. Iron is part of the hemoglobin in red blood cells. F. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the body cells and carbon dioxide away. A lack of red blood cells can cause anemia. G. Egg substitutes are different from eggs because they are lower in fat, cholesterol, and calories. Refer to the printout you printed at the beginning of the lesson and take note of the Nutrient Density of an Egg illustration. FUNCTIONS OF EGGS 1. AS A LEAVENING AGENT - Eggs can be used as a leavening agent because the egg white can be beaten to incorporate air. This is affected by temperature, time, fat, acid, and sugar. The air held in the egg white foam expands when heated and leavens the baked product. The cream of tartar in the angel food cake recipe makes the foam more stable and helps the foam form faster. This allows the batter to raise better. Oiling the pan does not allow a baked product to cling to the pan and climb the pan to rise; also, fat decreases the stability of the egg white foam. 2. AS FOAMS - One function of eggs is their role in making foams. Foams are usually made by beating an egg white to incorporate air into the white. This makes foods light and fluffy. Maximum volume always results from beating eggs or egg whites at room temperature. Egg whites make good foams because they can make colloidal dispersions. A colloidal dispersion is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution. The particles in the mixture are larger than in true solutions. The particles are dispersed in the mixture rather than dissolved in it. The large particles are called colloids. The large particles are bigger than atoms or molecules, but they are not big enough to settle out of the mixture. Egg white is a colloidal dispersion because the protein molecules in the egg white liquid are large particles which are too large to dissolve, but not large enough to settle out of the mixture. When an egg white is beaten, the protein molecules surround the air bubbles. The protein has been denatured, so the foam made out of egg white is stable. When a protein is denatured, the hydrogen bonds break. This lets the protein structure change a little. The protein molecule unfolds and takes on a less compact structure. Denaturation is the first step in coagulation. Coagulation happens when the protein molecules unfold during denaturation, bump into other protein molecules, and combine together in clumps to become a solid. Heat will denature egg white protein; there are several other methods one can use to denature egg white protein. Freezing, irradiating, bombarding with sound waves, putting the food under pressure, and adding certain substances are other methods to denature protein. Beating or whipping will also denature egg white protein. If coagulation has not occurred, denaturation can sometimes be reversed. A slightly beaten egg white will turn back to liquid if allowed to stand. If an egg white coagulates, it will not turn back to a liquid no matter how long it is allowed to stand. Coagulation is affected by different ingredients. Salt and acid will decrease the time needed to coagulate and sugar and liquid will increase the time needed for coagulation. There are several things that determine how easy an egg white foam forms and how stable the foam will be. The following things affect egg white foams: Beating: The higher the setting on the mixer, the faster the foam will form. If the foam is over beaten, it may cause the egg white to denature too much (the protein unfolds too much and loses its elasticity). This makes the foam less stable. Egg Temperature: An egg white at room temperature will beat up faster than a refrigerated egg white. Egg Freshness: Fresher eggs whip up faster and better than aged eggs. Acid-Base Balance of Egg: A pH of 4.6 - 4.8 makes the highest volume and most stable egg white foam. Added Substances: Cream of tarter is an acid and slightly lowers the pH. It makes the protein more stable. Adding sugar to an egg white makes the foam more stable, but it makes the foam form more slowly. That is why the recipe for meringue says to beat the egg white until foamy before adding the sugar. Fat makes an egg white foam less stable. Water makes an egg white foam less stable. 3. AS A THICKENING AGENT - Eggs are used to thicken foods like custards and puddings. As the egg cooks, the protein in the egg thickens. This, in turn, thickens the food. As a general rule, one egg will thicken one cup of liquid; also, two egg yolks can thicken about the same amount as one egg. Eggs lose their ability to thicken sauces if they are added to a hot liquid because the egg coagulates. Foods high in acid (like lemon juice) also make the egg less able to function as a thickening agent because the acid causes the egg white protein to coagulate. As the protein in the egg coagulates due to the heat of cooking, it thickens. This causes the filling to thicken. The lemon juice is added after the egg because it is an acid, and acid makes egg protein coagulate faster. If the egg coagulates too fast, there will be poached egg pieces in the filling. This is also the reason that a small amount of the hot mixture must be added to the slightly beaten egg and the egg is NOT just poured into the hot mixture. The egg is slightly beaten to start the denaturation process. Then the protein must be heated very slowly to allow the protein to coagulate and thicken the mixture--not coagulate and cook. 4. AS A BINDING AGENT - Eggs function as a binding ingredient in foods (like meat loaf) because the egg protein thickens when heated and helps the food hold its shape. Foods coated in crumbs and fried are often dipped in beaten egg before being rolled in the crumbs because the egg helps bind the crumbs to the food being coated. In ice cream, eggs hold the ingredients together and inhibit the growth of ice crystals in the cream itself. Eggs are also a part of the binding and structure of baked products. Eggs function as a binding ingredient in foods (like meat loaf) because the egg protein thickens when heated and helps the food hold its shape. 5. AS AN EMULSIFIER - An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that normally do not combine with one another. An emulsifier coats the droplets of one of the liquids so it will mix with the other. An emulsion is another example of a colloidal dispersion. The surface tension of liquids can make two liquids repel each other. This happens with oil and water. Surface tension makes the molecules on the surface of a liquid attract to the other molecules of that liquid. The surface tension of the oil makes the oil molecules attract to themselves and the water molecules attract to other water molecules. The oil and the water repel each other. Adding an emulsifier will let the water and the oil mix together. Emulsifiers are substances whose molecules have a polar end which dissolves in water and a non-polar end which dissolves in oil. A molecule of the emulsifier holds a molecule of water next to a molecule of oil and does not let them separate. Nonwater-loving ingredients can then bind with water. Eggs are very good emulsifying agents. The yolk contains chemicals that are both water soluble and fat soluble. The yolks of the egg will surround oil droplets and keep them suspended. An egg yolk is a good emulsifier because it contains lecithin which is one of the best natural emulsifiers there is. Lecithin has a polar and a non-polar group. Emulsions can be thickened because beating shears the oils and increases the surface area so a more liquid phase is needed to surround the droplets. Adding too much oil at first makes a poor emulsion because you cannot whip the mixture fast enough to break up the fat globules quickly enough; the vinegar and yolk do not have enough time to surround the oil. Emulsions can hold only so much oil. If you add too much, you break the emulsion. PROTEIN IN FOODS (IN GRAMS) (Nutrition Comes Alive, The Nutrient Connection Developed by the Division of Nutritional Sciences Extension Service, Cornell University, 1986) All foods are ready-to-eat. Values taken from Nutritive Values of Foods, USDA Bulletin. MILK PRODUCTS Cheddar cheese, 1 oz. piece 7 g Low-fat cottage cheese, 1/2 c. 15 g Part-skim mozzarella cheese, 1 oz. 8 g Processed American cheese, 1 oz. 6 g Whole milk, 1 c. 8 g 2 percent milk, 1 c. 8 g Buttermilk, 1 c. 8 g Chocolate milk, 1 c. 8 g Eggnog, 1 c. 10 g Vanilla milk shake, 11 oz. 12 g Ice cream, 1 c. 5 g Chocolate pudding, 1/2 c. 4 g Baked custard, 1/2 c. 7 g Fruit-flavored yogurt, 8 oz. 10 g FISH, MEATS, POULTRY Baked bluefish, 3 oz. 22 g Fish sticks, 3 oz. 15 g Fried haddock, 3 oz. 17 g Canned salmon, 3 oz. 20 g Canned sardines, 3 oz. 20 g Fried scallops, 6 16 g Fried shrimp, 3 oz. 17 g Canned tuna, 1/2 c. 15 g Bacon, 2 slices 4 g Beef, 3 oz. 23 g Hamburger patty, 3 oz. 20 g Canned corn beef, 3 oz. 22 g Beef and vegetable stew, 1 c. 16 g Chili con carne, 1 c. 19 g Roast lamb, 3 oz. 22 g Beef liver, 3 oz. 22 g Ham, 3 oz. 18 g Boiled ham lunchmeat, 1 oz. 5 g Pork chop, 2 oz. 18 g Bologna, 1 oz. 3 g Brown and serve sausage, 2 links 6 g Hot dog, 1 medium 7 g Veal cutlet, 3 oz. 23 g 1/2 chicken breast, 3 oz. 26 g Chicken drumstick 12 g Chicken and noodles, 1 c. (home recipe) 22 g Roast turkey, chopped, 1.2 c. 22 g VEGETABLES Lima beans, baby, 1/2 c. 7 g Snap beans, 1/2 c. 1 g Bean sprouts, 1/4 c. 1 g Black-eyed peas, 1/2 c. 7 g Broccoli, 1 medium stalk 6 g Corn, 1 ear 4 g Green peas, 1/2 c. 4 g Baked potato, 8 oz. 4 g Spinach, 1/2 c. 3 g Sweet potato, 5" x 2" 2 g Hard roll, 1 5 g Spaghetti, tomato sauce, cheese, 1 c. 9 g Spaghetti, canned, 1 c. 6 g EGGS Large egg 6 g Egg white 3 g Egg yolk 3 g GRAINS Bagel, 1 6 g Barley, 2 Tbsp. 2 g Biscuit, 2" diameter 2 g Boston brown bread, 1 slice 2 g Cracked wheat bread, 1 slice 2 g French or Vienna bread, 1 slice 2 g Italian bread, 1 slice 2 g Raisin bread, 1 slice 2 g Rye bread, 1 slice 2 g Pumpernickel bread, 1 slice 3 g Enriched white bread, 1 slice 2 g Whole wheat bread, 1 slice 3 g Grits, 1 c. 3 g Farina, 1c. 3 g Oatmeal, 1c. 5 g Bran flakes, 1c. 4 g Corn flakes, 1 c. 3 g Puffed oats, 1 c. 3 g Wheat flakes, 1 c. 3 g Wheat germ, 1 Tbsp. 2 g Angelfood cake, 1/12 a tube cake 3 g Chocolate cupcake, q 2 g Oatmeal cookie with raisins, 1 3 g Saltine crackers, 4 1 g Rye wafer, 1 1 g Graham crackers, 2 1 g Macaroni, 1/2 c. 2 g Muffin, 1 (blueberry, corn, bran) 3 g Egg noodles, 1/2 c. 3 g Buckwheat pancakes, 2 4 g Plain pancakes, 2 4 g Pie crust, 1/6 pie 2 g Cheese pizza, 1 piece 6 g Popcorn, 1 c. 1 g Soft pretzel, 1 2 g Thin pretzel twists, 10 6 g Rice, 1/2 c. 2 g Cloverleaf roll, 1 2 g hamburger or hot dog roll, 1 3 g Hard roll, 1 5 g Spaghetti, tomato sauce, cheese, 1 c. 9 g Spaghetti, canned, 1 c. 6 g Waffle, 1 7" 7 g LEGUMES, NUTS, AND SEEDS Almonds, chopped, 1/4 c. 6 g Dry beans, 1/2 c. 7 g Brazil nuts, 6 to 8 5 g Cashew nuts, roasted, 1/4 c. 1 g Filberts, (hazelnuts), chopped, 1/2 c. 3 g Lentils, 1/2 c. 8 g Peanuts, roasted, 1/2 c. 18 g Peanut butter, 1 Tbsp. 4 g Split peas, 1/2 c. 8 g Pecans, chopped, 1/2 c. 11 g Pumpkin kernels, 1/4 c. 10 g Sunflower seeds, 1/4 c. 9 g Walnuts, chopped, 1/4 c. 6 g Essential Amino Acids Valine Tryptophan Threonine Phenylalanine Methionine Lysine Leucine Isoleucine Histidine Non-Essential Amino Acids Alanine Arginine Asparagine Aspartic Acid Cysteine Glutamic Acid Glutamine Glycine Proline Serine Tyrosine Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 3.

### 06.03.01 Lab: Egg Experiments (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 3: Proteins

INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following experiments with eggs and submit your findings in the submission area of this class. Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

FRIED EGG EXPERIMENT
Preheat two fry pans over medium-low heat on the stove. Add 1 tsp. butter or margarine to each fry pan. Crack a fresh egg into one pan and an aged egg (leave out of the refrigerator for two or three days) into the other. Notice the difference in how much each of the eggs spread when put in the pan and how tall the yolk stand in the center of the fried egg.

POACHED EGG EXPERIMENT
Put 2 cups water in a saucepan and place over high heat until the water boils. Reduce the heat so the water is simmering. Break one fresh egg into a small bowl and carefully slip it into the simmering water. Cover and cook 3-5 minutes. Remove egg from water with a slotted spoon. Follow the same procedure with an aged egg.

HARD-COOKED EGGS EXPERIMENT
Use a crayon to mark two fresh eggs and two aged eggs. Place one fresh egg and one aged egg into a saucepan with 2 cups of water. Place one fresh egg and one aged egg into another saucepan with 2 cups water. Put each pan on a burner and bring the water to a boil. Reduce the heat, cover, and simmer the eggs for 15 minutes. Immediately place one pan of eggs under cold running water. Allow the other pan to sit to cool. Peel the eggs and cut them in half lengthwise.

SCRAMBLED EGGS EXPERIMENT
Prepare scrambled eggs in two ways and compare the difference.

Directions for CORRECTLY prepared scrambled eggs.

Beat 2 eggs with a wire whisk until blended. Pour eggs into a lightly greased skillet over low heat. Stir occasionally until a fluffy, soft, smooth mass forms. Note: If you stir the eggs too much, tiny pieces will result. Label Scrambled Correctly'

Directions for INCORRECTLY prepared scrambled eggs.

Beat 2 eggs plus 1/3 c. milk with a wire whisk until blended. Pour eggs into a lightly greased skillet over high heat. Stir constantly. Label Scrambled Incorrectly.

PART 1:

INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the answers to the questions regarding the egg experiments.

FRIED EGG

1. Compare how much the fresh egg spread to how much the aged egg spread in the fry pan.

2. Which took longer to coagulate, the fresh egg or the aged egg? Why?

3. When the fresh egg was cooking, which part of the egg coagulated first; which part coagulated last? Why?

POACHED EGG EXPERIMENT

4. What is a desirable appearance for a poached egg?

5. How do low-quality eggs look when poached in rapidly boiling water?

6. What happened to the amount of thin egg white as the egg aged?

7. Compare how much the fresh egg spread during cooking to how much the aged egg spread during cooking.

HARD-COOKED EGGS EXPERIMENT

8. Compare the position of the yolk between the fresh eggs and the aged eggs. What causes the difference?

9. Compare the color of the outside of the yolk of the fresh, cooled egg to the aged, cooled egg.

10. Compare the color of the outside of the yolk of the fresh, uncooled egg to the aged, uncooled egg.

11. Which hard-cooked egg had the darkest ring around the yolk? What would account for this?

12. What two things cause a gray-green ring to develop around the yolk of hard-cooked eggs?

SCRAMBLED EGGS EXPERIMENT

13. Compare the two products. How do they look?

14. What causes the difference?

15. What effect has temperature on eggs (protein)?

PART 2:

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following questions:

16. Explain what happens during the denaturization of protein?

17. How does denaturization of proteins occur?

18. What factors affect the stability of an egg foam?

19. What are the functions of protein in the body?

20. Compare and contrast complete and incomplete proteins.

### 06.04 Vitamins and Minerals (FoodSci)

 Unit 6.4: Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins and Minerals play an important role in bodily functions. Deficiencies in them can result in deficiency diseases in which a lack of a specific nutrient has occurred. Beriberi is a disease in which the nervous system becomes stressed and can cause partial paralysis, mental problems, physical weakness, and even death. Scurvy is another deficiency disease caused by the lack of Vitamin C. It was determined by a Dutch army doctor that rice with hulls helped prevent the disease. The amount needed was first thought to be an amine, and it was thought it was necessary for life, so it was called a vitamine which vita comes from the Latin term "life." Vitamins are organic substances needed for life. Vitamins don't actually provide energy, they help the body function. Vitamins are often a critical part in bodily functions or in the enzymes that are part of a reaction in the body. Most vitamin molecules have attached hydrogen atoms and hydrocarbons and a six sided ring that includes carbon and nitrogen atoms or carbon. Minerals are inorganic elements the body needs. Minerals often work in conjunction with specific vitamins. Such is the case with iron absorption increasing when vitamin C is present. (Select the link "Vitamin") Fat soluble vitamins -- Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K. Water soluble -- Vitamin C, Thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Niacin, Pyridoxine B6, Folate, Cobalamin B12, Pantothenic acid, Biotin. (Select the link "Mineral") Major Minerals -- Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Sulfur Trace Minerals -- Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Fluoride, Selenium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Manganese, Cobalt Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 4.

### 06.04.01 Vitamin/Mineral Comparison (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 4: Vitamins & Minerals

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

For this assignment, you are a nutrient scientist and the project manager you work under is going to a food conference put on by the U.S. government that will determine whether the company you work for will continue to receive funding. This could mean your job will continue or the project is stopped. Your project manager has asked you to create a chart of some kind using paper and pencil or a computer that compares and contrasts vitamins and minerals. Make sure you do a good job using proper grammar and writing skills and present it in a way that is appealing. Include the following items in your chart:

Name of vitamins/minerals
Function of vitamins/minerals
Whether fat-soluble, water-soluble, major mineral, or trace mineral
Food sources
Deficiency Diseases
Amount recommended daily

### 06.05 Water (FoodSci)

 Unit 6.5: Water WATER IN THE BODY As far as human life is concerned, oxygen is the most important element. Water is the most important compound. In the human body, water is vital. Water is second only to oxygen in importance to the body. People cannot survive without oxygen, and people cannot survive without water. A healthy adult may live for weeks without food but only a few days without water. A person can lose all reserve carbohydrate and fat and about half the body protein without real danger, but a loss of 10% of total body weight of water is serious, while a loss of 20% to 22% is fatal. Water makes up 67% to 75% of the total body weight. Water is involved in all body processes. Water is an efficient heat conductor and serves to maintain the uniform body temperature essential for health. As a protector of internal organs, water is indispensable; it serves as a cushion and prevents the transmission of shock from the outside. It also serves as nature's solvent for many chemical compounds and is the medium for many chemical reactions to occur. Water, in plant and animal foods and in the human body, transports other substances either in solution or suspension. Within the body cells, water migrates in and out. When the water is inside of the cells, it is part of the INTRACELLULAR FLUID (fluid contained within a cell). When water is outside of the cells, it is part of the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (fluid present outside the cells). Extracellular fluid is further divided into INTERSTITIAL FLUID (water between cells) and INTERVASCULAR FLUID (water in the bloodstream). Water shifts freely between one compartment to another. This aspect is very important. For example, if the blood volume falls, water can shift from the areas both inside and around cells to the bloodstream to increase blood volume. The opposite is also true if the blood volume becomes too high. Water also acts as a temperature regulator in the body. The body secretes fluids in the form of perspiration which evaporates though skin pores. This evaporation requires heat energy and thus as the perspiration evaporates, heat energy is taken from the skin, cooling it in the process. Water is an important vehicle for removing body waste products. As part of the digestive juices, it helps to change consumed food into nutrients the body can use. Within the bloodstream, it also helps to carry those nutrients to the body cells in need, and carry away cellular waste products. Waste products are then excreted from the body. Most unwanted substances in the body can be removed from the body via the urine. Water helps to form the lubricants found in the joints of the body. It is also the basis for saliva, bile, and amniotic fluids (the important shock absorbing fluid which surrounds and unborn fetus). The recommended water intake for adults per day is 8 cups. If enough water is not consumed, the body first signals by making the person feel thirsty. But this mechanism is not always reliable, especially during illness, in elderly years, and when involved in vigorous athletic events. Children who are ill, especially with a fever or diarrhea, are especially susceptible to dehydration. Water and Food Science Water is a big part of foods. Some foods are composed of 80% or more water. Water is also a medium for cooking food and with this process we now need to discuss temperature, vapor pressure, osmosis, diffusion, soft and hard water, and boiling point. MEASURING TEMPERATURE A thermometer is the most common instrument used to measure temperature. When the bulb is heated, the liquid expands and rises in the tube. When the bulb is cooled, the mercury (or other liquid) in the tube contracts and the height of the liquid column decreases. The height of the liquid column, measured by a scale on the tube, can therefore be used to measure temperature. (The degrees on a Celsius scale correspond to the degrees on a kinetic scale.) On a Celsius thermometer, the temperature scale is based on the fact that the freezing and boiling point of pm water is constant under normal atmospheric pressure. On the Celsius scale, the difference between the freezing and boiling points is divided into 100 equal intervals. Each interval is a degree. The freezing point is labeled zero degrees Celsius (0 C). The melting point at which water boils is labeled 100 C. VAPOR PRESSURE The boiling point of a liquid occurs when the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure resting over its surface. Since atmospheric pressure changes at different altitudes, the boiling point changes as well. Vapor pressure is created by the molecules that vaporize from the surface. As temperature increases, more molecules are vaporized. At the boiling point, vapor pressure is high enough to push aside the atmospheric pressure. Bubbles of vapor form in the interior of the liquid and rise to the surface as they are released. At sea level water boils at 100 C (212 F). For every 960 feet above sea level, the boiling point of water is decreased 1 C (1.8 F). TO CALCULATE BOILING POINT AT ALTITUDES OTHER THAN SEA LEVEL Example: The average altitude along the Wasatch Front in Utah is 4500 feet. To calculate the boiling point of water on the Centigrade scale: 4500/960 = 4.7 100 - 4. 7 = 95.3 C on the Fahrenheit scale: 4.7 x 1.8 = 8.5 212 - 8.5 = 203.5 F Remember: pressure and temperature affect the boiling point of water. DIFFUSION Water molecules have spontaneous movement. They diffuse or intermingle. This can be seen if you drip food coloring or ink into a clear glass of water. Water will actually let other molecules move among the water molecules so freely that the water carries or transports them. In diffusion, there is no membrane. (Gases and solids also diffuse. For example, light breaks up and is spread out by a prism.) OSMOSIS Water is the medium for transporting the food materials to be used in the body. In a state of solution or suspension, simple sugars, amino acids, fats, minerals, and vitamins are passed through the intestinal walls and are then carried to the cells by blood and lymph, the two most fluid tissues of the body. Osmosis occurs where a semipermeable membrane (a membrane which water can pass though but some other particles cannot) separates two bodies of fluid. In plant and animal cell membranes, they are semi permeable. In the body, the particles which cannot pass through are called ions and the membrane that the water passes through is the cell wall. As long as the number of particles or the concentration of ions in both of the cell compartments remains equal, osmosis helps to maintain that equalized state in each compartment. If particles are added to a compartment, then the concentration of the ions is increased. Because particles cannot easily pass through these membranes, water shifts from the compartment of low concentration to the compartment of high concentration. (It always shifts from high to low concentration.) This same thing can occur in the cell walls of plants and animals which humans consume as foods. SOFT AND HARD WATER Water may be soft or hard, depending on mineral content, and the degree of water purity has an effect on foods processed or prepared in it. Natural soft water may contain some organic matter but no mineral salts. Artificially softened water is produced when calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are replaced by sodium (Na). Temporary hard water contains bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. These salts are changed to insoluble salts when water is boiled and they are deposited as crust on the inside of cooking utensils. Permanent hard water contains salts which form insoluble precipitates such as calcium, iron, and magnesium. Sulfates of magnesium, chloride, and calcium cannot be removed by boiling. Distilled water has most of the chemical impurities removed by boiling the water and condensing the steam which is collected again as water. HARD WATER AFFECTS THE QUALITY OF FOOD 1. Hard water is usually alkaline and may have a significant influence on the color and texture of cooked vegetables (giving a slightly yellow color in boiled white vegetables), and it can prolong cooking time for some vegetables, owing to reactions of pectic substances with the salts in hard water. Even though soft water is generally free of insoluble salts and is preferred for food preparation, hard water is considered beneficial from a health standpoint. Hard water causes cloudiness in tea and coffee and other beverages. 2. Divalent ions such as Ca +2 and Mg +2 may react with pectic substances in plant material and alter its texture. 3. Magnesium (Mg) influences the absorption and extendibility and viscosity of dough. WATER IN FOODS Water effects the appearance, texture, and flavor of foods. All living substances contain water and this applies to foods of both plant and animal origins. Water is also an important cleansing agent not just for the body but also for foods and cooking utensils. Water is also the medium form in which changes in foods take place when cooked. Water is used to make many items which humans eat and drink: cocoa, variety of teas, soup, oatmeal and other hot cereals, puddings, Jello, lemonade and other punches, etc. In addition, water is used to cook many of the foods we eat: pasta, vegetables, etc. Water is not only an essential constituent of food, but also serves important functions in food preparation: As a solvent. It dissolves a greater variety of substances than any other solvent. It distributes flavor, color, and nutrient components throughout food which influences the palatability, color, and nutrient value of food. However, too much water in the cooking process can destroy or lose water-soluble nutrients. As dispersing medium of food components. Particles of starch and protein are dispersed throughout the water medium allowing for the formation of starch gel. As a medium in which chemical changes occur. Leavening agents such as soda and acid ingredients WATER AND SOLUTIONS As far a human cells are concerned, there are three types of solutions: Isotonic - solute concentrations are the same on either side of the cell. Hypotonic - a solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of solute than there is solution inside the cell. Hypertonic - the solution outside the cell has a higher concentration of solute than the solution inside. Water is a medium in which to disperse the many components found in foods. For some components, water acts as a solvent. A solvent is the liquid in which the solute is dissolved. For example, water (a solvent) will dissolve substances such as salt, sugar, and water-soluble vitamins and minerals (any of which would be the solute). Solutions are also ionic or molecular. These two types are categorized by their molecular structures. One example is a crystal of table salt which is made up of sodium and chloride. The sodium ion donates on electron from its outer shell to a chloride ion which lacks an electron in its outer shell. Two oppositely charged ions are the result of the swapping. These two ions are bonded together by an electrostatic force. When the salt crystals are placed in water, the polar water molecules reduce the attraction between the chloride and the sodium and pulls them apart. This happens because the ions become hydrated. both acids and bases ionize in water which is why baking powder reacts, giving off gas to leaven quick breads. Another example of ionic or molecular solutions is seen in the attraction between molecules of water when heated. Heat actually gives water molecules the energy they need to attract other molecules. The solubility of substances increase in temperature of the water. Sugar and other substances are, therefore, more soluble in hot water than in cold. SATURATION Saturation occurs when no more solute can be dissolved in a solution. For example, this occurs often when making candies. As mentioned, the greater an increase in temperature of water, the greater the solubility of the water. High solubility of sugar in water is an advantage for frostings, candies, and confections. One problem, however, is that substances will absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which makes the candy become sticky and soft. This is why candy made on a sunny can turn out totally different from candy made on a rainy day when the same recipe is used. If a lump of sugar is dropped into a beaker of water, it gradually disappears. The sugar is said to dissolve in the water. Careful examination of a drop of this water under a microscope does not reveal the dissolved sugar. If more sugar is added, it also dissolves. However, if this process of adding sugar is continued, a point at which no additional sugar dissolves is finally reached. (saturation) The sweet taste of the liquid indicates that the sugar is present in the water. The molecules of sugar have become uniformly distributed among the molecules of water; some degree of sweetness is detected in all parts of the liquid. The mixture of sugar in water is homogeneous throughout. It is an example of a solution. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, the composition of which can be varied within characteristic limits. The dissolving medium is called the solvent; the substance dissolved is called the solute. The simplest solution consists of molecules of a single solute distributed throughout a single solvent. In the example of the sugar-water solution, sugar is the solute and water is the solvent. The rate at which a solid dissolves in a liquid depends on the solid and liquid involved. As a rule, the more nearly the solute and the solvent are alike in structure, the more readily solution occurs. However, the rate of solution of a solid in a liquid can be increased in three ways. 1. By stirring. The diffusion of solute molecules throughout the solvent occurs rather slowly. Stirring or shaking the mixture aids in the dispersion of the solute particles. It does so by bringing fresh portions of the solvent in contact with the undissolved solid. 2. By powdering the solid. Solution action occurs only at the surface of the solid. By grinding the solid into a fine powder, the surface area is greatly increased. Hence, finely powdered solids dissolve much more rapidly than large lumps or crystal of the same substance. 3. By heating the solvent. The rate of dissolving increases with the rise of temperature. If heat is applied to a solvent, the molecular activity increases. As a result, the dissolving action is speeded up. Polarity (Select the link "Polarity") Read the information presented about The Biology Project, an interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at The University of Arizona. Domestic Water Use: WORLDMAPPER (Select the link "Domestic Water Use") Open PDF Poster and discover the High and Low Domestic Water Use rankings for the countries listed. Learn about which countries are the highest and lowest users of domestic water. Read through the PDF document. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 6-Assignment 5.

### 06.05 Water links (FoodSci)

 Domestic Water Use: WORLDMAPPERhttp://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=324

Open PDF Poster and discover the High and Low Domestic Water Use rankings for the countries listed.

### 06.05.01 Lab: Potatoes and Water (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 6-Assignment 5: Water

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.
There are two parts to this assignment. Complete the experiment and then document your findings and submit them in the submission area of this class.

PART I: Follow the directions below.
1. Take two potatoes and cut them into about 1/4" slices.
2. Split the potatoes into two equal piles. and place each pile in a bowl big enough that the potatoes are completely in the bowl.
3. Label the bowls "plain water" and "salt water."
4. Fill both of the dishes with water.
5. In one of the bowls add about two tablespoons of salt and mix until the salt dissolves.
6. Place one pile of potatoes in a the salt water bowl and one pile of potatoes in the plain water bowl.
7. Let the potatoes sit for 30 minutes.
8. A bowl big enough that the potatoes are completely in the bowl.
9. Compare the differences between the potatoes in each bowl.
10. Document your findings.

INSTRUCTIONS: Read the following summary and then answer the questions on PART 2 below.

SUMMARY OF BEN GOING WITHOUT WATER IN DEATHWATCH

(Source: Deathwatch, Robb White, Dell Publishing Co., 1972, pp.44-106.)

DEATHWATCH is a novel about a young man named Ben who struggles to stay alive against great opposition. "Medec was not the kind of man Ben would ordinarily have chosen as a companion for a quiet hunting trip. The only time Madec ever laughed was when he told some story about how smart he was. He was a cold man who liked to hurt things, and he was dangerous with a gun, but Ben needed money to pay for another semester of college, so when Medec offered to hire him as a guide to hunt bighorn sheep in the desert mountains, he agreed. It was a mistake that very nearly cost Ben his life.

As they started to hunt, Madec would shoot at anything that moved. He desperately wanted a big ram he could mount in his office and tell everyone about. 'You may not know this,' Madec said, 'but the chances of getting a permit to kill a bighorn are about one in a million.' As they hunted Madec tried to talk Ben into leading him to as many bighorns as he could so he could shoot them all and then pick the best one to take home with him. Before long, Madec spotted some sheep on the ridge. Taking aim he shot. He tried to convince Ben to stay at the Jeep as he went to see what he had shot. Ben knew he wanted to see what shape the horns were in so he could be selective. Ben ignored Madec and followed him. Madec was coming down the mountain saying he missed when Ben saw the dead body. Madec had shot an old prospector by mistake. When Ben returned from the Jeep with a blanket to take the body off the mountain, Madec had turned into even more of a mad man.

Medec shot two holes in the prospector's body with Ben's gun and told him he was going to make it seem like he had killed the old man. He made Ben strip down to his shorts and turned him loose in the desert. Madec then began to hunt Ben instead of bighorn sheep.

With no water, Ben's body could stand this beat for only two days; probably less than that since he had no clothing to protect him and contain his sweat. If he could find a catch basin somewhere in these hills and could squeeze as much as a quart of water out of the sand, it would do him no good at all. A quart of water would not add even an hour to the forty-eight hours he could hope to live. To survive here for as long as two and a half days would require that he find a full gallon of water. To make it for three days, he would have to have more than two gallons of water. Four days-five gallons. And he didn't even have two full days. He had already used up eight of his forty-eight hours, for he had not had a drink of water since before they started stalking bighorn.

Ben found the prospector's camp but Madec had found it first. The next day, he saw a small water basin off the side of a cliff. He jumped up and ran to get there but Mad Man Madec started shooting at him. One bullet cut open the side of his eye. Finally giving up he rolled over on his back and sat up, waving his arms around. Then he pushed himself up to his feet. Ben made a helpless gesture with his arms and turned away from the basin.

Two days had passed and Ben was close to death. In his mouth and throat he could feel death as a strange, unwettable dryness which his saliva could not diminish. He could feel it in the swelling of his tongue which had started back in his throat and seemed about to choke him with its dry mass. Twenty more hours? or was it nineteen now? As Ben walked, he began to recognize he was approaching the last stages of thirst; he was weak from it and spells of dizziness were coming faster. The flesh of his tongue was peeling off and, of all the pains of his body, he was most aware of the aching of his lips.

The first symptoms of severe thirst had come during the time he was running. He had felt then that sudden loss of strength, a lassitude that made him think that he could not possibly raise his foot and swing it forward and put it down again. Even running, and knowing that his life depended on his running, he had felt a desire to sleep-to sleep as he ran, to sleep anywhere, anyhow.

Ben knew what the next symptoms would be. Toward the end after the lassitude and sleepiness and odd lack of hunger, a man dying of thirst begins to get dizzy. He vomits and his head aches. He aches all over. Finally the intolerable itching begins, an itching which affects every inch of his skin and does not stop until he dies. During this time, a man is tortured with hallucinations; he sees water within reach and knows that it is there and he will, as many men have, scoop up dry sand with his hand and try to drink it.

Ben hoped he could endure the physical symptoms, but he was afraid of the hallucinations; afraid that he would not recognize them when they came, afraid that there was no way he could stop them. He was a pitiful sight as he worked his way up the side of the mountain.

It was pure, raw rage that at last swept him upward, rolling, sobbing, grabbing with knees and legs and skin and toes. If he did not go, Madec could sit in the Jeep cracking walnuts on the steering-wheel spokes and watch him die.

A curious thing has been noticed about people who are dying of thirst. The dehydration of their bodies is so extreme and the loss of salt so serious that the consistency of their blood changes radically. Sweating eventually ceases and the mucous membranes, usually moist and full of fluid, dry up and peel off. There is no saliva in their mouths or throats, and even the corners of their eyes, always flowing with moisture in normal time, become so dry that any speck of dust in their eyes causes excruciating pain. And yet, if these people are rescued before they die, even people in the last moments of life and completely dehydrated, they almost always cry.

Ben worked his body upward, and at last rolled over into the darkness of the narrow corridor. Ben crawled on toward where light showed a slight bend in the tunnel. The floor began to slope downward and was very smooth, the stones almost gleaming in the subdued light coming from the far end.

He got around the bend slowly. And there lay the lake. A lake of dark, sparkling clear water, held there by the stones.

Lying on his stomach, Ben had drunk as much as he could. It was as though he had actually felt this water flowing straight though the walls of his intestines and being taken up by his blood and distributed through his body. He had drunk once more and was asleep almost before he rolled away from the puddle.

When Ben awoke, his tongue had shrunk to its normal size, his throat, though raw, felt good. His eyes were wet again and he felt strength in his body. He was hungry. Since the first night on the low range of mountains, he had not felt particularly hungry and, in the last hours, had felt no hunger at all. But now his stomach was gnawing at him.

He started to look around and for the first time in hours Ben thought of his enemy. Madec was still waiting out there somewhere...

PART 1:

INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the experiment, answer the following questions.

1. What are the characteristics of the "salt water" potatoes? ______________________________________________________

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2. What are the characteristics of the "plain water" potatoes?

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3. What scientific process involving water occurred to create the differences in the potatoes?

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PART 2:

INSTRUCTIONS: After reading the summary from Death Watch, answer the following questions.

1. What are the roles of water in the maintenance of body functions? (Describe as many as you can).
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2. What changes occurred in Ben's body when his body became dehydrated? (List as many as you can).

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### 07.00 Basic Food Science Principles (FoodSci)

 This unit will discover the role of acids and bases and explain processes associated with milk protein and cheese.

### 07.01 pH - Acids and Bases (FoodSci)

 Unit 7.1: pH-Acids and Bases The pH scale is a numerical scale between 0 to 14 in which acidity is expressed and is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The word acid comes from the the Latin term which means sour. What do you think of when you hear lemon, pickles, or vinegar? These are all acids. Acids can change the color of some foods or flowers. When eaten, bases taste bitter or salty. Some cleaning agents are bases such as a bar of soap and another example is table salt. Physically, a base is slippery. A strong acid has many hydrogen ions present. To make the acid weaker, hydroxide ions are added. As the number hydroxid ions and hydrogen ions equalize neutralization occurs in which the acid has reacted to the hydroxide ions from the base and water is produced. This is a neutral situation. If something has a value of 7.0 on the pH scale, this indicates it is a neutral solution like water. The pH of a soluction can be measured in different ways. There are special meters used and also dip papers which are dipped into the solution and thenwhen the paper dries, the color is compared to a scale to determine the pH value. The papers aren't as exact as meters. Scientist measure the concentration, the amount of a substance in a specific amount of volume, using moles. This is the easiest means for expressing the concentration of a solution. The amount of molarity or number of moles of solute per liter of solution is often used by scientist or chemists to state the concentration of a solution. Molarity is determined by the number of moles of solute divided by the volume of a solution. Titration is often used to determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution. To accomplish this, an indicator is added to the solution to determine the pH. A measured amount of a basic solution of a predetermined concentration is added. The indicator will change colors when the two solutions mix and neutralize each other. By determining the point at which neutrilzation occurs, scientists and chemists can calculate the acidic concentration of the solution. (Select the link "pH in Foods") Facts about pH 1. Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity which proves it has few ions (free electrons). An ion is an atom or a group of atoms that carries a positive or a negative charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. A free electron or other subatomic-charged particle is also referred to as an ion. 2. Pure water can be used to measure the ions or pH of a substance dissolved in the water. Please note that some substances do not dissolve completely, others do. 3. An acid can be defined as any water-soluble and sour compound capable of reacting with a base to form salts that are hydrogen-containing molecules that will give up a proton to the base and accept an unshared pair of electrons from that base. 4. A base is fundamentals foundation or a main ingredient. It is the starting place and acts upon the acid. A base is the compound that reacts with the acid to form a salt because the molecules (ions) are able to take a proton from the acid and share a pair of electrons with the acid. (A salt consists of positive ions from a base and negative ions from an acid.) 5. The pH scale can be used to measure acidity or basicity of any water solution by measuring the ion concentration which is expressed as the concentration of H3O+ (hydronium ions) in powers of 10, from 10-14 to 10. (Hydronium is a hydrated hydrogen ion. A regular hydrogen ion in water is expressed as 1420.) 6. For example, a substance can measure 10-9, which is expressed as -9. By eliminating the because the scale is logarithmic, we say the pH of the substance is 9. 7. The pH scale is shown graphically as: acid ------- neutral ------ base 0 ----------- 7 --------- 14 8. Pure water has a pH of 7. It is neutral. 9. As the hydronium ion increases as a neutral solution, it is more acidic. The pH goes from 7 toward 0. 10. If the pH solution falls between 7 and 14, the solution is basic. 11. A small strip of pH paper (litmus paper) dipped in a solution will test (through the visible change of color) the pH of most substances. NOTE: In foods, acids and bases give distinctive tastes. Acids are sour (lemon juice, vinegar). Bases are salt (sodium chloride or table salt). Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 1.

### 07.01 pH - Acids and Bases links (FoodSci)

 pH in Foodshttp://www.howstuffworks.com/question439.htm

### 07.01.01 Lab: Changing ph (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 1: pH-Acids and Bases

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment. There are two parts to this assignment.

Take 9 cups and label them 1-9. In each of the cups pour the following:

1. Pour 1 Tbs. of lemon juice in a paper cup.
2. Pour 1 Tbs. of Gatorade in a paper cup.
3. Pour 1 Tbs. of water in a paper cup.
4. Pour 1 Tbs. of water with 1 tsp. of baking soda added and stirred in a paper cup.
5. Pour 1 Tbs. of window cleaner in a paper cup.
6. Pour 1 Tbs. of vinegar in a paper cup.
7. Pour 1 Tbs. of grapejuice in a paper cup.
8. Pour 1 Tbs. of water with 1 tsp. of table salt added and stirred in a paper cup.
9. Pour 1 Tbs. of grape juice in a cup
Take some concord grape juice and add 1 tsp. to each of the cups. Document your findings on the following page and explain at the bottom what is happening. The 9th cup will be your indicator to make your comparisons to the other samples.

PART 1:

INSTRUCTIONS: Perform the experiment from above and document your findings.

Sample Description
Color of Liquid

Mark what the sample is after the test:
ACID
NEUTRAL
BASE

Sample #1:
Lemon Juice

Sample #2:
Gatorade

Sample #3:
Water

Sample #4:
Baking Soda/Water

Sample #5:
Window Cleaner

Sample #6:
Vinegar

Sample #7:
Grape Juice

Sample #8:
Salt Water

PART 2:

After completing the experiment, explain in a paragraph or two what happened and why.
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### 07.02 Coagulation and Coalescence (FoodSci)

 Unit 7.2: Coagulation and Coalescence Open the attachment "Milk" and print the illustrations to refer to as you go through the unit. CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPONENTS OF MILK (Resources: Food Science and You, and The Epicurean Laboratory.) Milk is an excellent source of protein. Because proteins have a large molecular structure, they do not dissolve in water. The proteins in milk are a colloidal dispersion. Colloidal dispersions are explained in the egg unit. There are two kinds of milk proteins: casein and whey or serum. Casein are approximately 80% of the milk proteins, and whey or serum proteins make up the other 20%. The casein proteins in milk are combined with some of the minerals in milk and form micelles. Micelles are groups of molecules; the micelles in milk form a colloidal dispersion. The light reflected from the micelles makes the milk white. Casein proteins are coagulated by acids. If an acid is added to milk, the casein proteins separate from the rest of the liquid and the milk curdles. Casein proteins are not effected very much by heat, however. Casein proteins in milk cluster together and work like tiny sponges to hold water in the milk. They can contain and hold as much as 70% water in each protein cluster. Refer to the printout and take note of the CASEIN PROTEIN CLUSTER. Acids, salt, or high heat will cause the casein protein clusters to lose water. The serum proteins, also called whey, are in colloidal dispersion in the water content of milk and are coagulated by heat, but acids and salt do not coagulate them. This is important in making yogurt and cheese. Commercially, the coagulation of milk to make cheese is accomplished with the use of rennin-an enzyme which has the capability to disable the stabilizing subunit of casein causing the normally separate casein micelles to clump together in the presence of dissolved calcium. Rennet (the commercial name for the enzyme rennin) has the power to join things that are dispersed and to disperse things that come together. Milk is also a source of fat. Fat globules float in the water contained in milk. There are many different types of fat in milk. The fat in milk tends to be low in cholesterol. Higher levels of butter fat in milk usually mean higher prices for the milk product. As fresh milk sets, the fat droplets cluster together; eventually, the clusters get large enough that their lower density lets them float to the top. The milk seperates. To stop this from happening, most milk sold commercially is homogenized. When milk is homogenized, it is forced through very small holes under pressure. The fat globules are made small enough so they stay dispersed or separated in the milk so they do not cluster together. Milk also contains some carbohydrate in the form of natural sugar. The sugar in milk is called lactose. It is a type of sugar found only in milk. Lactose gives milk a slightly sweet flavor. When milk is digested a special enzyme produced in the cells of the body burns the calories provided by lactose. This releases energy. Some people can not drink fresh milk because they are unable to digest the lactose in the milk. They lack the enzyme lactase in their digestive system. Without lactase, the lactose is not split into glucose and galactose so it can be absorbed in the body and burned for energy. As the lactose ferments in the digestive tract, it gives off gas and a variety of acids. (Lactose intolerant people lack lactose - the enzyme that lets the body use the energy in lactose). Lactose caramelizes when the milk is heated and turns the milk a tarnish color. Milk is an excellent source of a variety of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and magnesium help keep the micelles in milk stable. Calcium helps strengthen bones and teeth. Milk is a good source of riboflavin, which is a vitamin that can be destroyed by light, so milk should be stored in light-proof containers. The butter fat in milk contains vitamin A. Many milk products are fortified with vitamin D. TYPES OF MILKS Fresh milk is categorized by the amount of butter fat in it. The butter fat level is determined by federal standards. Skim milk has had all the fat removed. One percent milk is 1% butter fat, and two percent milk is 2% butter fat. Whole milk must contain at least 3.5% butter fat. As the fat is removed, milk appears more translucent because light does not have as many fat particles to reflect off. It is light reflecting off the fat that makes milk appear white. Refer to the printout and take note of the MILK DIAGRAM which illustrates the percentages of different components within milk. Milk is marketed in other forms besides fresh: Evaporated milk has been heated under a small amount of pressure until 60% of the water evaporates. Carrageenin (a vegetable gum) is added to the milk before it is processed to stabilize the casein proteins. Condensed milk has 50% of the water removed and sugar added. Sugar is added so that it is 44% of the final product. The sugar content is high enough to inhibit bacterial growth in the condensed milk. Dried milk or powdered milk is made by removing all the water from fresh milk. There are several fermented milk products. Buttermilk, sour cream, and yogurt are made by adding a bacteria to fresh milk and allowing it to ferment for a period of time. Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk is flash-heated at higher temperatures than regular pasteurized milk; then it is flash-cooled, destroying additional bacteria and allowing longer shelf life. In addition, the processing plant seals the UHT milk (sometimes called parmalet milk) in several layers of aseptic packaging: polyethylene, paper, aluminum foil with a polyethylene lining. (This is the same packaging used for egg substitutes such as Egg Beaters, pancake mixes, some juices, and chopped tomatoes). Once opened, UHT milk keeps in a refrigerator for at least 10 days. It does taste a little sweeter than the milk most Americans are used to drinking. It has been used in Europe and Asian countries since the 1960s. UHT milk also comes in low-fat and chocolate versions. FOAMS A foam is a mixture made by whipping or beating a liquid to trap air bubbles in it. The amount of fat in the milk has an effect on the stability of the foam. The higher the fat content, the more stable the foam. The viscosity, or thickness, of the cream increases in direct proportion to the amount of butter fat. Temperature also affects the viscosity of cream. The viscosity of cream increases as the temperature of the cream decreases. The more viscose the cream is when being beaten, the better the foam will be. The amount of cream being whipped also affects the formation of the foam. Smaller amounts produce more stable foams. Sugar makes the foam less stiff and smaller in volume. It also makes it take longer to form a foam when sugar is added too early. The rule of thumb is: produce foam then add sugar. COOKING WITH MILK Cooking effects both types of milk proteins (casein and serum). When cooking with milk, one needs to be careful so that the milk does not scorch or curdle. Remember that the serum (whey) proteins are denatured by heat. These solid substances precipitate out of the milk solution. These serum (whey) proteins settle to the bottom of the pan and scorch easily. Because this happens when milk is heated at too high a temperature, milk must be cooked on low heat or in a double boiler which keeps the temperature in the top container below the boiling point of water. Another problem when cooking milk is that a skin often forms over the top of the cooked milk. The casein and serum (whey) proteins clump together on the surface as the water in the milk evaporates when heated. Pulling the skin off the top of heated milk will remove nutrients that are in the skin. The skin on the top of the cooked milk can hold in steam and increase the chance that the milk will boil over while cooking. Creating a foamy surface reduces the chance that the skin will trap steam and the milk boil over. Stirring constantly will reduce skin formation. Adding fat also reduces skin formation, and covering the cooking pot keeps the surface from losing water (drying out) and forming the skin. The third problem when milk is heated is curdling. Using high heat increases the chance that the casein proteins will curdle. A low pH increases curdling also. This happens because the calcium and magnesium ions which make the casein micelles in milk more stable are removed from the casein micelles when an acid is added to milk. When salt is added to hot milk, curdling is increased. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 2.

### 07.02.01 Lab: Making Yogurt (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 2: Coagulation and Coalescence

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment. There are two parts to this assignment.

Part I: Make and analyze yogurt.

HOW BACTERIA PRODUCE LACTIC ACID - BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Bacteria must get food from their surroundings. They can use many substances as food. In yogurt, the bacteria use lactose (the sugar found in milk) as food. They feed on lactose and give off lactic acid as waste product. This gives the yogurt its characteristic sour taste and helps to thicken the product. Yogurt is simple to make. Variation can be made by omitting the non-fat dry milk or by trying the recipe with whole milk or low-fat (2%) milk.

Make the following yogurt recipe and complete the questions on PART 1 regarding the recipe. This recipe is different from the one made with Rennin.

BASIC YOGURT RECIPE
Ingredients needed:
1 quart skim milk
1/2 c. nonfat dry milk
1/4 c. commercial plain yogurt

Equipment needed:
Medium saucepan
Set of measuring cups
Candy thermometer
Glass container to hold one quart liquid
Small bowl
Wooden spoon

Stir together skim milk and nonfat dry milk in a saucepan until dissolved. Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until milk reaches 165 F to 170 F on the thermometer. Heating the milk will kill any potentially harmful bacteria. Cool the milk to 110 F.

Pour about 1/4 cup warm milk into a small bowl and stir in the commercially prepared plain yogurt (which acts as a culture starter) until well-blended. Add this mixture to the warm milk in the saucepan and stir until blended. Pour into the clean glass container and cover. This mixture must be kept warm (90 F to 120 F).

Choose one of the following ways to accomplish this:
-Use a commercial machine specially designed for yogurt-making. This is probably the most reliable way because it will keep the mixture in the correct temperature range. This eliminates the hassle of constantly checking the temperature.
-Wrap the container of yogurt mixture in a towel and set it in front of a heat duct or radiator.
-Place the container in an oven with a pilot light or in a warm oven kept at 100 F.
-Place the container of yogurt mixture into a large bowl of warm water (about 115 F). Check the temperature of the water often, and add hot water as needed.

Let the yogurt culture stand undisturbed for 6 to 12 hours. The yogurt is ready if it moves away from the side of the container in one piece when you tilt it. Refrigerate the finished yogurt to stop the growth of the bacteria; let it chill several hours before eating.

Serve the yogurt plain or mixed with fruit, honey, sugar, or thawed, undiluted orange juice concentrate. But, before adding any flavoring, be sure to reserve 1/4 cup of plain yogurt to start the next batch.

Part II: Make and analyze different whipped milk products.
INSTRUCTIONS:
Whip 1/2 cup of each of the milk products listed. Whip the milk product until it reaches its maximum volume and stiffness. Compare the results in the worksheet below and answer the questions regarding the experiment.

Cold, heavy whipping cream
Light cream
While milk
Heavy whipping cream at room temperature
Cold, heavy whipping cream plus 1/4 c. sugar

PART I ANALYSIS

INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the yogurt recipe. Have two other people and yourself do sensory tests on the yogurt and then answer the questions.

1. Sensory Tester's Name: __________________________________

Sensory Tester's Phone Number: __________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

2. Sensory Tester's Name: __________________________________

Sensory Tester's Phone Number: __________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

3. Your Name: __________________________________

Taste: _______________________________________________

Smell: _______________________________________________

Feel: ________________________________________________

Look: ________________________________________________

Sound: _______________________________________________

1. What gives yogurt it's characteristic sour taste? ______________

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2. Why is the yogurt kept warm for the 6-12 hours? _____________

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3. What does refrigeration do to the yogurt after the 6-12 hour waiting period?
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PART II ANALYSIS - WHIPPED MILK PRODUCTS

INSTRUCTIONS: After completing the milk foam experiment, fill in the information below and answer the questions. 1-low 5=high

Type of milk product

Increase in Volume

Rate Stability

1. Which milk product produced the most stable foam? ______________________________________________________

2. Which milk product increased in volume the most? ___________

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3. Explain the differences in volume and stability between the cold, heavy whipping cream and the room temperature whipping cream.

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4. Explain the differences in volume and stability between the cold, heavy whipping cream and the cold, heavy whipping cream which had the sugar added.

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### 07.03 Research Project (FoodSci)

 Unit 7: Research Project A big part of food science is the research and development that is done on existing food products and new food products. Society often determines the direction that food research will go. An example of this is when the television was created, the "TV dinner" also was created. We now live in a time where convenience foods that can be prepared rather quickly and easily are commonplace. A food science background will enable you to prepare, preserve, and evaluate food for nutrition, appearance, and taste. In this unit, you will have the opportunity to practice some procedures used by food scientists. You will also pose questions about food, and then collect facts in a precise way to produce an explanation. Food scientists make discoveries as they attempt to answer questions and solve problems. These discoveries come about through carefully planned investigations. The explanation and prediction of what will happen to food under various conditions is the ultimate goal. Home economists and other scientists use the scientific method to carry out their investigations. Review the information found in Unit 1.4: Food testing. If you remember, you were to decide on a project in the first unit and work on it as you finished the course work for this class. Also, here's a brief synopsis of the scientific method. OBSERVING Observing substances and events is an important aspect of all natural sciences. A good observer uses all five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Collecting data, an important part of observing, can be done by writing a description or using a measurement device, such as a balance beam or a measuring cup. Food scientists conduct experiments in laboratories to control environmental conditions. Before food scientists conduct experiments, they find out as much about the observations others have conducted on the same topic as possible. New experiments can then be planned and carried out to extend existing knowledge. Food scientists then report their findings to others. GENERALIZING Scientists try to analyze and organize the data. In addition, they try to develop general principles that can help to classify the data. The overall goal is to find relationships that enable them to form a hypothesis, a testable statement. With a hypothesis, scientists can set up and predict further experiments. THEORIZING When predictions can be made, food scientists construct models to show how things work. A model is an explanation in visual, verbal, or mathematical form. It shows relationships among data or events. When a model has been successfully applied, it may become part of a theory. A scientist cannot prove a theory. Theories are used to predict what will happen in new experiments. TESTING Testing takes place in every stage of a scientific investigation. Food scientists try to predict what will happen in the tests based on hypotheses, laws, or theories. All three are constantly open to modification or abandonment based on new information. It is important to create an environment in which you have reliable controls so that the thing you are testing is the only thing in which there are variences. For example, if you were testing the time to cook something, you would want to use the same stove, burner, and cooking equipment, to eliminate as many possible things that might distort the test. Often times tests are redone multiple times to ensure that the results are consistant. MODERN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (Source: Utah State University Magazine, Spring 1995, article by Dennis Hinkamp, p. 7.) Long before people were concerned about the fat content of food, Utah State University scientist Dr. Von Mendenhall and his colleagues in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences developed a tasty and visually appealing turkey bacon product. This was in 1975. They also began experimenting with various uses for rabbit meat. The meat was lean, high in protein and rabbits are inexpensive to raise. They ground, cured, and cut the meat into links and thus was born the Hop Dog. However, the public was not ready for such products. Today, Dr. Mendenhall and his fellow workers spend their time developing various ways to use turkey other than the traditional use of the stuffed turkey at Thanksgiving time. There is turkey bacon, turkey bologna, turkey franks, turkey pastrami, turkey ham, and other varieties. Turkey variety meats generally are lower in fat than the same product produced from the traditional meats of beef and pork. In their research, the scientists tried to develop simulated shrimp, crab, and lobster but found that, although the meat fibers were similar, the natural seafood flavors and the natural turkey flavors were not comparable. Additional research to further the fish industry resulted in ways to can a trout product that resembles tuna. This product, if successful, would be a low-fat product. Again, the problem will be with the taste and texture. Fat carries much of the flavor of any food and contributes to the texture people are familiar with in cheese, meat, fish, and milk. A current project that the Foods and Nutrition Department is working on is mechanically tenderizing low-fat cuts of beef and pork. It isn't difficult to produce a low-fat meat product, but it is difficult to make it tender and juicy. They have developed a machine that massages the cuts of meat in a tumbler and adds moisture to them. The meat is them flash dried at ultra high temperature, has grill marks put on, and is packaged under oxygen-free conditions to preserve the color and flavor. The result is a charcoal-flavored steak that consists of 3 percent rather than 30 percent fat. If the public accepts this product, it may well show up at the fast-food outlets as a low-fat steak sandwich. The department used the same proms to produce a low-fat Canadian bacon. This, combined with no-fat mozzarella cheese developed by the department, would make a low-fat pizza. Convenience and snack foods are other products being developed by the USU Science Department. Beef jerky combined with vegetables placed on a skewer stick and freeze-dried can form a Stew-on-a-Stick. The department, along with similar departments at many other universities, continues to lead the way into futuristic food research. They developed the first fluid milk in a special packaging for the NASA Space Station project. Scientists at Brigham Young University developed other astronaut foods, such as Tang. Someday, they may develop the type of food fictitiously shown on such space shows as Star Trek. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 3.

### 07.03.01 Research Project (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 60 points possible 180 minutes

Unit 7-Asisgnment 3: Research Project

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

This assignment might need to be submitted differently than the rest of the assignments you have sent in this far depending on what you chose to do at the beginning of the class. If your research project is not conducive to sending it through the submission tool in the class, then send it the most efficient way you can find.

You were prompted in Unit 1 of this class about this project and were to choose a research project topic. Hopefully you have been considering some ideas and possibly working on your project as you have gone through the rest of the units. If not, it's time to get started. This project needs to be considered very seriously because it is worth more than the other assignments. I realize that you will take a lot of time and effort in making your project. There are lots of web sites on the Internet that have to do with science projects that you might want to search and explore. I'm going to allow you to determine how you want to submit your project to me depending on how you choose to present your project. If you submit by postal mail, realize that you won't get it back.

At the beginning of this assignment, you need to include the following information:

Your name
Introduction to the project
How you used the "scientific method" on your project
Analysis of your project
What you learned from the project

There are also many options you could use to present your project:
poster
paper
computer created paper with digital photos
PowerPoint slide show
Video

These are just a few and you could do one or a combination of these options or another method you feel would cover the material and be appealing. Be creative and thorough. Make sure you use the scientific method for your project. Good luck.

### 07.04 Food Science Careers (FoodSci)

 Unit 7.4: Food Science Careers There are hundreds and hundreds of careers that relate to food science. We all need food and eat food. This creates lots of jobs. In this lesson you will have the chance to explore lots of careers and determine one that you might have an interest. Anything that deals with production, processing, preparation, and evaluation of food. It's a part of every day life and so we are all exposed to these careers. Now that you have read the information, you are ready for Unit 7-Assignment 4.

### 07.04.01 Career Research (FoodSci)

 teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

Unit 7-Assignment 4: Food Science Career

INSTRUCTIONS: Feel free to copy and paste the information into the word processor (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) and fill in the answers then copy and paste it back into the submission area for this assignment.

You've learned about lots of different topics in food science as you have gone through the units in this class. All of these concepts relate to different careers in food science. Your last assignment has 3 parts. First to explore 10 different careers. Second is to choose one to focus on and submit it to me as a resume. Third, to do a Geospatial activity about culinary arts programs.

Submit it along with a list of the 10 careers you explored and your geospatial activity.

Part 1: List 10 food science careers you explored and circle the one you chose to write your resume about. Attach your resume to the list and get them both to me.

REMEMBER to complete the unit 8 assignment when you have completed all the assignments so that I can post your grade and credit.

1. __________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________

5. __________________________________________________

6. __________________________________________________

7. __________________________________________________

8. __________________________________________________

9. __________________________________________________

10. ________________________________________________

Part 2: Resume about a Foods Career
In the resume you are to pose as a person that has worked in that food science career for 10 years. You will create a resume giving me background information for a person in that field and you may want to include things such as education needed for this career, possible work experience a person would have in this career, special skills, abilities, hobbies, etc. that a person might have for this career.

Treat this as though you were going for a new position in which you would get a substantial raise if you get the job. Your resume is going to be the first impression that the potential employer is going to have of you. Make it professional, concise, and eye-catching.

Part 3: Geospatial Activity about 2 Culinary Arts Programs

DIRECTIONS: Use Google Earth to locate 2 culinary Arts Programs. If you do not have Google Earth loaded onto your computer, go to the URLs for this lesson and load Google Earth.

In the search box of Google Earth type in Culinary Arts Programs
Click on the magnifying glass to start the search.
Click on the links for the culinary arts program you are interested in which then Google Earth will fly you to that program's location.
A pop-up placemark will appear.
Click on the website link above "your rating".
The Culinary Arts Program website will open.
Explore some of the programs and then write 1-2 paragraphs about 2 of the programs. You should end up with 2-4 paragraphs total for the entire geopatial activity.
Go back to the list of Culinary Arts Program on the left and choose one more

You may want to create this in a word document then copy and paste the information for all 3 parts of the assignment into the submission tool in the TOPIC OUTLINE area #3.

### 07.04.02 Unit 6 and 7 Test (FoodSci)

 computer-scored 115 points possible 45 minutes

Unit 6 & 7 Test: Nutrients and Food Science Principles
This test will cover the information from Units 6 & 7. You will have 45 minutes to take the test once you begin. Below you will find a final review in Word or PDF format. Feel free to open these and review all the information presented. This will be a great way for you to prepare for the test. Good luck.