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U. S. Government and Citizenship

00.0 Welcome (Citizenship)

Course Description

The goal of this course is to foster informed, responsible participation in public life. Knowing how to be a good citizen is essential to the preservation and improvement of United States democracy.

Upon completion of this course the student will understand the major ideas, protections, privileges, structures, and economic systems that affect the life of a citizen in the United States political system.

This course is recommended for seniors due to their proximity to voting and draft age.

Class Overview

Welcome to Government and Citizenship! Before starting any assignment, please read the following:

  • Most assignments include links to the US Government HippoCampus website. These videos help you understand the main ideas in this class.  If you can't get the video to play, you can also read the material instead.
     
  • If you have a problem or question, inform the teacher immediately; don't wait. The teacher's contact information is under the link Teacher Contact Information.
     
  • You must have an active email address with the same address you registered with at the Electronic High School. You must answer all inquiries by the instructor. Failure to comply results in a lower grade.
     
  • When you write an essay, it must be long enough to cover all aspects of the question.
     
  • Keep copies of all the work you submit. This protects your work in an emergency. You may need to resubmit the work.
     
  • Every assignment must be completed in the order that they appear in the course syllabus. You must complete each assignment with 60% or better in order to pass the class.  You can redo assignments for a higher score if you would like.
  • You must finish the course within ten weeks.  There are pacing suggestions at the end of each assignment, to help you stay on track to finish in the ten weeks or less.
     
  • Please use a word document to create your assignments so you can copy and paste your finished work into the assignment submission form, always saving a copy for yourself. If you have specific concerns, e-mail the instructor. Never share your copy with another student.

Assignment Format and Rules

Top of the page:

  • the name of student
  • the unit number
  • the name of the assignment
  • the number and question written out with the answer

Body of the assignment:

  • questions written out (properly numbered and ordered)
  • answers in complete sentences listed with questions (properly numbered and ordered)
  • proper writing mechanics

Plagiarism:

  • do your own work
  • document your information sources
  • you signed up as an individual, do your work as an individual
  • plagiarism is against the law and the honor code at EHS

Scoring Procedures and Grading:

  • The teacher will leave feedback for each assignment in the comments section or on the rubric.  Check these comments to make sure you are doing the assignment correctly.
  • The first essay assignment for each unit is a "Warm Up" activity for that unit. Use facts to back up your opinion. Use the internet or a high school government textbook to help you research and write the answer to the essay questions.
  • Make sure that you put research you have found on the internet in your own words.  If you copy and paste answers from the internet, you will receive a zero.
  • You are required to complete a quiz as you complete each unit. As soon as you have completed that quiz, you get immediate feedback showing you which questions you answered correctly. This score is automatically recorded in the grade book. Retaking each quiz until you have scored at least 85% will ensure you are ready for the final test.
     
  • When you complete the final assignment for the course, submit the "Ready" assignment to let your teacher know you think you have finished. When the teacher marks that assignment with a score of "1", you may set up your final test. Then follow the procedure outlined by EHS for that proctored exam. Your final is graded automatically and you can check your score when you finish. Your teacher will let you know your final grade for the course.
     
  • You must finish the class, including taking the final, in ten weeks or less.  At the end of ten weeks, you will be dropped from the class.
  • Your assignments and quizzes count for 75% of your grade. The final test counts for 25%.  The final is made up of questions from the quizzes and exams in that quarter.  The final has fifty multiple-choice questions and each question is worth eight points.

Grading Scale: 
95-100 A
94-90 A-
89-87 B+
86-83 B
82-80 B-
79-77 C+
76-73 C
72-70 C-
69-67 D+
66-63 D
62-60 D-
No credit - below 60

I look forward to working with you. This will be a terrific quarter!

00.00 *Student supplies for U.S. Government and Citizenship

Needed Materials

  • Internet: You must have access to the internet in order to take this course. The answers to all questions can be found on the internet or in a high school government textbook. Each lesson or assignment will list suggested links. We suggest you read or view the material found on the provided links. As you work through your assignment, feel free to choose other links on your own to find needed information.
  • Powerpoint: Microsoft Powerpoint Viewer - download If you don't have Powerpoint on your computer, you can download a free viewer from Microsoft.
  • Online Textbook: A free online textbook, American Government and Politics is available online (see link below) If you would like a print textbook to help you, we suggest this following.

Optional Print Textbook: American Government: a Complete Coursebook, by Ethel Wood and Stephen C. Sansone. Great Source Education Group Houghton Mifflin Copyright: 2000. ISBN #0-669-46795-2. May be purchased directly from the sites listed below or from the Mountain State Schoolbook Depository in Clearfield, Utah by calling 1-800-995-1444 and use reference #046795 or Depository Reference #GRS-10116 or call "Great Source" directly at 1-800-289-4490 and use reference #046795 to order book. You could also get the book from Walmart.com, Valorebooks.com, Booksamillion.com or from a local bookstore. Approximate price is $33.10 and price may vary and may or may not include tax or handling fee.

00.00 Welcome (Citizenship)

00.00.01 About Me (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 15 minutes

This assignment will make sure I have all the contact information I need to stay in touch with you throughout the course. Also, It will give me an opportunity to get to know you a little better before you begin. Please submit the following information for your About Me assignment:

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  • Name of high school where you take most of your classes,
  • Your year in school,
  • Date you enrolled in this class,
  • The reason you enrolled in this class (make-up credit, free up room for elective, graduate early, etc.),
  • Your email address,
  • Parent or counselor e-mail address.

Next, write two short paragraphs to the teacher. In the first paragraph introduce yourself to me. Tell me about any hobbies or activities you are involved in.

In the second paragraph discuss plagiarism. What is it, and why is it unfair to everyone involved in its use?

Lastly, the EHS Honor Code states:  "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers, and staff with respect."

Please type up and include the following sentence with your assignment:

“I have read the EHS Honor Code and agree to abide by its principles.  I understand the ten week timeline to finish this class and commit to finish it in ten weeks or less in order to earn credit.”

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.00 Unit 1 (Citizenship)

David Maiolo image, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedDavid Maiolo image, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

The first quarter of US Government and Citizenship includes three units:

  • Unit 1 covers basic principles of government, the colonial background leading up to the formation of the United States, and an in-depth look at our Constitution.
  • Unit 2 covers political parties, elections, voting, and political ideology.
  • Unit 3 covers the legislative and executive branches of the US government

These three units develop ideas from the Utah State Core Curriculum Standards for this class:

Standard One: Students will understand the significance and impact of the Constitution on everyday life.

Objectives: Investigate the ideas and events that influenced the creation of the United States Constitution. Assess the essential ideas of United States Constitutional Government. Determine the importance of popular sovereignty and limited government in a democratic society. Investigate the organization and functions of the United States Government.

Standard Two: Students will understand the distribution of power among the national, state and local governments in the United States federal system.

Objectives: Determine the relationship between the national government and the states. Analyze the role of local government in the United States federal system.

Standard Three: Students will understand the responsibilities of citizens in the United States.

Objectives: Investigate the responsibilities and obligations of citizens. Assess methods for respectfully dealing with differences.

Standard Five: Students will understand the relationship between the United States and the international system.

Objectives: Examine major government structures and functions outside the United States. Evaluate how United States foreign policy affects the world and explore how the United States influences other nations and how other nations influence the United States.

01.00.01 Warm-up Activity (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 25 minutes

Write a two-paragraph answer to the following question:

1. Why would the State of Utah mandate that all high school students take a U.S. Government and Citizenship class in order to graduate?

NOTE: A complete paragraph in this course means at least five to seven sentences.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.01 Sovereignty and Government (Citizenship)

The Magna Carta: Public domainThe Magna Carta: Public domain

We all have times when we wish we could just do without a government, like when we have to pay taxes, or apply for a building permit, or send in a passport application four months before going on a trip out of the country. However, for better or worse, it seems that people have always needed some kind of government to help them get along.

When humans lived in small, scattered, family groups of hunters and gatherers, their 'government' was probably informal--the strongest or smartest were in charge. When people began to settle down and farm the land, and towns and cities first formed, a lot more people were involved. They needed a more formal arrangement. Probably some decisions were made by consensus, and others were made and enforced on the principle of "might makes right." In other words, whoever can win a fight or war is in charge until someone else comes along and defeats or kills that leader.

This lesson is about the different kinds of government, and the purpose of having a government at all. The following topics and vocabulary are those you will need to understand this lesson.

"Power Elite" Magna Carta
autocracy oligarchy
democracy (direct and indirect) federated
confederated sovereignty
social contract theory government
theocracy

monarchy

 

Please go to the websites (links below) about Sovereignty and Government to further study this topic.

01.01 Study Questions - Sovereignty & Government (Citizenship)

This is from Hippocampus under usage rights for Utah Education Network http://hippocampus.org/?user=myUEN

01.01.01 Study Questions - Sovereignty & Government (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 45 minutes

Before you answer the following questions, please watch the presentation on "The Nature of Government" (see link above). This presentation will last between four and five minutes. *********************************************************************************************************

Sovereignty

Define the following terms:

1) Sovereignty

2) Government

Preamble

List four purposes of government

3)

4)

5)

6)

Federal Government

7) What is a federal government?

8) What is a confederated government (not the Confederacy of the Civil War Era)?

Autocracy/Oligarchy/Democracy

9) Define autocracy

10) Define oligarchy

11) Define democracy

12 & 13) What is the difference between a direct and indirect democracy?

14) We say we live in a democracy, but what kind of government do we really have? Explain your answer.

From the presentation (or search the internet)

15) In what ways did the colonists influence the foundation of government in America?:

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.01.02 Sovereignty and Gov Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Sovereignty & Government This test will assess your understanding of the concepts of sovereignty and government in Unit 1. You must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.02 Colonial America (Citizenship)

The original thirteen states, 1784: Public domainThe original thirteen states, 1784: Public domain
Three hundred years ago, the United States did not yet exist. The area now included in the United States was populated by various tribes of native Americans, some Spanish and French explorers, trappers and colonists, and (mostly on the east coast) some English and Dutch colonists. There were also a few colonists or immigrants from various other countries and some slaves, mostly from Africa. There was no large central government in North America, and most countries that did have organized central governments had monarchies--they were ruled by kings (or, more rarely, queens) who inherited the throne or took it by force. The English king thought of the American colonies as a nice source of extra income and natural resources, and a place to send undesirable people (criminals, the poor and groups who caused trouble).

How did we get from that situation to having a new country under a government elected by the people? Please go to the websites about Colonial America (below) to further learn about this topic.

You will need to know the topics and vocabulary, below. Define each of these for future reference so you can better understand this lesson.

corporate colony royal colony
proprietary colony Declaration of Independence
John Locke consent of the governed
self-evident Revolutionary War

John Locke: public domainJohn Locke: public domain

01.02 Study Questions - Colonial America (Citizenship)

01.02.01 Study Questions - Colonial America (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Colonial America - the historical background of the United States American Colonies

To begin this assignment, be sure to watch the presentation on The Declaration of Independence (see link above). If you are not able to view this video because of technical difficulties, answer the questions below by searching the internet. Please indicate whether you found your answers in the film or through your own research. Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window for this assignment.

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American Colonies

Define each of the following terms:

1) Corporate Colony

2) Royal Colony

3) Proprietary Colony

Revolution

4) Why did America go to war against England?

Declaration of Independence

5) Why is the Declaration of Independence called the Cornerstone of Democracy for everyone in the world?

6) Who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence?

Background

7) How did John Locke and other political philosophers help influence the writing of the Declaration of Independence?

8) Who else was on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence? (Name at least three)

9) Define "consent of the governed," as Jefferson used it.

Consent of the Governed

10) This sentence is in the Declaration of Independence--"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal..." What does this sentence mean today? How has its interpretation changed since it was first written?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.02.02 Colonial America Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Colonial America This test will assess your understanding of the concepts concerning Colonial America in Unit I. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.03 Framing the Constitution (Citizenship)

A page of an early draft of the Constitution, with handwritten revisions: Public domainA page of an early draft of the Constitution, with handwritten revisions: Public domain

Just a few years after winning its independence, the young United States was in trouble. The weak central government, formed by the Articles of Confederation, couldn't manage the basic functions of government without the help of the states, and the states often couldn't agree. Would the new nation survive, or break up into several smaller countries? Could a country really run on the basis of leaders who were elected by the people and served for only a few years at a time? The Revolutionary War had been easy compared with trying to build a government and run a nation.

In the spring of 1787, fifty-five delegates from twelve states assembled in Philadelphia. They were tasked with revising the Articles of Confederation. Getting the delegates to agree on anything, let alone a new government, must have seemed impossible--but we know they succeeded.

The people who argued out the ideas and framework of our Constitution were creating a new form of government, but they did not have to create it completely 'from scratch.' They had read many classic works on philosophy, history, and government, and they tried to avoid the mistakes of the past.

The Founding Fathers argued passionately about what should and should not be part of the new Constitution. Their negotiations anything from the wording of the main ideas to a single word or phrase. We are the beneficiaries of their hard work, and of their eventual willingness to compromise.

Please go to the websites for information on framing the constitution to further study about this topic. Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better).

 

Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention
Great Compromise 3/5's Compromise
ratify Father of the Constitution
Federalist Papers Supreme Law of the Land
Checks and balances Separation of powers
Preamble of the Constitution articles of the Constitution

01.03 Framing the Constitution - American Documents (Citizenship)

These are from NROC under usage rights for Utah Education Network http://hippocampus.org/?user=myUEN

01.03 Study Questions - Framing the Constitution (Citizenship)

01.03.01 Study Questions - Framing the Constitution (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 45 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks into a word processing-document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Then, submit your work using the assignment submission window. ******************************************************************************************************

Articles of Confederation Our first true constitution was called the Articles of Confederation.

1) What differences are there between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution in regards to the Legislative branch of government?

2) What differences are there between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution in regards to the Executive branch of government?

A More Perfect Union

3) What led up to the calling of a constitutional convention?

4) When and where did the Constitutional Convention meet?

Constitutional Convention

5) What political experiences did the delegates to the Constitutional Convention have?

6) What was the main occupation of those people who attended the Constitutional Convention?

7) Where was Thomas Jefferson at the time the Constitution was written?

Compromise

8) What is the Great Compromise?

9) List other compromises that occurred during the Convention.

Ratification

10) What does it mean to ratify something?

11) How many states needed to ratify the Constitution to make it the law of the land?

Constitution

12) Who is called the Father of the Constitution?

13) List other major players at the Constitutional Convention and their contributions.

Federalist/Anti-federalist

14) What were the Federalist Papers?

15) Who wrote the Federalist Papers?

16) Watch the video (link above) about Alexander Hamilton, one of the writers of the Federalist Papers. What did you learn or find interesting?

Supreme Law

17) What is called "the Supreme Law of the Land"? Why is it called that?

18) What do we call changes in the Constitution that have occurred in the past 200 years?

19) Explore the US Constitution website (link below). Which parts of the website did you click on and what did you learn?

Principles

20) List the six basic principles of the Constitution.

Checks and Balances

21) What is meant by Checks and Balances?

22) What is meant by Separation of Powers? Explain how that works in our government.

Preamble

23) Write the meaning of the Preamble of the Constitution in your own words.

Articles

24-25) List the articles of the Constitution with a brief explanation of what each one does.

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.03.02 Constitution Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 75 points possible 30 minutes

Framing the Constitution This test will assess your comprehension of the materials found in the "Framing the Constitution" section of Unit 1. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.04 Federal vs. State's Rights (Citizenship)

(See also the links below this lesson for more, in-depth information)

In the early 1780's, the United States had won their independence from England, but there were many challenges ahead. The first federal government of the United States was weak; the individual states had most of the power, and when they disagreed with the national leaders, problems arose that could easily have torn the new nation apart. Each state was jealous of the nation's power. The people remembered how much they disliked being controlled by the English central government and were afraid of giving up too much local and state control. It soon became clear that the loose confederation of states was not working. Somehow, they needed to form a stronger central government that could keep the young country together without destroying the rights citizens had just gained.

This debate continues today. How much control should the federal (that is, national) government have over what happens at a state or local level? This was one of the key arguments at the Constitutional Convention.
Painting of the signing of the 1787 Constitutional Convention: Junius Brutus Stearns, 1856, public domainPainting of the signing of the 1787 Constitutional Convention: Junius Brutus Stearns, 1856, public domain
Constitutional History

The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation. Because the delegations from only two states were at first present, the members adjourned from day to day until a quorum of seven states was obtained on May 25. Through discussion and debate it became clear by mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the Convention would draft an entirely new frame of government. All through the summer, in closed sessions, the delegates debated, and redrafted the articles of the new Constitution. Among the chief points at issue were how much power to allow the central government, how many representatives in Congress to allow each state, and how these representatives should be elected--directly by the people or by the state legislators. The work of many minds, the Constitution stands as a model of cooperative statesmanship and the art of compromise.

Bill of Rights

During the debates on the adoption of the Constitution, its opponents repeatedly charged that the Constitution as drafted would open the way to tyranny by the central government. Fresh in their minds was the memory of the British violation of civil rights before and during the Revolution. They demanded a "bill of rights" that would spell out the immunities of individual citizens. Several state conventions in their formal ratification of the Constitution asked for such amendments; others ratified the Constitution with the understanding that the amendments would be offered.

On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the United States therefore proposed to the state legislatures 12 amendments to the Constitution that met arguments most frequently advanced against it. The first two proposed amendments, which concerned the number of constituents for each Representative and the compensation of Congressmen, were not ratified. Articles 3 to 12, however, ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights.[Quoted from webpages of the National Archives and Records Administration, public domain]

Federalism

Federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. The term federalism is also used to describe a system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (like states or provinces). Federalism is a system in which the power to govern is shared between national and state governments, creating what is often called a federation. Proponents are often called federalists.

Full Faith -
the provision in Article IV, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution which states: "Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state." Thus, a judgment in a lawsuit or a criminal conviction rendered in one state shall be recognized and enforced in any other state, so long as the original judgment was reached by due process of law. Each state has a process for obtaining an enforceable judgment based on a "foreign" (out-of-state) judgment.

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better):

Elastic clause
inherent powers
McCulloch V. Maryland
full faith and credit
necessary and proper clause
amendment
Bill of Rights
federal
the Great Compromise

01.04 Study Questions - Federal vs. States' Rights (Citizenship)

Using this link, select "American Government" under "Presentations." Scroll down under the "Search" box, and click on "Defining Federalism." Finally, click the "Start Topic" button on the right.

01.04.01 Study Questions - Federal vs. States' Rights (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 40 points possible 60 minutes

To begin this assignment, be sure to watch the presentation on Federalism (link above). This presentation will last between four and five minutes. Question 20 will ask about a topic from the video. You may also find answers, to the following questions, through your own research. If you are not able to watch the video, you still must answer the related questions. Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment. ***************************************************************************************************************

Constitutional History/Bill of Rights/Amendments

1) What is the Bill of Rights?

2) Which of the first ten amendments to the Constitution do you think is the most important? Why?

3) How is an amendment to the Constitution created?

4) How many amendments are there to the Constitution?

Miracle at Philadelphia

5) Why is the writing of the Constitution called "The Miracle at Philadelphia"?

6) Explain why the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are generally considered to be the greatest documents in American and World History.

Democracy

7) Name one problem (disadvantage) that can arise with democracy.

8) Name one asset (advantage) that can develop with democracy.

Federalism

9) Define federalism.

10) Delegated powers are specially expressed or w___________ in the constitution.

11) Define the “necessary and proper clause” of the Constitution, which is found in Article 1 Section 8.

12) Are there concurrent powers that are shared by both the Federal Government and the States?

13) If Congress wanted to carve out a new state from the area of an existing state, what would they have to do first?

Powers

14) Name one power that is reserved to the states.

15) Name one power that is shared by national and state government.

16) Name one power that states do NOT have (what may a state NOT do?).

17) Name one power that is a Federal responsibility.

18) Name one power that is a state responsibility.

Full Faith

19) Define the full faith and credit clause of the Constitution.

McCulloch V. Maryland

20) When understanding what Federalism actually is, one can describe it like a food divided into two parts. What is that food source and what part is always on the top (Federal or State Government)?[see presentation, link below]

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.04.02 Federal vs. States' Rights exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 55 points possible 30 minutes

Federal vs. State's Rights This test will assess your comprehension of the materials presented in the "Federal vs. State's Rights" section of Unit 1. You may take this quiz multiple times until you score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.05 Unit 1 exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 40 minutes

This test will assess your comprehension of the materials presented in Unit 1. You may take this quiz multiple times until you score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.00 Unit 2 (Citizenship)

Political Behavior and Participation

In a monarchy or dictatorship citizens have one main responsibility--to obey the laws created by the country's leader. If the laws are bad, that isn't the fault of the citizens.

In creating a new form of government, the United States also created new responsibilities for citizens--for us. We need to participate in our government by educating ourselves, voting in elections, organizing groups to support fair legislation, communicating with our elected representatives and sometimes, by running for office ourselves.

02.00.01 Warm-up Activity - Tips for Creating an Evidence-based Essay (Citizenship)

02.00.01 Warm-up Activity (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

One of the purposes of this class is to prepare you to vote. Write an essay (at least 250 words) and tell me why you think people closest to your age group (18-24) have the worst record in voting of any age group. State your position (the reason why you think 18-24- year-olds vote less than other age groups), and support it with evidence, examples and reasons. You will need to do some research to find evidence, but you should also think about it yourself, and use your experiences to help you understand this issue.

Structure Content Points possible
Introduction (one paragraph) Begin with the percentage of voters 18-24 compared to other age groups. (You will need to do some research to find this.) Then state your position (what you think is the most important reason). 5 points
Evidence (one paragraph) Explain at least one piece of evidence you find in your research that helps support your position. Be sure to document your sources. 5 points
Evidence or examples (one paragraph) Explain another piece of evidence, or specific examples from your own observations or research, that help support your position. Be sure to document your source. 5 points
Defend your position (one paragraph) Explain one piece of evidence or an example that seems to disprove your position, and why your position is still correct in spite of this. Be sure to document your sources. 5 points
Conclusion (one paragraph) Sum up your argument, and suggest at least one thing that could be done to improve voting participation among 18-24 year olds. 5 points
Works cited List all books and websites you used in researching this issue 5 points

 

A credible source of research is the SIRS Issue Researcher database in the Utah Pioneer Library. You can use keywords such as "voter apathy" or  subject headings such as "Voting, Statistics" to get to relevant research.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.01 Political Parties (Citizenship)

Political Parties
Political cartoon featuring the Republican symbol (the elephant): "Judge" magazine, 1904, public domainPolitical cartoon featuring the Republican symbol (the elephant): "Judge" magazine, 1904, public domainPolitical cartoon featuring the Democratic symbol (the donkey): from "Harper's Weekly" magazine, 1870, public domainPolitical cartoon featuring the Democratic symbol (the donkey): from "Harper's Weekly" magazine, 1870, public domain

Political parties are not an 'official' part of our government. You may have noticed they are not mentioned in the Constitution. In fact, some of our Founding Fathers didn't like the idea of political parties, at least in theory.

In practice, though, political parties have always been part of the process of governing the United States. Forming groups of like-minded people seems to be human nature (think about the way students at your school seem to group themselves, and the gatherings of different religious groups in the world).

In the United States, we nearly always seem to have two major political parties (though, if you look back through history, it hasn't always been the same two, and if you look at other countries, some have only one major political party, and some have more than two). There are advantages and disadvantages to a two-party system.

For over a hundred years now, the Democrats and Republicans have been the two major parties in the United States. 'Red states' usually vote Republican, and 'blue states' usually vote Democratic. Each party tends to blame the other for whatever is currently going wrong. This is nothing new--it's been going on since early in our history.

Read/view the information at the links below to learn more about political parties, and why they are important.

Define each of the topics and vocabulary below to better understand this lesson:

political party two-party system
one-party system proportional representation
coalition independent voter
political patronage representative democracy
major parties minor parties

02.01 Political Party (Citizenship)

02.01.01 Study Questions - Political Parties (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

You will find the "Political Party Eras" and "The Function of Parties in America" presentations at the HippoCampus link especially helpful for this assignment. Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Then, submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. **********************************************************************************************************

Political Parties

1. What is a political party?

2. Name the two main political parties in this country today.

3. Why is it not good to have just a one party system?

Purpose and Functions

4. What is the purpose of a political party?

5. What are the four essential functions of political parties? (see the website labelled "Functions of Political Parties")

Proportional Representation

6. What is proportional representation? Do we use that system?

Coalitions 7. What are coalitions? Are they necessary for government to work?

Independent Party/Independent Voter

8. Most voters say they are independent. Is that the name of a political party? Then what do they mean by saying they are independent?

Patronage

9. What is patronage? Could that ever benefit you if you donated money to help a political candidate? How?

History of our Political Parties

10. Did the Founding Fathers think that political parties were a good thing? Why?

11. George Washington was our first president. What political party did he belong to? Why?

12. We believe in representative democracy. What does that mean?

13. During early American history did the two major political parties we have today exist? Why? What were the two original parties?

Minor Parties

14. Do we have many minor parties? Name one.

15. Minor parties usually form for what reason?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.01.02 Political Parties Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Political Parties This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in the "Political Parties" section of Unit 2. You may take this quiz multiple times, but your final score must be at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.02 Elections (Citizenship)

2008 election electoral college votes: Image from Wikimedia Commons, Gage, public domain2008 election electoral college votes: Image from Wikimedia Commons, Gage, public domain

Elections and Voting

In this lesson, you will learn more about U.S. elections and the voting process. Be sure to visit the links listed below the lesson for more in-depth information.

Primary from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license

A primary election (nominating primary), also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election. In other words, primary elections are one means by which a political party nominates candidates for the following general election. Primaries are common in the United States, where their origins are traced to the progressive movement. In the U.S., primary elections are conducted by the government on behalf of the parties. Elsewhere in the world, the nomination of candidates is usually the responsibility of the political party organizations themselves and does not involve the general public.

In addition to primaries there are other ways that parties may select candidates. These processes include caucuses, conventions and nomination meetings. Historically, Canadian political parties chose their candidates in party meetings in each constituency. Canadian party leaders are elected at leadership conventions, although some parties have abandoned this practice in favor of one-member, one-vote systems.

Presidential Requirements copyright ©1997 The Java Cafe; Text material contained within may be copied and freely distributed for informational and educational purposes only.

The Constitution requires that a candidate for the presidency must be a "natural-born" citizen of the United States, at least 35 years of age, and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years.

*Natural-Born
An understanding of the nation is essential for the role of President. The framers of the Constitution strongly believed that a person must be born in the United States in order to fully understand the country.

*35 Years of Age
Personal experience was very important to the framers. They felt that unless a person had reached the age of thirty-five, it was highly unlikely for that person to have experienced enough to govern a nation.

*14-Year Residency
Part of being President involves dealing with both domestic and foreign problems. In order to face these problems, previous knowledge of the nation's history in these matters is necessary. The framers decided that fourteen years was an adequate time span to comprehend these issues.

FAQs about U.S. presidential candidacy

Is a person born abroad to parents who are U.S. citizens eligible to be President?
Yes. A child born of U.S. citizens anywhere in the world is considered a natural born U.S. citizen and is eligible.

What exactly does "natural-born" mean?
Persons born citizens of the United States are considered natural-born. Therefore, a child born of illegal immigrants or one that was born on U.S. soil yet lived his or her life out of the nation could still be President. A naturalized citizen could not.

Does a person need to be married to be President?
Nope. There have been several Presidents who were not married at the time of their election or during their term of office.

Financing Campaigns: Federal law rules how funds may be raised

(The following article is taken from the U.S. Department of State publication, USA Elections in Brief.)

Federal law dictates how candidates for the federal offices of president, senator, and representative--and certain of their political allies--may raise funds, as well as from whom, and in what amounts. Federal campaign finance laws are separate from state laws that regulate elections for state and local offices.

In the American system, presidential candidates raise hundreds of millions of dollars for a campaign directed at a nation of more than 100 million voters. Though in many cases the fund-raising is from private sources, the process by which they raise and spend the money is highly regulated.

A candidate for president must establish a campaign organization, called a political committee. The political committee must have a treasurer and must register with the Federal Election Commission (FEC). Notwithstanding its name, the FEC only supervises and enforces campaign finance laws; it does not actually conduct the elections. (The process of registering voters, conducting the balloting, and counting the votes is the responsibility of state and local election officials.)

Political Action committees can lobby and raise money in all kinds of ways, including over the phone. (© Andy Kropa/The New York Times)
Various types of political committees are registered with the FEC. In addition to the candidates, political parties must register their own committees with the agency. In addition, any group of private citizens may form a political committee. For example, groups of individuals from corporations, labor unions, and trade associations often form such committees (although use of corporate or labor union treasury funds is prohibited). These political committees are often referred to as PACs, or political action committees, and must also register with the FEC.

Once registered, political committees may start raising campaign funds. Such funds, as well as expenses, are reported to the FEC on either a quarterly or monthly basis. The reports may also be filed electronically and are available to the public on the FEC's web site [www.fec.gov]. Numerous private organizations also maintain web sites to monitor contributions and expenses of the candidates, political parties and PACs. The point of this is to make it easier for the press and the voters to know which groups are giving money to which candidates and causes. There are legal limits to how much money individual citizens and individual committees can give to candidates they favor. Accordingly, a candidate for president who needs to raise hundreds of millions of dollars for a presidential campaign must attempt to find thousands of contributors.

To campaign for office, a candidate needs to hire staff; arrange for office space and travel; conduct research; issue position papers; advertise on radio and television, in publications, and on the internet; and conduct numerous public appearances and fundraising events. A candidate for the House of Representatives will base these activities in his or her specific congressional district, while a Senate candidate will do likewise throughout his entire state. (Congressmen and senators may also conduct specific fund-raising events elsewhere, such as Washington, D.C.). Candidates for president have the daunting task of organizing their primary campaigns state by state and then, if nominated, their general election campaign throughout the nation.

Public Financing

Since 1976, candidates for president have been eligible to participate in a public financing system. Until the 2000 elections, all candidates nominated for president participated in this system by accepting government funds in exchange for a promise not to spend more than a specified amount. However, this system has become increasingly unappealing to candidates because the imposed spending limit is considered too low – and less than the amount that major candidates can often easily raise from private sources. Consequently, many major candidates have been opting out of public funding.

Spending invariably increases from one election to the next. In addition to candidate spending, the political parties, PACs, and other interest groups will spend money to influence elections. A recent development in funneling money for elections, for example, is the "527 political organization," named for a section of the U.S. tax code. These groups are organized primarily for the purpose of influencing the selection, nomination, election, or appointment of an individual to a federal, state, or local public office. 527 political organizations, such as MoveOn and Swiftboat Veterans for Truth, are not regulated by the Federal Election Commission or by a state elections commission, and are not subject to the same contribution limits as PACs. Critics of these and similar groups have long asserted that high spending in U.S. elections, combined with the reliance on private sources for funds, raises the specter of undue influence over public policy by wealthy donors and powerful interest groups.

Proposed reforms have been opposed by those who see election spending as proportionate with both the costs of goods and services in today's economy. In this regard, election spending is seen as the price a democracy pays for electoral competition, with large contributions and expenditures by interest groups as the contemporary expression of America's long-standing pluralism. It is hard to prove any specific connection between interest-group donations and government policy. Courts have also questioned whether further restrictions on campaign giving and spending might unduly limit donors' constitutionally protected right to free speech in the political arena. Given the immense expense of modern campaigning, certain extremely wealthy individuals simply fund their own campaigns for public office--there is no rule against it. Sometimes they win, sometimes they don't.

PEC from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license

The Presidential election campaign fund checkoff appears on US income tax return forms as "Do you want $3 of your federal tax to go to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund?"
Originally, this suggested donation was $1 when it was implemented in the 1970s as an attempt to increase the public funding of elections. This money provides for the financing of Presidential primary and general election campaigns and national party conventions. Beginning with the 1973 tax year, individual taxpayers were able to designate $1 to be applied to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund.[1] Both the Republican and Democratic nominees in the general election receive a fixed amount of checkoff dollars. Nominees from other political parties may qualify for a smaller, proportionate amount of checkoff funds if they receive over five percent of the vote. The national parties also receive funds to cover the costs of their national conventions. Matching funds are also given for primary candidates for small contributions. The campaign fund reduces a candidate's dependence on large contributions from individuals and special-interest groups. This program is administered by the Federal Election Commission (FEC).
Requirements to be declared eligible include agreeing to an overall spending limit, abiding by spending limits in each state, using public funds only for legitimate campaign-related expenses, keeping financial records and permitting an extensive campaign audit.
Checking the box does not change the amount of an individual's tax or refund.

Incumbent from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license

The incumbent, in politics, is the holder of a political office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent. For example, in the 2004 United States presidential election, George W. Bush was the incumbent, because he was the president in the current term while the election sought to determine the president for the following term.
In politics
In general, incumbents have structural advantages over challengers during elections. The timing of elections may be determined by the incumbent instead of a set schedule. For most political offices, the incumbent often has greater name recognition due to their previous work in the office. Incumbents also have easier access to campaign finance, as well as government resources (such as the franking privilege) that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign. An election (especially for a legislature) in which no incumbent is running is often called an open seat; because of the lack of incumbency advantage, these are often amongst the most hotly-contested races in any election.
In the United States, incumbents traditionally win their party's nomination to run for office. Unseating an incumbent president, senator or other figure during a primary election is very difficult. In particular, barring major scandal or controversy, about 95% of congressional incumbents win re-election to their seats[citation needed]. However, shifts in congressional districts due to reapportionment or other longer-term factors may make it more or less likely for an incumbent to win re-election over time. For example, a Democratic incumbent in historically conservative Texas would have less chance of winning than a Democratic incumbent in liberal New York City, because Texas has shifted away from the Democratic Party in terms of voting (see also Congressional stagnation in the United States).
However, there exist scenarios in which the incumbency factor itself leads to the downfall of the incumbent. Popularly known as the anti-incumbency factor, situations of this kind occur when the incumbent has proven himself not worthy of office during his tenure and the challenger demonstrates this fact to the voters. An anti-incumbency factor can also be responsible for bringing down incumbents who have been in office for many successive terms, in spite of good performance indicators, simply because the voters are convinced by the challenger of a need for change.
When newcomers vie to fill an open office, voters tend to compare and contrast the candidates' qualifications, issues, positions, and personal characteristics in a relatively straightforward way. Elections featuring an incumbent, on the other hand are, as Guy Molyneux puts it, "fundamentally a referendum on the incumbent." Voters will first grapple with the record of the incumbent. Only if they decide to 'fire the incumbent do they begin to evaluate whether the challenger is an acceptable alternative.

Electorate from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license

In politics, an electorate is the group of entities entitled to vote in an election. The term can refer to:
1. the totality of voters or electors (the electorate has the opportunity to express its will)
2. the partisans of a particular individual, group or political party (Gospodin Putin played to the prejudices of his personal electorate)
3. the collection of the voters enrolleded in a geographically-defined area (the electorate of Finchley retuned the Tory candidate again)
4. the geographically-defined area which returns (elects) a representative (the electorate of Finchley borders on the electorate of Much-Binding-in-the-Marsh, splitting the new housing estate of Royal Cupolas).

The term was also sometimes used to refer to the dominion of an Elector in the Holy Roman Empire, who was a prince or bishop able to participate in the selection of the Emperor. One particularly well known electorate of this type was the Electorate of Hanover. In this usage, the word refers to a realm controlled by a single elector, rather than a collective of multiple electors (as in the other usages given).

Ethnic Voting Patterns of Young People by Race and Ethnicity, 1988 to 2004

By Mark Hugo Lopez1, Research Director
May 2005 © 2005 The Pew Charitable Trusts

Preliminary estimates suggest that voter turnout among young people has surged to its
highest level in a decade.2 While participation among young people rose, there appear
to have been larger surges for some groups. This fact sheet presents patterns of voter
participation by race and ethnicity based on estimates from national and state exit polls.

The voter turnout statistics presented here are rough estimates and should be
interpreted with caution. There exists no official record of voters that tracks race,
ethnicity and age. This is why we must rely on estimates derived from polls and
surveys. The estimates presented here are based on national and state exit polls
conducted during the November 2, 2004 election. It is unlikely that these numbers will
match precisely the results obtained from the Census Bureau’s Current Population
Survey (CPS), the other major source for voting statistics. Finally, while this fact sheet
is useful for what it tells about voting levels for various groups, it cannot explain why the
upsurge in voter participation rates occurred.3

Voter Turnout Among Different Racial/Ethnic Groups, 2000 and 2004

There was a large surge in turnout between 2000 and 2004 among young African
Americans and Latinos, based on estimates generated from aggregated state exit poll
results.4 Between 2000 and 2004, voter turnout among young African Americans rose by
15 percentage points, from 38 percent to 53 percent. Similarly for Latinos, voter turnout
rose by 21 percentage points between 2000 and 2004, from 32 percent to 53 percent.5

As noted in our fact sheet “Youth Voter Turnout 1992 - 2004, Estimates from Exit Polls,”
there is more than one way to estimate voter turnout, though we are limited at this time
to data available from exit polls, both conducted by the polling firm Edison/Mitofsky. The
first is the national exit poll and the second is CIRCLE’s aggregation of exit polls from all
the states and the District of Columbia. Using these two sources, we are able to generate
a range of estimates of voter turnout for 2000 and 2004. For example, there is a range
of four points (from 48 percent to 52 percent) in our turnout estimate for young, non-
Hispanic Whites, depending on whether we use the national exit poll or the aggregated

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following:

election candidate
primary election caucus
grassroots dark horse
delegate national nominating convention
PAC PEC
incumbent challenger
fund raising soft money
media electorate
political socialization suffrage
voter registration precinct

02.02.01 Study Questions - Elections(Citizenship)

teacher-scored 70 points possible 60 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then, submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window. ***************************************************************************************************************

Elections

1. Who makes and enforces the rules candidates must follow to be elected to office?

2. What is a primary election? What are the two types, and what makes them different?

3. What's a caucus?

4. What are grassroots movements, and how can they affect elections?

Requirements

5. In order to run for President, you have to do three basic things. What are they?

Dark Horse

6. Even if you do all those three things, is it possible for a dark horse candidate to win? Explain.

7. Why/how would a dark horse candidate have won?

National conventions

8. How do you win delegates to the national nominating convention?

9. What does a national nomination convention do?

Campaign Finance

10. What are the two main sources of money for political campaigns?

11. What is a PAC? What is a Super PAC? What role do Super PACs play in national elections?

12. What is the Presidential Election Campaign Fund? Can you give to that fund? How?

13. What are the conditions under which a candidate of a major party can receive public financing?

14. But if you are a third party candidate, what must you do to receive public financing?

Incumbent

15. What is an incumbent?

16. How much advantage does the incumbent have compared to the challenger? Why?

Money in Elections

17. Why do campaigns cost so much money?

18. Are there not laws regulating how much a person can spend or even receive? What are they?

19. Can you win without spending money to get your message across? Why?

20. How do candidates do fund-raising?

21. What is soft money?

22. Does the federal government regulate soft money? Explain.

Media

23. Does the media play a very big role in the election process? What is it?

Electorate

24. Who are the electorate?

Socialization

25. What is political socialization? How does it apply in your case?

26. What are three reasons people participate in the political process?

Voting patterns

27. Who votes the most among racial and ethnic groups? Who votes the least?

28. What age group votes the most? the least?

29. What is the relationship between the amount of education a person has and their likelihood of voting?

30. Which minority group has been discriminated against the most to prevent them from voting? Why?

Suffrage

31. What does suffrage mean? What groups enjoyed suffrage when the Constitution was first adopted?

Eligibility

32-33. What are the three qualifications to be voter eligible?

34. What is the main thing you have to do in order to vote in an election?

35. When (in what year) will you be eligible to vote?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.02.02 Elections Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Elections This test will assess your understanding of the "elections" section of Unit II. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.03 Political Ideology (Citizenship)

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, libertarians, environmentalists, communists, fascists, the tea party, anarchists... Turn on any talk radio program, and you are likely to hear some of these terms batted around. Which are considered positive and which are considered negative depends on the political ideology of the station or show host you hear. Given a choice, most people listen only to those with whom they mostly agree with; thus, the political rhetoric rarely changes anyone's mind once they have an opinion on an issue! It can be very difficult to sort out fact from opinion or even total fiction--yet we have a responsibility as voters to try.

The following list contains topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson.

ideology political ideology
liberal conservative
moderate spectrum
radical "right wing"
"left wing" public opinion
poll mass media
interest group lobbying
lobbyist

We begin learning political attitudes early.: image by Harry Walker, CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain DedicationWe begin learning political attitudes early.: image by Harry Walker, CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication

The links below will help you complete the assignment on political ideology.

02.03.01 Study Questions - Political Ideology (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 40 points possible 30 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word processing document on your computer. Complete the work and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window. ************************************************************************************************************

Political ideology Definitions

1. Most Americans have some form of political ideology; what does that mean?

2. What is a liberal?

3. What is a conservative?

Political Spectrum

4. What is a moderate?

5. Where are you on the political ideology spectrum? On what do you base your answer?

6. What determines where we are on that spectrum?

7. What is a radical?

8. When people say "right" and "left" in reference to the political spectrum, what are they talking about?

Public Opinion

9. What is public opinion?

10. What six factors determined how we got that opinion?

11. Which one is the most dominant?

12. We read about public opinion polls all the time; what are they?

13. How reliable are polls?

Mass Media

14. What are the five types of the mass media?

15. Right now, which one is the most dominant?

16. Which one is growing the fastest?

17. Does the government protect the media? How?

Interest Groups and Lobbying

18. What is an interest group?

19. What four things do interest groups do?

20.What is lobbying? Then what is a lobbyist?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.03.02 Political Ideology Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 40 points possible 30 minutes

Political Ideology This test will assess your understanding of the concepts taught in the "political ideology" section of Unit 2. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must finish it with at least an 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04 Unit 2 exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 40 minutes

Citizenship This test will assess your comprehension of the materials presented in Unit 2. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must finish it with at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.00 Unit 3 (Citizenship)

Unit 3
The Legislative Branch, Congress, and the Presidency

From our study of the Constitution, you probably recall that our government has three main branches: legislative, executive and judicial. In this unit we will look at the legislative branch (mainly, Congress, or otherwise known as the Senate and the House of Representatives) and begin looking at the executive branch with an overview of the office of the President.

03.00 Warm Up Activity (Citizenship)

03.00.01 Warm Up Activity (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

Warm Up #3

Answer the following questions, using the url links above, and submit the answers to me for grading.

Who authored the Federalist Papers, including the actual name(s) and the penname(s).

What are the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose?

In Federalist Paper #51, which is mainly written by James Madison, what were to be the branches of government, and which one did he believe would be the most dominant and why?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.01 House of Representatives (Citizenship)

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
This content is from the website www.whitehouse.gov

Established by Article I of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress. The Constitution grants Congress the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments and substantial investigative powers.

The House of Representatives is made up of 435 elected members, divided among the 50 states in proportion to their total population. In addition, there are six non-voting members, representing the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and five territories of the United States. The presiding officer of the chamber is the Speaker of the House, elected by the Representatives. He or she is third in the line of succession to the Presidency.

Members of the House are elected every two years and must be 25 years of age, a U.S. citizen for at least seven years and a resident of the state (but not necessarily the district) they represent.

The House has several powers assigned exclusively to it, including the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach federal officials and elect the President in the case of an electoral college tie.

The Senate is composed of 100 Senators, two for each state. Until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, Senators were chosen by state legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six-year terms by the people of each state. Senator's terms are staggered so that about one-third of the Senate is up for reelection every two years. Senators must be 30 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least nine years, and residents of the state they represent.

The Vice President of the United States serves as President of the Senate and may cast the decisive vote in the event of a tie in the Senate.

The Senate has the sole power to confirm those of the President's appointments that require consent, and to ratify treaties. There are, however, two exceptions to this rule: the House must also approve appointments to the Vice Presidency and any treaty that involves foreign trade. The Senate also tries impeachment cases for federal officials referred to it by the House.

In order to pass legislation and send it to the President for his signature, both the House and the Senate must pass the same bill by majority vote. If the President vetoes a bill, they may override his veto by passing the bill again in each chamber with at least two-thirds of each body voting in favor.

The Legislative Process

The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress. Anyone can write it, but only members of Congress can introduce legislation. Some important bills are traditionally introduced at the request of the President, such as the annual federal budget. During the legislative process, however, the initial bill can undergo drastic changes.

After being introduced, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review. There are 17 Senate committees, with 70 subcommittees, and 23 House committees, with 104 subcommittees. The committees are not set in stone, but change in number and form with each new Congress as required for the efficient consideration of legislation. Each committee oversees a specific policy area, and the subcommittees take on more specialized policy areas. For example, the House Committee on Ways and Means includes subcommittees on Social Security and Trade.

A bill is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, amended, or rejected entirely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a bill forward, it is reported to the full committee, where the process is repeated again. Throughout this stage of the process, the committees and subcommittees call hearings to investigate the merits and flaws of the bill. They invite experts, advocates, and opponents to appear before the committee and provide testimony and can compel people to appear using subpoena power if necessary.

If the full committee votes to approve the bill, it is reported to the floor of the House or Senate, and the majority party leadership decides when to place the bill on the calendar for consideration. If a bill is particularly pressing, it may be considered right away. Others may wait for months or never be scheduled at all.

When the bill comes up for consideration, the House has a very structured debate process. Each member who wishes to speak only has a few minutes, and the number and kind of amendments are usually limited. In the Senate, debate on most bills is unlimited--Senators may speak to issues other than the bill under consideration during their speeches, and any amendment can be introduced. Senators can use this to filibuster bills under consideration, a procedure by which a Senator delays a vote on a bill--and by extension its passage--by refusing to stand down. A supermajority of 60 Senators can break a filibuster by invoking cloture, or the cession of debate on the bill, and forcing a vote. Once debate is over, the votes of a simple majority passes the bill.

A bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration. Though the Constitution requires that the two bills have the exact same wording, this rarely happens in practice. To bring the bills into alignment, a Conference Committee is convened, consisting of members from both chambers. The members of the committee produce a conference report, intended as the final version of the bill. Each chamber then votes again to approve the conference report. Depending on where the bill originated, the final text is then enrolled by either the Clerk of the House or the Secretary of the Senate, and presented to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate for their signatures. The bill is then sent to the President.

When receiving a bill from Congress, the President has several options. If the President agrees substantially with the bill, he or she may sign it into law, and the bill is then printed in the Statutes at Large. If the President believes the law to be bad policy, he may veto it and send it back to Congress. Congress may override the veto with a two-thirds vote of each chamber, at which point the bill becomes law and is printed.

There are two other options that the President may exercise. If Congress is in session and the President takes no action within 10 days, the bill becomes law. If Congress adjourns before 10 days are up and the President takes no action, then the bill dies and Congress may not vote to override. This is called a pocket veto, and if Congress still wants to pass the legislation, they must begin the entire process anew.

Powers of Congress

Congress, as one of the three coequal branches of government, is ascribed significant powers by the Constitution. All legislative power in the government is vested in Congress, meaning that it is the only part of the government that can make new laws or change existing laws. Executive Branch agencies issue regulations with the full force of law, but these are only under the authority of laws enacted by Congress. The President may veto bills Congress passes, but Congress may also override a veto by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Article I of the Constitution enumerates the powers of Congress and the specific areas in which it may legislate. Congress is also empowered to enact laws deemed "necessary and proper" for the execution of the powers given to any part of the government under the Constitution.

Part of Congress's exercise of legislative authority is the establishment of an annual budget for the government. To this end, Congress levies taxes and tariffs to provide funding for essential government services. If enough money cannot be raised to fund the government, then Congress may also authorize borrowing to make up the difference. Congress can also mandate spending on specific items: legislatively directed spending, commonly known as "earmarks," specifies funds for a particular project, rather than for a government agency.

Both chambers of Congress have extensive investigative powers, and may compel the production of evidence or testimony toward whatever end they deem necessary. Members of Congress spend much of their time holding hearings and investigations in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a Congressional subpoena can result in charges of contempt of Congress, which could result in a prison term.

The Senate maintains several powers to itself: It ratifies treaties by a two-thirds supermajority vote and confirms the appointments of the President by a majority vote. The consent of the House of Representatives is also necessary for the ratification of trade agreements and the confirmation of the Vice President.

Congress also holds the sole power to declare war.

Government Oversight

Oversight of the executive branch is an important Congressional check on the President's power and a balance against his discretion in implementing laws and making regulations.

A major way that Congress conducts oversight is through hearings. The House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs are both devoted to overseeing and reforming government operations, and each committee conducts oversight in its policy area.

Congress also maintains an investigative organization, the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Founded in 1921 as the General Accounting Office, its original mission was to audit the budgets and financial statements sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. Today, the GAO audits and generates reports on every aspect of the government, ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent with the effectiveness and efficiency that the American people deserve.

The executive branch also polices itself: Sixty-four Inspectors General, each responsible for a different agency, regularly audit and report on the agencies to which they are attached.

Gerrymandering

In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating geographic boundaries to create partisan, incumbent-protected districts. The resulting district is known as a gerrymander (/ˈdʒɛriˌmændər/); however, that word can also refer to the process. from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license - see links below for more detailed information

US Capitol, south side (where the House of Representatives meets): Wikimedia Commons, Martin Jacobsen/Kulshrax, Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0US Capitol, south side (where the House of Representatives meets): Wikimedia Commons, Martin Jacobsen/Kulshrax, Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0
House of Representatives from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license - see links below for more detailed information

The United States House of Representatives, commonly referred to as "the House," is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Each state receives representation in the House in proportion to its population but is entitled to at least one Representative. The most populous state, California, currently has 53 representatives. The total number of voting representatives is currently fixed at 435. Each representative serves for a two-year term. The presiding officer of the House is the speaker, and is elected by the members of the house.
Because its members are generally elected from smaller (an average of 693,000 residents as of 2007) and more commonly homogeneous districts than those from the Senate, the House is generally considered to be a more partisan chamber. The House was granted its own exclusive powers: the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach officials, and elect the president in electoral college deadlocks.
The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol.

History of the United States House of Representatives

Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress was a unicameral (Latin for "one room") body in which each state held one vote. The ineffectiveness of the federal government under the Articles led Congress to summon a Constitutional Convention in 1787; all states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how Congress was to be structured was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. James Madison's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral (Latin for "two rooms") Congress: the lower house would be "of the people," elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, and a more deliberative upper house that would represent the individual states, and would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment, would be elected by the lower house.
The House is often considered to be the "lower house," with the Senate as the "upper house," although the United States Constitution does not use such language. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states.
Eventually, the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress (the House of Representatives) would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other (the Senate) would provide equal representation among the states. The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states (nine out of the 13) in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.
During the first half of the 19th Century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore, dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed.
Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican-American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War (1861–1865), which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union. The war culminated in the South's defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the Senate did not have the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the ensuing era, known as the Gilded Age, was marked by sharp political divisions in the electorate. Both the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times.

The late 19th and early 20th Centuries also saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House. The rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed," as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House also developed during approximately the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader was the head of the minority party, the Majority Leader remained subordinate to the Speaker. The Speakership reached its zenith during the term of Republican Joseph Gurney Cannon, 1903 to 1911. The powers of the Speaker included chairmanship of the influential Rules Committee and the ability to appoint members of other House committees. These powers, however, were curtailed in the "Revolution of 1910" because of the efforts of Democrats and dissatisfied Republicans who opposed Cannon's arguably heavy-handed tactics.
The Democratic Party dominated the House of Representatives during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945), often winning over two-thirds of the seats. Both Democrats and Republicans were in power at various times during the next decade. The Democratic Party maintained control of the House from 1954 until 1995. In the mid-1970s, there were major reforms of the House, strengthening the power of sub-committees at the expense of committee chairmen and allowing party leaders to nominate committee chairs. These actions were taken to undermine the seniority system and to reduce the ability of a small number of senior members to obstruct legislation they did not favor. There was also a shift from the 1970s to greater control of the legislative program by the majority party; in particular, the power of party leaders (especially the Speaker) grew considerably.
The Republicans took control of the House in 1995 under the leadership of Speaker Newt Gingrich. Gingrich attempted to pass a major legislative program, the "Contract with America," on which the House Republicans had been elected, and made major reforms of the House, notably reducing the tenure of committee chairs to three two-year terms. Many elements of the Contract did not pass Congress, were vetoed by President Bill Clinton, or were substantially altered in negotiations with Clinton. The Republicans held on to the House until the United States Congressional elections in 2006, during which the Democrats won back control of both the House of Representatives

and the Senate. Nancy Pelosi was subsequently elected by the House as the first female Speaker.

Apportionment

Under Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution, seats in the House of Representatives are apportioned among the states by population, as determined by the census conducted every ten years. Each state, however, is entitled to at least one Representative.
The only constitutional rule relating to the size of the House says: "The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand." Congress has regularly increased the size of the House to account for population growth; but Congress fixed the number of voting House members at 435 in 1911. The number was temporarily increased to 437 in 1959 upon the admission of Alaska and Hawaii (seating one representative from each of those states without changing existing apportionment), and returned to 435 four years later, after the reapportionment consequent to the 1960 census.
The Constitution does not provide for the representation of the District of Columbia or of territories. However, those places elect non-voting delegates or, in the case of Puerto Rico, a Resident Commissioner. The District of Columbia and the territories of American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are represented by one delegate each. Puerto Rico elects a Resident Commissioner, but other than having a four-year term, the Resident Commissioner's role is identical to the delegates from the other territories. In November, 2008, the Northern Mariana Islands elected their first delegate who took office in January, 2009. Delegates and Resident Commissioners may participate in debates and vote in committees. They may vote in the Committee of the Whole when their votes would not be decisive.

Redistricting

States that are entitled to more than one Representative are divided into single-member districts. This has been a federal statutory requirement since 1967. Prior to that law, general ticket representation was used by some states. Typically, states redraw these district lines after each census, though they may do so at other times. Each state determines its own district boundaries, either through legislation or through non-partisan panels. "Malapportionment" is unconstitutional and districts must be approximately equal in population (see Wesberry v. Sanders). The Voting Rights Act prohibits states from "gerrymandering" districts to reduce racial minorities' voting power.
Using gerrymandering for political gain is not prohibited, even when political gerrymandering incidentally involves the creation of racially concentrated districts. Because of gerrymandering, fewer than 10% of all House seats are seriously contested in most election cycles. Since over 90% of House members are nearly guaranteed reelection every two years because of lack of electoral competition, elections have been criticized as being contrary to fair competition, one of the principles of democracy.

Qualifications

Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for representatives. Each representative must: (1) be at least twenty-five years old, (2) have been a citizen of the United States for the past seven years, and (3) be (at the time of the election) an inhabitant of the state they represent. Members need not live in their districts. The age and citizenship qualifications for representatives are less than those for senators. The constitutional requirements of Article I, Section 2 for election to Congress are the maximum requirements that can be imposed on a candidate.[5] Therefore, Article I, Section 5, which permits each House to be the judge of the qualifications of its own members does not permit either House to establish additional qualifications.

Disqualification

Under the Fourteenth Amendment, any federal or state officer who takes the requisite oath to support the Constitution, but later engages in rebellion or aids the enemies of the United States, is disqualified from becoming a representative. This post-Civil War provision, was intended to prevent those who sided with the Confederacy from serving. However, disqualified individuals may serve if they gain the consent of two-thirds of both houses of Congress.

Elections

Elections for representatives are held in every even-numbered year, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November (see Election Day (United States)). Generally, the Republican and Democratic parties choose their candidates for each district in primary elections, which are typically held several months before. Ballot access rules for independent and third-party candidates vary greatly from state to state.
Since 1967, Federal law requires that House races use the single-member-district, first-past-the-post voting system, explicitly banning the use of proportional representation. Louisiana was unique in that it held an all-party "primary election" on the general Election Day, with a subsequent runoff election between the top two finishers (regardless of party) if no candidate receives a majority in the primary. The state now has a system similar to most other states whereby each party nominates candidates in closed primaries, though the state of Washington now uses a similar (though not identical) system. Seats vacated during a term are filled through special elections, though that election will sometimes not take place until the next general election date. A member chosen in a special election usually takes office as soon thereafter as possible.

Terms

Representatives and delegates serve for two-year terms, while the Resident Commissioner serves for four years. Once elected, a representative continues to serve until the expiry of their term, death or resignation. Furthermore, the Constitution permits the House to expel any member with a two-thirds vote. In the history of the United States, only five members have been expelled from the House; three of them, John Bullock Clark (D-MO), John William Reid (D-MO), and Henry Cornelius Burnett (D-KY), were removed in 1861 for supporting the Confederate States' secession, which led to the Civil War. Michael Myers (D-PA) was expelled for accepting bribes in 1980, and James Traficant (D-OH) was expelled in 2002 following his conviction for corruption. The House also has the power to formally censure or reprimand its members; censure or reprimand requires only a simple majority, but does not remove a member from office.

Comparison to the Senate

Many of the Founding Fathers intended the Senate (whose members were originally chosen by the state legislatures) to be a check on the popularly elected House, just as the House was to be a check on the Senate. The "advise and consent" powers (such as the power to approve treaties) were therefore granted to the Senate alone. The House, however, can initiate spending bills and has exclusive authority to impeach officials and choose the President in an electoral college deadlock. The Senate and its members generally have greater prestige than the House because Senators serve longer terms (six years), are less numerous, and (in all but seven states) represent larger constituencies than Representatives, serving to represent entire states rather than largely-arbitrary districts. Additionally, the Senate has traditionally been considered a less partisan chamber; senators have greater potential to broker compromises and act more unilaterally than Representatives, and hence hold greater national stature.

Salaries

As of January 1, 2008, the annual salary of each Representative is $169,300. The Speaker of the House and the Majority and Minority Leaders earn more. The Speaker earned $212,100 during the 109th Congress (January 4, 2005-January 3, 2007) while the party leaders earned $183,500 (the same as Senate leaders). A cost-of-living-adjustment (COLA) increase takes effect annually unless Congress votes to not accept it. Congress sets members' salaries; however, the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits a change in salary (but not COLA) from taking effect until after the next general election. Representatives are eligible for lifetime benefits after serving for five years, including a pension, health benefits, and social security benefits.

Titles

Representatives use the prefix "The Honorable" before their names. A member of the House is referred to as a "Representative," " "Congressman," or "Congresswoman." While Senators are technically "Congressman" or "Congresswomen," that term is generally used to refer to Members of the House of Representatives exclusively. The Delegates and the Resident Commissioner use the same styles and titles as Members of the House.

Officers

Member Officials
The party with a majority of seats in the House is known as the majority party. The next-largest party is the minority party. The Speaker, committee chairmen and some other officials are generally from the majority party; they have counterparts (for instance, the "ranking members" of committees) in the minority party.
The Constitution provides that the House may choose its own Speaker. Although not explicitly required by the Constitution, every Speaker has been a member of the House. The Constitution does not specify the duties and powers of the Speaker, which are instead regulated by the rules and customs of the House. The Speaker has a role both as a leader of the House and the leader of his or her party (which need not be the majority party; theoretically, a member of the minority party could be elected as Speaker with the support of a fraction of members of the majority party). Under the Presidential Succession Act (1947), the Speaker is second in the line of presidential succession behind the Vice President.
The Speaker is the presiding officer of the House but does not preside over every debate. Instead, he or she delegates the responsibility of presiding to other members in most cases. The presiding officer sits in a chair in the front of the House chamber. The powers of the presiding officer are extensive; one important power is that of controlling the order in which members of the House speak. No member may make a speech or a motion unless he or she has first been recognized by the presiding officer. Moreover, the presiding officer may rule on any "point of order" (a member's objection that a rule has been breached), but the decision is subject to appeal to the whole House.
The Speaker is the chair of his or her party's steering committee, which chooses the chairmen of standing committees. The Speaker determines which committees consider bills, appoints most of the members of the Rules Committee, and appoints all members of conference committees. When the Presidency and Senate are controlled by a different party from the one controlling the House, the Speaker can become the de facto "leader of the opposition." Since the Speaker is a partisan officer with substantial power to control the business of the House, the position is often used for partisan advantage.
Each party elects a floor leader, who is known as the Majority Leader or Minority Leader. While the Minority Leader is the full leader of his party, the same is not true of the Majority Leader. Instead, the Speaker is the head of the majority party; the Majority Leader is only the second-highest official. Party leaders decide what legislation members of their party should either support or oppose. Each party also elects a whip, who works to ensure that the party's members vote as the party leadership desires. Representatives are generally less independent of party leaders than senators, and usually vote as the leadership directs. Incentives to cooperate include the leadership's power to select committee chairmen. As a result, the leadership plays a much greater role in the House than in the Senate, an example of why the atmosphere of the House is regarded by many as more partisan.

Non-member officials
The House is also served by several officials who are not members. The House's chief officer is the Clerk, who maintains public records, prepares documents, and oversees junior officials, including pages. The Clerk also presides over the House at the beginning of each new Congress pending the election of a Speaker. Another officer is the Chief Administrative Officer, responsible for the day-to-day administrative support to the House of Representatives. This includes everything from payroll to food service.
The position of chief administrative officer (CAO) was created following the 1994 Republican Revolution and replaced the positions of Doorkeeper and Director of Non-Legislative and Financial Services (which had been created only two years prior to provide a nonpartisan management body to administer those functions of the House that should not be under partisan control). The CAO also assumed some of the responsibilities of the House Information Services, which previously had been controlled directly by the Committee on House Administration, at the time headed by Representative Charlie Rose of North Carolina, along with the House "Folding Room."
The Chaplain leads the House in prayer at the opening of the day. There is also a Sergeant at Arms, who as the House's chief law enforcement officer, maintains order and security on House premises. Finally, routine police work is handled by the United States Capitol Police, which is supervised by the Capitol Police Board, a body to which the Sergeant at Arms belongs.

Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election.
Each of the 435 members of the House of Representatives represents a district and serves a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. The 100 Senators serve staggered six-year terms. Each state has two senators, regardless of population. Every two years, approximately one-third of the Senate is elected.
Article I of the Constitution vests all legislative power in the Congress. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process (legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers); however, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate is uniquely empowered to ratify treaties and to approve top presidential appointments. Revenue-raising bills must originate in the House of Representatives, which also has the sole power of impeachment, while the Senate has the sole power to try impeachment cases.
The Congress meets in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.
The term Congress is also used to refer to a particular meeting of the national legislature, reckoned according to the terms of representatives. Therefore, a "Congress" covers two years.

Oversight
Congressional Oversight refers to the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities and policy implementation. Congress exercises this power largely through its standing committee system. However, oversight, which dates to the earliest days of the Republic, also occurs in a wide variety of congressional activities and contexts. These include authorization, appropriations, investigative, and legislative hearings by standing committees; specialized investigations by select committees; and reviews and studies by congressional support agencies and staff
Congress’s oversight authority derives from its 'implied' powers in the Constitution, public laws, and House and Senate rules. It is an integral part of the American system of checks and balances.

Oversight is an implied rather than an enumerated power under the U.S. Constitution. The government's charter does not explicitly grant Congress the authority to conduct inquiries or investigations of the executive, to have access to records or materials held by the executive, or to issue subpoenas for documents or testimony from the executive.
There was little discussion of the power to oversee, review, or investigate executive activity at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 or later in the Federalist Papers, which argued in favor of ratification of the Constitution. The lack of debate was because oversight and its attendant authority were seen as an inherent power of representative assemblies which enacted public law.
Oversight also derives from the many and varied express powers of the Congress in the Constitution. It is implied in the legislature's authority, among other powers and duties, to appropriate funds, enact laws, raise and support armies, provide for a Navy, declare war, and impeach and remove from office the President, Vice President, and other civil officers. Congress could not reasonably or responsibly exercise these powers without knowing what the executive was doing; how programs were being administered, by whom, and at what cost; and whether officials were obeying the law and complying with legislative intent.
The Supreme Court of the United States made legitimate the oversight powers of Congress, subject to constitutional safeguards for civil liberties, on several occasions. In 1927, for instance, the High Court found that in investigating the administration of the Justice Department, Congress was considering a subject "on which legislation could be had or would be materially aided by the information which the investigation was calculated to elicit."

Congressional control of agencies

If Congress loses faith in an agency, Congress can respond in a number of ways. Congress can pass a law to overrule agency decisions, or to narrow the agency's jurisdiction. Congress can use its appropriations power to restrict the agency's funding. Congress can also narrow the agency's regulatory authority. For example, in the 1980s Congress narrowed the EPA's regulatory discretion using detailed substantive criteria to limit EPA rulemaking.

House

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.

The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and before the President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. Unlike the Speaker of the British House of Commons, the Speaker of the House is a position of leadership in the majority party and actively works to set that party's legislative agenda. Also unlike the British counterpart, the Speaker of the House does not normally personally preside over debates, instead delegating the duty to other members of Congress of the same political party. Aside from duties relating to heading the House and the majority political party, the Speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and remains the Representative of his or her congressional district.

Majority

Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door (private) caucus.

The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority of the seats in the house (currently at least 218 of the 435 seats). They work with the Speaker of the House and the Majority Whip to coordinate ideas and maintain support for legislation.

The role of the majority leader has been defined by history and tradition. This officer is charged with scheduling legislation for floor consideration; planning the daily, weekly, and annual legislative agendas; consulting with Members to gauge party sentiment; and, in general, working to advance the goals of the majority party.

The office of Majority Leader was created in 1899 by Speaker David B. Henderson for Sereno Payne. Henderson saw a need for a party leader on the House floor separate from the Speaker, as the role of Speaker had become more nationally prominent and the size of the House had grown from 105 at the beginning of the century to 356. In addition to distributing the responsibility of running the House, the existence of the Majority Leader allows the Speaker to criticize his or her own party when he considers it politically necessary.

Before 1899, the majority party floor leader had traditionally been the Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, the most powerful committee in the House, as it generates the Bills of Revenue specified in the Constitution as the House's unique power.[1]

The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader. Generally, the minority leader is on the ballot for Speaker of the House during the convening of the Congress. He or she is usually the party's top choice for Speaker if party control flips after an election. The minority leader usually meets with the Majority Leader and the Speaker to discuss agreements on controversial issues.

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better):

Legislative branch House of Representatives
apportionment gerrymandering
legislative district term of office
Congress special session
Congressional immunity majority party
minority party delegated power
implied power non-legislative power
Congressional oversight Speaker
whip legislation

03.01 Study Questions House of Representatives (Citizenship)

03.01.01 Study Questions House of Representatives (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 50 minutes

Copy and paste the section below, between the lines of asterisks, into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work there, and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it into the corresponding assignment submission window. **********************************************************************************************************

Legislative Branch

1. What is the purpose of the legislative branch?

2. How is the legislative branch organized and why?

3. How many members make up the U.S. House of Representatives, and how is representation determined in each state?

4. How many U.S. representatives does the state that you live in have?

Apportionment

5. What does "apportionment" mean?

6. What does "gerrymandering" mean?

7. Who is in charge of setting up apportionment lines in a state?

8. Which U.S. representative district do you live in?

House of Representatives

9. What are the three qualifications for being a member of the U.S. House of Representatives?

10. What is the term of office for a member of the House? How many terms may a representative serve?

11. Who are the current members of the U.S. House of Representatives from your state?

Congress

12. Where does Congress meet? By law, when does Congress meet?

13. Who can make them meet more often by calling a special session?

14. What is Congressional immunity?

15. Which party is currently the majority party in the House?

16. Name one delegated power of Congress.

17. Name one implied power of Congress.

18. Name a non-legislative power of Congress.

19. What does the word oversight mean to Congress?

20. When you say Congress, what two groups or bodies are you talking about?

House Leadership

21. What is the title given to the most important person in the House?

22. How is that person chosen?

23.What is the majority party leader ?

24. What does the majority party Whip do in Congress?

25.What does the minority party do?

**********************************************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.01.02 House of Rep Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

House of Representatives This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in the "House of Representatives" section of Unit 3. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.02 Senate (Citizenship)

Senate
The Senate in session during President Clinton's impeachment trial: Image from Wikimedia Commons, C-SPAN video coverage, public domainThe Senate in session during President Clinton's impeachment trial: Image from Wikimedia Commons, C-SPAN video coverage, public domain
The Senate is the upper house of Congress.
The information below is from the senate.gov website
(see also the links below for more information)

Floor Leader Responsibilities

The "offices" of the majority and the minority leader, as we know them today, are of recent development in our history. Individual Senators, since 1789, have assumed leading roles in the determination of what the Senate would or would not do. Some of these Senators, at one time or another, have stood high in the ranks of their respective political parties. The power or influence of some Senators, to guide or lead their respective parties and the senate,has been particularly noteworthy.

Caucuses of Senators have been called from time to time from the beginning of the first Senate. These have served all kinds of purposes, such as the determination of the position to be taken on certain proposed legislation or to determine the names and sizes of the committees. Until the latter part of the 19th century, these meetings were not created to act as organized political caucuses to select persons as floor leaders for the parties during the sessions of the Senate

Bills

The Committee System

Congress conducts most of its work through two major types of committees. The most common are standing committees, which are usually permanent. Each standing committee takes responsibility for a particular subject area. Congress creates temporary committees, usually called select or special committees, to write bills on a particular topic or to conduct investigations. For example, both chambers have select committees to authorize and oversee the nation’s intelligence-gathering operations, including the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency.

Most standing committees have the power to authorize government action but cannot commit funding to implement the policy. Before most laws can be carried out, they must receive an appropriation of funding, processed and brought to the floor by the House and Senate appropriations committees. This occurs during Congress’s annual budget process. The amount of money in the budget depends on the level of taxes and other revenues brought in by law processed by the Senate Finance Committee and the House Ways and Means Committee.

Much of a committee’s work is handled by a sizable number of professional staff assistants. In 1999 there were nearly 1,300 House committee aides and more than 900 Senate committee aides. Some of the staff are experts in technical areas, such as military weapons, farming, and international finance. They guide lawmakers—especially those who are new or inexperienced—through the web of issues handled by the committee.

After a bill is introduced, the presiding officer,the Speaker of the House or the President of the Senate, refers it to a specialized committee to review the measure. Most bills die at this stage when committee members simply ignore them or vote to take no action or to table (kill) the proposals. Most committees conduct much of their business through subcommittees, in which the subject matter of the committee is further broken down. Complex bills receive attention from several committees and subcommittees. A farm trade bill, for example, might be considered by the House’s agriculture, commerce, and small business committees.

A. Legislation is Introduced - Any member can introduce a piece of legislation

House - Legislation is handed to the clerk of the House or placed in the hopper.

Senate - Members must gain recognition of the presiding officer to announce the introduction of a bill during the morning hour. If any senator objects, the introduction of the bill is postponed until the next day.

The bill is assigned a number. (e.g. HR 1 or S 1)

The bill is labeled with the sponsor's name.

The bill is sent to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and copies are made.

Senate bills can be jointly sponsored.

Members can co-sponsor the piece of Legislation.

B. Committee Action - The bill is referred to the appropriate committee by the Speaker of the House or the presiding officer in the Senate.

Most often, the actual referral decision is made by the House or Senate parliamentarian. Bills may be referred to more than one committee and it may be split so that parts are sent to different committees. The Speaker of the House may set time limits on committees. Bills are placed on the calendar of the committee to which they have been assigned. Failure to act on a bill is equivalent to killing it. Bills in the House can only be released from committee without a proper committee vote by a discharge petition signed by a majority of the House membership (218 members).

Committee Steps:

Comments about the bill's merit are requested by government agencies.

Bill can be assigned to subcommittee by Chairman.

Hearings may be held.

Subcommittees report their findings to the full committee.

Finally there is a vote by the full committee - the bill is "ordered to be reported."

A committee will hold a "mark-up" session during which it will make revisions and additions. If substantial amendments are made, the committee can order the introduction of a "clean bill" which will include the proposed amendments. This new bill will have a new number and will be sent to the floor while the old bill is discarded. The chamber must approve, change or reject all committee amendments before conducting a final passage vote.

After the bill is reported, the committee staff prepares a written report explaining why they favor the bill and why they wish to see their amendments, if any, adopted. Committee members who oppose a bill sometimes write a dissenting opinion in the report. The report is sent back to the whole chamber and is placed on the calendar.

In the House, most bills go to the Rules committee before reaching the floor. The committee adopts rules that will govern the procedures under which the bill will be considered by the House. A "closed rule" sets strict time limits on debate and forbids the introduction of amendments. These rules can have a major impact on whether the bill passes. The rules committee can be bypassed in three ways:
1) members can move rules to be suspended (requires 2/3 vote)
2) a discharge petition can be filed
3) the House can use a Calendar Wednesday procedure.

C. Floor Action

Legislation is placed on the Calendar

House: Bills are placed on one of four House Calendars. They are usually placed on the calendars in the order of which they are reported yet they don't usually come to floor in this order - some bills never reach the floor at all. The Speaker of the House and the Majority Leader decide what will reach the floor and when. (Legislation can also be brought to the floor by a discharge petition.)

Senate: Legislation is placed on the Legislative Calendar. There is also an Executive calendar to deal with treaties and nominations. Scheduling of legislation is the job of the Majority Leader. Bills can be brought to the floor whenever a majority of the Senate chooses.

Debate
House: Debate is limited by the rules formulated in the Rules Committee. The Committee of the Whole debates and amends the bill but cannot technically pass it. Debate is guided by the Sponsoring Committee and time is divided equally between proponents and opponents. The Committee decides how much time to allot to each person. Amendments must be germane to the subject of a bill--no riders are allowed. The bill is reported back to the House (to itself) and is voted on. A quorum call is a vote to make sure that there are enough members present (218) to have a final vote. If there is not a quorum, the House will adjourn or will send the Sergeant at Arms out to round up missing members.

Senate: debate is unlimited unless cloture is invoked. Members can speak as long as they want and amendments need not be germane--riders are often offered. Entire bills can therefore be offered as amendments to other bills. Unless cloture is invoked, Senators can use a filibuster to defeat a measure by "talking it to death."

Vote - the bill is voted on. If passed, it is then sent to the other chamber unless that chamber already has a similar measure under consideration. If either chamber does not pass the bill then it dies. If the House and Senate pass the same bill then it is sent to the President. If the House and Senate pass different bills they are sent to Conference Committee. Most major legislation goes to a Conference Committee.

D. Conference Committee

Members from each house form a conference committee and meet to work out the differences. The committee is usually made up of senior members who are appointed by the presiding officers of the committee that originally dealt with the bill. The representatives from each house work to maintain their version of the bill.

If the Conference Committee reaches a compromise, it prepares a written conference report, which is submitted to each chamber.

The conference report must be approved by both the House and the Senate.

E. The President - the bill is sent to the President for review.

A bill becomes law if signed by the President or if not signed within 10 days and Congress is in session.

If Congress adjourns before the 10 days and the President has not signed the bill then it does not become law ("Pocket Veto.")

If the President vetoes the bill it is sent back to Congress with a note listing his or her reasons. The chamber that originated the legislation can attempt to override the veto by a vote of two-thirds of those present. If the veto of the bill is overridden in both chambers then it becomes law.

F. The Bill Becomes A Law - once a bill is signed by the President or his veto is overridden by both houses it becomes a law and is assigned an official number.


GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Types of Legislation

Bills - A legislative proposal that if passed by both the House and the Senate and approved by the President becomes law. Each bill is assigned a bill number. HR denotes bills that originate in the House and S denotes bills that originate in the Senate.

Private Bill - A bill that is introduced on behalf of a specific individual that if it is enacted into law only affects the specific person or organization the bill concerns. Often, private bills address immigration or naturalization issues.

Public Bill - A bill that affects the general public if enacted into law.

Simple Resolution - A type of legislation designated by H Res or S Res that is used primarily to express the sense of the chamber where it is introduced or passed. It only has the force of the chamber passing the resolution. A simple resolution is not signed by the President and cannot become Public Law.

Concurrent Resolutions - A type of legislation designated by H Con Res or S Con Res that is often used to express the sense of both chambers, to set annual budget or to fix adjournment dates. Concurrent resolutions are not signed by the President and therefore do not hold the weight of law.

Joint Resolutions - A type of legislation designated by H J Res or S J Res that is treated the same as a bill unless it proposes an amendment to the Constitution. In this case, 2/3 majority of those present and voting in both the House and the Senate and ratification of the states are required for the Constitutional amendment to be adopted.

Other Terms

Calendar Wednesday - A procedure in the House of Representatives during which each standing committees may bring up for consideration any bill that has been reported on the floor on or before the previous day. The procedure also limits debate for each subject matter to two hours.

"christmas tree" bill - Informal nomenclature for a bill on the Senate floor that attracts many, often unrelated, floor amendments. The amendments which adorn the bill may provide special benefits to various groups or interests.

Cloture - A motion generally used in the Senate to end a filibuster. Invoking cloture requires a vote by 3/5 of the full Senate. If cloture is invoked further debate is limited to 30 hours, it is not a vote on the passage of the piece of legislation.

Committee of The Whole - A committee including all members of the House. It allows bills and resolutions to be considered without adhering to all the formal rules of a House session, such as needing a quorum of 218. All measures on the Union Calendar must be considered first by the Committee of the Whole.

Co-Sponsor - A member or members that add his or her name formally in support of another members bill. In the House a member can become a co-sponsor of a bill at any point up to the time the last authorized committee considers it. In the Senate a member can become a co-sponsor of a bill anytime before the vote takes place on the bill. However, a co-sponsor is not required and therefore, not every bill has a co-sponsor or co-sponsors.

Discharge Petition - A petition that if signed by a majority of the House, 218 members, requires a bill to come out of a committee and be moved to the floor of the House.

Filibuster - An informal term for extended debate or other procedures used to prevent a vote on a bill in the Senate.

Germane - Relevant to the bill or business either chamber is addressing. The House requires an amendment to meet a standard of relevance, being germane, unless a special rule has been passed.

Hopper - Box on House Clerk's desk where members deposit bills and resolutions to introduce them.

Morning Hour - A 90 minute period on Mondays and Tuesdays in the House of Representatives set aside for five minute speeches by members who have reserved a spot in advance on any topic.

Motion to Recommit - A motion that requests a bill be sent back to committee for further consideration. Normally, the motion is accompanied by instructions concerning what the committee should change in the legislation or general instructions such as that the committee should hold further hearings.

Motion to Table - A motion that is not debatable and that can be made by any Senator or Representative on any pending question. Agreement to the motion is equivalent to defeating the question tabled.

Quorum - The number of Representatives or Senators that must be present before business can begin. In the House 218 members must be present for a quorum. In the Senate 51 members must be present however, Senate can conduct daily business without a quorum unless it is challenged by a point of order.

Rider - An informal term for an amendment or provision that is not relevant to the legislation where it is attached.

Sponsor - The original member who introduces a bill.

Substitute Amendment - An amendment that would replace existing language of a bill or another amendment with its own.

Suspension of the Rules - A procedure in the House that limits debate on a bill to 40 minutes, bars amendments to the legislation and requires a 2/3 majority of those present and voting for the measure to be passed.

Veto - A power that allows the President, a Governor, or a Mayor to refuse approval of a piece of legislation. Federally, a President returns a vetoed bill to the Congress, generally with a message. Congress can accept the veto or attempt to override the veto by a 2/3 majority of those present and voting in both the House and the Senate.

03.02.01 Study Questions - Senate (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 50 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Then, submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. **************************************************************************************************************

Senate

1. What are the three qualifications to become a Senator?

2. What is the length of term for a Senator? How many terms may a Senator serve?

3. How many members make up the Senate?

4. Why is that number the way that it is?

5. Who are the current senators from your state?

6. Both House members and Senate members have the franking privilege. What is that?

7. Who is the current majority party in the Senate?

8. Who is the President of the Senate?

9. Who is the President Pro Tempore of the Senate?

Committees

10. How many major committees are there in the Senate?

11. Which is probably the most important?

12. How does a Senator get assigned to a committee?

13. What do committees do?

Members of the Congress

14. What is the average age of a Senator?

15. What is the most common occupation of a Congressperson before being elected?

16. How many Senators are women?

Perks

17. What are some examples of congressional perks?

Definitions

18. Is the process for a bill to become a law a long process? What are the major steps?

19. What is a quorum?

20. Which house of Congress has unlimited debate? What is the term called?

21. What does pigeon-holing a bill do?

22. What is a veto override?

23. What is a Christmas Tree bill?

24. What is a rider to a bill?

25. What is an incumbent? Why is this important?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.02.02 Senate Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Senate This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in the "senate" portion of Unit 3. Go to the testing section to complete this test. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.03 Executive Branch (Citizenship)

President Kennedy in the Oval Office: NARA image, public domainPresident Kennedy in the Oval Office: NARA image, public domain
The executive branch of the US government is headed by the President. In order to be eligible to become President of the United States, a person must be a natural-born citizen, at least 35 years old, and have been a resident of the US for at least 14 years. Note that if a child is born outside the US, but both parents are citizens, that child is considered a 'natural-born' citizen. A President may not serve more than two terms. (This information is from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license)

Electoral College

The Electoral College consists of the popularly elected representatives called "electors" who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States. Since 1964, there have been 538 electors in each Presidential election. Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution specifies how many electors each state is entitled to have and that each state's legislature decides how its electors are to be chosen; U.S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College. The Electoral College is an example of an indirect election.
Rather than directly voting for the President and Vice President, United States citizens vote for electors. Electors are technically free to vote for anyone eligible to be President, but in practice pledge to vote for specific candidates and voters cast ballots for favored Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates by voting for correspondingly pledged electors.
The Twelfth Amendment provides for each elector to cast one vote for President and one vote for Vice President. It also specifies how a President and Vice President are elected.
Critics argue the Electoral College is inherently undemocratic and gives certain swing states disproportionate clout in selecting the President and Vice President. Proponents argue that the Electoral College is an important and distinguishing feature of federalism in the United States and protects the rights of smaller states. Numerous constitutional amendments have been introduced in the Congress seeking a replacement of the Electoral College with a direct popular vote; however, no proposal has ever passed the Congress. (This information is from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license)

The Office of President

The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president and charges him with the execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. Since the founding of the United States, the power of the president and the federal government have grown substantially and each modern president, despite possessing no formal legislative powers beyond signing or vetoing congressionally passed bills, is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of his party and the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. The president is frequently described as the most powerful person in the world.

The president is indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a four-year term, and is one of only two nationally elected federal officers, the other being the Vice President of the United States. The Twenty-second Amendment, adopted in 1951, prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third full term. It also prohibits a person from being elected to the presidency more than once if that person previously had served as president, or acting president, for more than two years of another person's term as president. In all, 43 individuals have served 55 four-year terms. On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama became the 44th president. (This information is from Wikipedia, CC Share-Alike license)

Topics and vocabulary you will need to learn to help you better understand this lesson include the following:

veto pocket veto
veto override succession
presidential cabinet Commander-in-Chief
secretary (in cabinet) declare war
treaty pardon
line-item veto executive privilege
bipartisan partisan

03.03.01 Study Questions - Executive Branch (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Then, submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window. ****************************************************************************************************************

Veto

1. When a President vetoes a law, what does that mean?

2. The President can pocket veto a bill. What does that mean?

Requirements 3. What are the qualifications for President as stated in the Constitution?

4. How long is a Presidential term?

5. How many terms may a President serve?

6. Who really elects the President?

Succession

7. Who is next in line if the President dies?

8. If the President and Vice President die, who becomes President?

Cabinet

9. Is the President's cabinet mentioned in the Constitution?

10. Who formed the first Presidential cabinet?

11. What is the purpose of a cabinet?

Powers

12 What are the four main powers of the President?

13. What does it mean that the President is Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces?

14. Does he have the power to declare war?

15. What is the process to sign a treaty with a foreign country? Who has to agree to it?

16. What is the process for the President to "get around" Congress and still make a treaty with a country?

17. The President can pardon people accused of crimes, but what is the limitation of that power?

More about vetoes

18. Does a President veto very many bills passed by Congress? Why?

19. Why would a President veto a bill passed by Congress?

20. How can Congress get around a Presidential veto?

21. Is it easy for Congress to do that? Explain.

22. What is a line-item veto?

23. What is the Constitutional status of a line-item veto?

Definitions

24. Define this term: Executive privilege

25. What does bipartisan mean?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.03.02 Executive Branch Exam (Citizenship)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Executive Branch This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in the "executive branch" section of Unit 3. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.03.03 US Government first quarter project (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 30 minutes

First Term Project: Children's Book/Presentation You may continue to work on later assignments before you finish this project, but be sure to have this assignment completed before you take your final exam. For this quarter's term project, you will be writing an original children's e-book using Powerpoint (or Keynote if you are using a Mac). This book should be designed to teach an elementary-aged student about an aspect of our government covered in this quarter's government curriculum. Possible book topics:

The American Revolution and Declaration of Independence How the Constitution came to be The three branches of government and what they do Duties of the President How a bill becomes a law American political parties and their platforms (what they believe) Current issues and the Constitution Other topics (feel free to present another idea of interest to you, that relates to this quarter's content).

Your presentation should include 10-15 slides. Each slide should have at least one picture as well as text and be written on the level of an elementary student. Three of your slides should be "clickable" with a link to more information (something like "click here to see a picture of the President's dog" or "click here to learn about some of the bills that have been discussed in the Senate lately"). At the end of your presentation, you should have a short (3-5 question) quiz for your "reader". The quiz should be clickable. DO NOT copy and paste information--write it all in your own words. If you've never made a Powerpoint or Keynote presentation before, then you will have to spend some time learning how to use one of these products to do your project. To get you started, you can Google "how to use your presentation tool."

If you do not have access to Powerpoint or a program like it, check with your local library or a friend or relative to use theirs. If all your attempts at accessing the program fail, you can draw the “slides” or pages of the book by hand and scan them in to your computer. Instead of the “clickables” you could make pop-up book type windows.

This project is worth 100 points, and must include:

points content
25 10-15 slides, on an appropriate topic for this quarter, edited for correct writing conventions
10 three slides with hyperlinks to more information (clickable)
10 writing on the level of an elementary student- material is easy to understand
10 at least one picture on each slide
10 a 3-5 question quiz (with the correct answer highlighted) at the end of the presentation
05 uniform transitions that don't distract from the contextual information
05 at least one 'sound effect' included
25 factually correct material with references for the sources, listed at the end
Total: 100 For extra credit, you could narrate your presentation or add music.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.04 Finishing First Quarter (Citizenship)

You have nearly finished the first quarter of US Government and Citizenship! See the review and extra credit assignments below.

03.04.01 Review Questions (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 120 minutes

To finish this unit, you must write a thorough answer for each of the following questions. You may use whatever sources you would like. Each question will be worth 10 points. You need to write enough to adequately answer and discuss each question (AT LEAST a good strong five sentence paragraph--more if you want a high score). You may see some of these same questions on the proctored final, so make sure you know the answers to all of them. Write in your own words! Do not plagiarize. Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window. **********************************************************************************************************

Sovereignty 1. List and describe the four purposes of government from our Preamble. Colonial 2. In what ways were the American colonies democratic? In what ways were they not democratic? Framing the Constitution 3. How did the founding fathers hope to prevent any one branch of government from gaining too much power? Why was this such a big concern? Federal vs. States 4. How does the overall power of the national government compare to that of the states? Give specific examples. Political Parties 5. How are parties organized on the national, state, and local levels? Elections 6. What are the basic elements of a presidential campaign? Evaluate which are most important. Political Ideology 7. How do political action committees influence elections? Give examples of when this has happened. House of Representatives 8. Why is the rules committee one of the most powerful committees in the House? Senate 9. Why does the Senate have fewer rules and a less formal atmosphere than the House? Executive Branch 10. What qualifications for the office of president do you think are the most necessary for carrying out the duties of the office? Why?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.04.02 Extra Credit Assignment (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

The United States Constitution ** Write whether each act listed below is constitutional or not. If it is not, then cite the appropriate article or amendment that made the statement unconstitutional. >>>>(Ex; Art. 1 Sec. 2 Par. 3) 1. A serious economic crisis takes place in the U.S. at the end of the President's second term. He decides his "duty" to the people is to run for a third term. 2. Congress passes a law that it can collect a duty of 10% on lumber being exported. 3. The president declares war on North Korea. 4. Congress passes a law that persons not residing in a state cannot smoke in that state because of the threat to pollution levels. 5. Since Washington D.C. is not in any state, residents there may not vote in national elections. 6. The president is accepting bribes from the Israeli government. 7. The Supreme Court rules that because of our national debt, the U.S. can no longer borrow money. 8. The same court rules that, in order to send a message to terrorists, anyone found guilty of terrorist acts in the U.S. will be tarred and feathered on public television. 9. The President decides that Congress will meet in regular session on Dec. 15th of each year. 10. Congress decides to impeach the president with the president of the Senate presiding. 11. Utah decides to allow one of its Senators to be appointed to the Electoral Collage. 12. The President agrees to let Puerto Rico become become a state in the union. 13. The President names a close friend Speaker of the House of Representatives. 14. The President, who is angry at the first lady for cheating on him, punishes all women in Washington D.C. by not letting them vote in the upcoming election. 15. Congress orders that a mass murderer be sent back to California after he/she was captured on Florida. 16. The President-elect, whose religion doesn't allow him to swear oaths or allegiances, refuses to take the Oath of Office. 17. A member of the House dies during a session of Congress. The House takes four days for bereavement. The Senate says they can only take two days off. 18. The President grants a pardon to his buddy who has 37 parking violations in Utah. 19. The President orders the Treasury Department to coin a 75-cent piece with his face on it. 20. The President, who is concerned about the amount of money spent on court procedures, orders all courts to stop trials by jury for those criminals who have pled guilty. 21. Congress decides to honor Michael Jordan with the title, Sir Michael Jordan, after all his contributions to the game of basketball. 22. Your land is in the middle of a Federal highway. Congress takes your land without compensation. 23. The Vice President dies in office. The President names a Senator from Kentucky as his new Vice President. 24. Mohammed Rashin, who is a citizen of the United States, is denied his right to vote because of recent terrorist acts performed by individuals from the same country as Rashin. 25. Congress decides to change the Constitution to allow the President to be elected one term of six years. 26. Karaj Armitraj, who has been a citizen of the U.S. for six years, is seeking election as a Senator of California. 27. Congress votes to allow the California governor to run for President of the United States. 28. In order to improve voter turnout, the President says that just for the current voting year, any U.S. citizen 16 years or older can vote. 29. The President decides the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment, so he bans it nationwide. 30. The President decides that he will take over the collection of income tax, and a percentage of that tax will go to his yearly salary.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.00 Unit 4 (Citizenship2)

The Constitution set up three main branches of our government: legislative, executive and judicial.
In unit three, we studied the legislative branch and began a study on the executive branch with a look at the Presidency. In this unit, we will be looking more at the executive branch and the bureaucracy as well as the judicial branch.

04.00 Warm-Up Activity (Citizenship2)

04.00.01 Warm-Up Activity (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Warm-Up #4 Activity After reading the information at the two websites above, write a thorough, two-paragraph answer for this question. Do not just copy and paste what you see or read. That is plagiarism. Answer the question in your own words and be sure to document your sources.

1. Why/how did the bureaucracy become a branch of government when it is not even mentioned in the Constitution? Why are our perceptions about this part of government mainly negative when they should be positive?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.01 Executive Branch and Bureaucracy (Citizenship2)

The President does not run the executive branch of government all alone, or even with just the help of the Vice-President. Even George Washington quickly found he needed advisers and other help; our country has only gotten bigger and more complicated since then. Each President chooses members of his cabinet, each to head up a different department and act as an expert adviser in that area, and appoints many 'bureaucrats' to manage the paperwork and daily details of running the executive branch.
Go to the websites below to read the information on the Executive Branch and Bureaucracy; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.
Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following, below, information. Keep your work as your own information to help understand this lesson better.

bureaucracy public policy
EOP OMB
NSC NEC
Cabinet post Department of State
Department of Defense Department of Justice
Chief of Staff ambassador
Treasury Interior
Commerce Labor
independent regulatory commission government corporation
independent executive agency bureaucrats
civil service Pendleton Act
OPM Hatch Act
injunction Iron Triangle
red tape

04.01 Executive Branch and Bureaucracy (Citizenship2)

04.01 Study Questions - Bureaucracy and the Current Cabinet (Citizenship2)

Use this link for question ten.

04.01.01 Study Questions - Bureaucracy and the Current Cabinet (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 60 points possible 30 minutes

President Obama meets with his CabinetPresident Obama meets with his Cabinet To help you with this assignment, go to the website above and watch one or more of the presentations on American Government under the heading “Bureaucracy.” Copy and paste the following section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself on your computer. Submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. **************************************************************************************************************

Bureaucracy

1. What is bureaucracy?

2. The purpose of the bureaucracy is to carry out public policy. What does that mean?

EOP/White House

3. What is the EOP?

4. The EOP is made up of three main parts; what are they?

OMB

5. What is the OMB? What do they do?

NSC

6. What is the NSC? When and why was it created?

NEC

7. What is the NEC? When and why was it created?

Cabinet

8. How many members are in the President's cabinet today?

Washington's Cabinet

9. How many cabinet members were there in George Washington's time? Why has it increased so much over the years?

10. Summarize (in your own words) the main ideas in the presentation you watched (from the link below).

11. What were the first three Cabinet posts?

Cabinet

12-25. List the 15 Cabinet Positions, and who currently serves in each position.

Appointments

26. Who selects the heads of the Cabinet departments?

27. Who has to approve the heads of these departments?

28. What five factors does the President use to select the people who work in these departments?

Cabinet Duties

29-30. Name the President's top two cabinet positions (not including the Vice-President). Why are they considered most important?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.01.02 Current Cabinet Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Current Cabinet This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in this section of Unit 4. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.01.03 Study Questions - The Historical Cabinet and Bureaucracy (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 60 points possible 30 minutes

President Reagan meets with his Cabinet: NARA image, public domainPresident Reagan meets with his Cabinet: NARA image, public domain The links above will help you answer these questions. Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. ****************************************************************************************************************

Historical Cabinet

1. In George Washington's cabinet, what three members were created first?

2. What did these first cabinet appointees argue about?

Government Agencies

3. The government created independent agencies. Why?

4. What is an independent regulatory commission? Give an example.

5. What is a government corporation? Give an example.

6. What is an independent executive agency? Give an example.

7.Which government agency deals with regulations for clean air and water?

Bureaucrats

8. Who are bureaucrats?

9. Which government agency has the largest number of employees? For what department do these employees work?

Civil Service

10. What is civil service?

Appointments

11. What criteria did President Washington use to appoint members to cabinet positions?

12. However, Thomas Jefferson changed the criteria; how?

Jackson

13. Andrew Jackson added more people to government positions than all the presidents before him combined; why?

14. What did Jackson call his system?

1881

15. That all changed in 1881 when what happened to President Garfield? Why?

Pendleton Act

16. In 1883 the Congress created the Pendleton Act. What is that?

17. In 1883 10% of federal employees were members of the civil service. What is the percentage today?

OPM

18. What is the OPM? What does it do?

Hatch Act

19. Definition: What is the Hatch Act that was passed in 1939?

20. Amendment: The government waited until 1993 to remedy the Hatch Act by doing what?

Power/Bureaucracy

21. Why do we need to have a bureaucracy?

22. What four groups influence the bureaucracy?

23. What can Congress do to influence the bureaucracy?

24. What can the President do to influence the bureaucracy?

25. What can the Courts do to influence the bureaucracy?

Injunction

26. What is an injunction?

Iron Triangle Iron Triangle: (image from Wikimedia Commons, public domain)Iron Triangle: (image from Wikimedia Commons, public domain)

27-28. What is the iron triangle? Using the websites in 04.1 and this chart, explain in paragraph form in your own words: What is the iron triangle and how does it work?

Red Tape

29. What is red tape? Why is that associated with the bureaucracy?

30. From the chart below (or on the BLS website): What cabinet or agency of the bureaucracy probably affects you the most? Explain your answer. [Note that the numbers are in thousands; that is, "100" means 100,000.]

**************************************************************************************************************** Bureau of Labor Statistics chart: (US government chart, public domain)Bureau of Labor Statistics chart: (US government chart, public domain)

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.01.04 The Historical Cabinet Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

The Historical Cabinet This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in this section of Unit 4. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.02 Courts and the Judicial Branch (Citizenship2)

See the links below to read the information on the courts and judicial branch; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.
The Supreme Court building: image from Wikimedia Commons, Noclip, public domainThe Supreme Court building: image from Wikimedia Commons, Noclip, public domain
A couple of important concepts that apply to all branches of government, but come up most often in the federal courts or Supreme Court, are 'strict constructionism' and 'loose constructionism.'

Strict constructionism, in the days of the Founding Fathers, meant the belief that anything not covered in the Constitution should be preserved as rights of the states, and the federal government shouldn't pass any laws about it. As Thomas Jefferson said, "I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground: That 'all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people.' [10th amendment.] To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition." At the time, Jefferson was arguing against the formation of a federal bank. However, a few years later, Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase (buying land from France--what is now most of the western United States), which certainly went beyond any power mentioned explicitly in the Constitution.

Loose constructionism, in the days of the Founding Fathers, meant the belief that anything not FORBIDDEN in the Constitution was allowed, and the federal government could pass laws about it. As Alexander Hamilton said, "That every power vested in a government is in its nature sovereign, and includes, by force of the term, a right to employ all the means requisite and fairly applicable to the attainment of the ends of such power, and which are not precluded by restrictions and exceptions specified in the Constitution, or not immoral, or not contrary to the essential ends of political society." At the time, he was arguing in favor of establishing a federal bank, which was done (in spite of Jefferson's opposition).

In modern times, most conservatives are in favor of strict constructionism, and what they mean by that is that federal or Supreme Court judges should not go beyond a literal interpretation of the Constitution. Most liberals are in favor of loose constructionism, and what they mean by that is that judges should be able to try to figure out how the Constitution should be applied to modern life and circumstances the Founding Fathers could not foresee, even if the issues are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

An example of a modern issue in question is whether the use of wiretapping and GPS tracking violate the Constitution's prohibition against 'unreasonable search and seizure.'

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following:

Federal court jurisdiction
federal judge civil (or tort) law
criminal law original jurisdiction
appellate jurisdiction defendant
prosecutor Roe v. Wade
judicial review strict constructionist
loose constructionist writ of mandamus
Court of Appeals District Court
senatorial courtesy nominee
Supreme Court justice Chief Justice
precedent stare decisis
judicial activism judicial restraint

04.02 Study Questions - Federal Courts (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

View the Supreme Court presentation, from the American Government section of the HippoCampus website, to help you with these questions. Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. *****************************************************************************************************************

Constitution

1. What Article in the Constitution created the Federal Court?

Jurisdiction

2. What does jurisdiction mean?

Federal Judges

3. What are the qualifications to become a federal judge?

Types of Laws

4. How is tort (civil) law different from criminal law?

5. Which (civil or criminal) is used the most in our justice system? Why?

Original Jurisdiction

6. What is original jurisdiction?

Appelate Jurisdiction

7. What is appellate jurisdiction?

Civil Law/Criminal Law

8. How is a civil case initiated (who starts the process, and why)? How is a criminal case initiated?

Defendant

9. What is a defendant?

Roe v. Wade

10. Roe v. Wade is probably the most controversial Supreme Court case in history - When? Who? Why? What happened? Explain in your own words.

Judicial Review

11. What is judicial review?

Strict vs Loose

12. Judges are either strict or loose constructionists when they interpret the Constitution. What does that mean?

Mandamus

13. What is a writ of mandamus?

Courts

14. What is the highest court in the land? Where is it located? Can any other court be higher than it?

15. The Federal Court System has 13 Courts of Appeals. What do they do, and where is the nearest one to you?

16. There are approximately 94-96 Federal District Courts. What do they do? Where is the nearest one to you?

Judges

17. Who appoints federal judges? How long do they serve?

18. How do you get rid of a bad federal judge?

19. What are the five/six criteria that are used to pick federal judges?

Courtesy

20. What is senatorial courtesy?

Nominees

21. Who also have to approve federal or Supreme Court justices?

Supreme Court

22. How many justices sit on the Supreme Court? Were there always that number? Why?

23. Who is the current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?

24. How many members of the Supreme Court have to decide to take a case, and why would they take that case?

Stare decisis

25. What are "precedent" and "stare decisis"? What do judicial activism and judicial restraint, as used by the Federal Court system, mean?

**********************************************************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


Other presentations at the first link that you are likely to find useful for this assignment include "Constitutional and Legislative Courts," "Judicial Activism and Restraint," "Judicial Review and Construction," "The Selection Process" and "The Confirmation Process."

04.02.02 Federal Courts Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Federal Courts This quiz will assess your understanding of the concepts introduced in this section of Unit 4. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.03 Unit 4 test (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Unit Test 4 You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.00 Unit 5 (Citizenship2)

Civil rights demonstrators in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial: NARA image, public domainCivil rights demonstrators in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial: NARA image, public domain
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson wrote of "certain inalienable rights." The Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to our Constitution) lays out many basic rights we have as US citizens. As Americans living in the 21st century, we take for granted that we have rights the government is not allowed to take away or infringe upon. However, in other places and times, common citizens had (in some places, still have) no expectations that the government would respect their "rights." On the contrary, it was commonplace for a king, dictator, and his representatives to do whatever they liked--even if that meant taking the lives or property of other citizens.

What rights do you have as a citizen of the United States? Not unlimited rights--the government DOES have authority to make some decisions or take some actions that you may not agree with. In this unit, we will be looking at civil rights and civil liberties.

05.00 Warm-Up Activity (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 20 minutes

Warm-Up Activity

Many students across America say the Pledge of Allegiance on a regular basis in their schools. For this assignment you will write two paragraphs. In the first, you will take the Pledge line by line, and tell what it means to you. "I Pledge Allegiance" "to the flag" "of the United States of America" "and to the Republic" "for which it stands" "one nation" "under God" "indivisible" "with liberty and justice for all." The most controversial part of the Pledge is the phrase "under God." Has it always been in the Pledge? Explain in the second paragraph.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.01 Civil Liberties (Citizenship2)

Doug Kerr image, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 GenericDoug Kerr image, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic

Civil Liberties

The Bill of Rights lists certain civil liberties that our government may not restrict. The idea of civil rights was not new when our Constitution was written--you can see some of the same ideas in the Magna Carta and other, earlier documents. However, it was unusual for a country to have written protections of civil liberties then. Now it has become much more common.

Civil liberties are the inherent ('natural' or 'inalienable') rights of all human beings. The Bill of Rights was intended to prevent our government from infringing upon those rights. No laws may restrict our civil liberties, which are enumerated in the Bill of Rights. For example, any person in the United States has the civil liberty to practice his or her chosen religion (or not to practice any religion at all).Civil liberties limit the government's power and prevent the government from intervening in the lives of its citizens. Civil liberties, which are inherent freedoms upheld, not granted, by the government, are distinct from civil rights. Civil rights differ primarily from civil liberties in that civil rights aim to guarantee equal treatment while civil liberties are those rights and freedoms that the government may not impede upon and are protected by the Constitution.

Go to the links below to read the information on civil liberties; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better):

Bill of Rights freedoms
incorporated amendment
establishment clause free exercise clause
freedom of religion freedom of the Press
freedom of speech slander
libel treason
sedition censorship
commercial speech vs. political speech due process
procedural due process substantive due process
citizen citizenship
immigrant alien
resident alien illegal alien
refugee INS
writ of habeas corpus ex post facto law
bill of attainder probable cause
search warrant exclusionary rule
fifth amendment indictment
double jeopardy Miranda warning

Dane Hillard image, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericDane Hillard image, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic

05.01 Civil Liberties (Citizenship2)

05.01 Study Questions - Civil Liberties (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 90 points possible 60 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window. ***********************************************************************************************************

Constitution

1. What is the Bill of Rights?

2. Where do we find it in the Constitution?

3. Why were the Bill of Rights included with the Constitution?

4. These rights are called freedoms. Most deal with what?

5. But these first ten rights only protected the American people from who?

6. In order for the Bill of Rights to mean anything, they must be incorporated. What does that mean?

Civil Liberties/Civil Rights

7. We have two protections with the Bill of Rights: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. What do these two phrases mean?

1st Amendment

8. What are the five freedoms guaranteed by the 1st Amendment?

9. Which one actually is divided into two parts?

10. What is the establishment clause of the 1st Amendment?

11. What is the free exercise clause of the 1st Amendment?

Freedom of Religion

12. Name one freedom of religion Supreme Court case.

13. Why are there so many cases about freedom of religion?

Freedom of Press and Speech

14. Do we have complete Freedom of Speech and the Press? Why?

15. In 1942, the Supreme Court defined two types of speech. Describe them.

16. Can the government regulate speech? How?

17. What are slander, libel, treason, and sedition?

18. What does freedom of the press mean?

19. Does freedom of the press mean that high school newspapers can print anything they want? Why?

20. What is censorship?

Due Process

23. What is due process?

24. What is procedural due process?

25. What is substantive due process?

26. Where do we find due process in the Bill of Rights?

Bill of Rights

27. Who wrote most of the Bill of Rights in the first place? Why did they write them, when they had rights already mentioned in the Constitution?

Citizenship

28. What are the three ways to become a citizen of the United States?

29. What are the ways you can lose your citizenship?

30. If immigrants and aliens come here and do not have citizenship, are they still protected by the rights that protect all of us? Why?

31. What does immigrant mean? Then what is an alien?

32. Name the largest group of immigrants in America.

33. What is a resident alien?

34. What is an illegal alien?

35. What is a refugee?

36. What and who is the INS?

37. If you are not a citizen, what are you called?

Habeas Corpus

38. What is a writ of habeas corpus?

Ex Post Facto

39. What is an ex post facto law? What does our Constitution say about such laws?

Attainder

40. What are bills of attainder?

41. Where would you find these three guarantees (that is, habeas corpus, ex post facto, and bills of attainder)?

4th Amendment

42. How does the 4th Amendment apply to good people and bad?

Search Warrants

43. What is a search warrant?

44. What is probable clause?

45. Name five situations the police do not have to have a search warrant.

46. What is the exclusionary rule?

5th Amendment

47. Who does the fifth amendment protect, and how?

Indictment

48. What is an indictment?

Double Jeopardy

49. What is double jeopardy? Is there ever a time that you could be tried for the same crime twice? How?

Miranda

50. What is the Miranda Warning?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.01.02 Civil Liberties Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Civil Liberties This quiz will assess your understanding of the materials covered in this section of Unit 5. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.02 Civil Rights (Citizenship2)

Civil rights march on Washington DC, 1963: NARA image, public domainCivil rights march on Washington DC, 1963: NARA image, public domain

What Are Your Civil Rights?

Beyond your basic civil liberties, what civil rights do you have as a citizen?
Civil rights are the rights of all citizens to be treated equally under the law. The Civil War amendments and later laws (such as the Voting Rights act, Title IX, and the Civil Rights act) help define our civil rights. For example, every citizen who is at least 18 years old, registered to vote and not a convicted felon has the right to vote in an election. However, if you are not a citizen, you do not have the right to vote.
Go to the links below to read the information on the civil rights; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following:

6th amendment rights 8th amendment rights
2nd amendment rights eminent domain
privacy rights discrimination
Civil War amendments segregation
Jim Crow laws de jure segregation
de facto segregation Brown vs. the Board of Education
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965
Civil Rights movement feminist
Title IX comparable worth
ADA affirmative action
quota reverse discrimination
conscientious objector prior restraint
Shield laws gag order
wiretapping bail
grand jury NAACP
NOW minority group
ethnic group ERA
AARP equal protection under the law

05.02 Civil Rights (Citizenship2)

05.02 Study Questions - Civil Rights (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 90 points possible 60 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the rows of asterisks below into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work and save a copy for yourself. Submit your work by pasting it into the assignment submission window for this assignment. *******************************************************************************************************

The Amendments

1. In the Sixth Amendment we have two rights; what are they?

2. The Eighth Amendment deals with what?

3. What does the Second Amendment apply to?

4. What is eminent domain?

5. What are privacy rights? What case, that deals with privacy rights is the most famous in history?

6. What is discrimination? Does the Constitution say anything about it? Why?

7. What are the three Civil War Amendments?

Segregation

8. What is segregation?

9. What are Jim Crow laws?

Civil Rights Movement

10. What is de jure segregation?

11. What is de facto segregation?

12. In 2004, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education Court case. Why is that case so important?

13. What is the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

14. What is the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

15. What and when was the Civil Rights Movement?

Women's rights

16. Why are there Civil Rights laws just for women?

17. What is a feminist?

18. What is Title IX?

19. What is comparable worth?

20. What do we mean by equality for older Americans?

ADA

21. What rights do disabled Americans have?

22. What does the American Disabilities Act say?

23. Do Civil Rights apply to sexual orientation? Explain.

Affirmative Action

24. What is affirmative action?

25. Why was it created?

26. What is a quota, in regard to Affirmative Action? When and why did they use quotas?

27. What is reverse discrimination? What court case dealt with reverse discrimination?

28. Why can a conscientious objector legally avoid serving in the U.S. military?

29. What is prior restraint?

30. What are Shield Laws?

31. What are gag orders?

32. Is wiretapping or electronic surveillance permitted under the Constitution?

33. What is bail?

34. Bail is not fair to whom? Why?

35. Can a state legally censor books, movies, plays, etc. that it considers to be obscene? Explain.

36. What is the purpose of a grand jury? Do they determine the guilt or innocence of anyone?

Special groups

37. What is the NAACP?

38. What is NOW?

39. What was the ERA Amendment, and why did it not pass?

40. What is a minority group?

41. What is an ethnic group?

42. What is AARP?

43. What do all these groups want from our government?

44. What rights do you want our government to protect the most?

45. Which is more important: The right of a defendant to a fair trial, or the right of the public to know about that trial through the media? Justify your answer.

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.02.02 Civil Rights Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 70 points possible 30 minutes

Civil Rights This quiz will assess your understanding of the concepts taught in this section of Unit 5. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.02.03 Argumentative essay (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

For years, there has been controversy about whether "under God" was or was not an appropriate phrase to include in the Pledge, and whether people should even be required to say the Pledge. These arguments are partly based on whether the Founding Fathers thought of our country as being, or intended it to be, Christian. Since we can't go back in a time machine and ask them straight out, we can only look at what they 'said' in their letters, speeches, and other writings. Since "under God" was added after the original Pledge of Allegiance was written we sometimes wonder what the Founding Fathers would have thought of the controversy over it. Choose one of the Founding Fathers, from the list below. Learn their belief system and write an essay arguing that the person you chose would agree or not agree with adding "under God" to the Pledge.

  • Thomas Jefferson
  • James Madison
  • John Adams
  • Thomas Paine
  • George Washington
  • Benjamin Franklin

Use direct quotes, from the websites listed below, by the man you chose. You MAY read other, more recent opinions as background for writing your essay, but don't quote them (and definitely don't copy and paste them into your paper--that would be plagiarism). Here are some questions to ask yourself during your research. Consider both the exact words, and any implications. DON'T just write answers to these questions for your essay as a means to guide your learning. This paper should show what you have learned through your research.

  • Does this quote show whether or not he believed in God?
  • Does this quote express any opinion about religion, and/or the relationship between religion and government?
  • Does this quote show whether he believed in Christ as the Son of God, and/or a righteous teacher/prophet?
  • How do his stated beliefs compare to yours?

Your thesis statement for this essay might be something like "__________'s writings suggest (or prove) that he was a Christian" or "___________ was not a true Christian" or "Whether or not ____________ was a Christian was not important in forming our government." Regardless, you need to use quotes from his own words as evidence and document your sources in your essay.

Structure Content Points possible
Introduction (one paragraph) State the name of the Founding Father and their position (whether or not you think he was a believing Christian, OR that it isn't important whether he was or was not). If you are going to argue that he was (or was not) Christian, you also need to explain/define what you mean when you say "Christian". 5 points
Evidence (one paragraph) Explain one quote you find in your research that helps support your position. Consider both the exact words, and reasonable inferences you can make from these words. 5 points
Evidence or examples (one paragraph) Explain another quote that helps support your position. Consider both the exact words, and reasonable inferences you can make from these words. 5 points
Defend your position (one paragraph) Explain one piece of evidence (quote) or an example that seems to disprove your position, and why your position is still correct in spite of this. You must use evidence, not just opinion! 5 points
Conclusion (one paragraph) Sum up your argument, and suggest at least one way this is relevant to government issues today and/or how you feel about this issue. 5 points
Works cited List all books and web sites you used in researching this issue. Be sure to use the sites contained in the URL's. 5 points

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.02.03 Argumentative essay (Citizenship2)

05.03 Unit 5 test (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

Unit 5 Test You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85% as your final score.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.00 Unit 6 (Citizenship2)

Economy & Government

You might not think of our economic system as being part of government, but our form of government determines, to a large extent, the way our businesses and economy run. In the United States, anyone may buy or start a business, and most businesses are owned by individuals, partnerships or corporations--not the government. However, that's not the only government-economic construct. In some countries, economics and government merge: the government owns many or all of the businesses.

In this unit, we'll be looking at different economic systems, and also at state and local governments. Remember that the U.S. Constitution specifically reserves many powers for the states. The state government grants some powers to more local (county or city/town) governments. Thus, at least three levels of government affect your life and our country's economic system.

06.00 Unit 6 Warm-Up Activity (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

Essay Writing

Write a comprehensive answer (paragraph) to the three questions below:

1. Why do we have a government system for the nation, state, and local areas?

2. What are the roles of the governor, what state officials help the governor, and what are the qualifications for being the governor of Utah?

3. What is the name of our economic system, and why do we have such system for our nation?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.01 Economics (Citizenship2)

Economics is a big topic; this will be a brief introduction to a few of the key ideas of economics.

Topics, people, and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the following (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better):

capitalism communism
socialism Karl Marx
supply and demand bank
credit union cost of living
labor union monopoly
cost of living blue collar
white collar inflation
recession depression
stock market stock
currency deflation

Go to the links below to read the information on economics; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.

06.01 Economics (Citizenship2)

06.01 Study Questions - Economics (Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 40 points possible 30 minutes

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window for this assignment. **************************************************************************************************

Economics

1.What is economics?

2. What is capitalism?

3. What is communism?

4. What is socialism?

5. Who is Karl Marx, and what is his economic theory?

6. What are the laws of supply and demand?

7. How is the price of anything determined?

8. What do banks do? What do credit unions do?

9. What does it mean when we say "cost of living?"

10. What is the purpose of a labor union?

11. What is a monopoly?

12. Why are monopolies good and bad?

13. What is a blue collar worker?

14. What is a white collar worker?

Define (make sure you use the definition that relates to the economy):

15. Inflation

16. Recession

17. Depression

Stock Market

18. Why do TV news programs always tell you what the stock market is doing? Why would you or your family want to own stock?

19. What does owning stock mean?

Currency

20. Why is our money the way it is? Why is it important to know how our economy works?

**************************************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.01.02 Economics Exam (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

This quiz will assess your understanding of the material presented in this section of Unit 6. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02 About state government, and more about economics (Citizenship2)

Utah state capitol building: Robert Cutts image, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericUtah state capitol building: Robert Cutts image, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic
Go to the links below to read the information for this lesson; there will be several URLs for you to study. Be prepared to answer study questions on the material.

Topics and vocabulary you will need to understand for this lesson include the information below (This is not part of the assignment you turn in to me, but keep for your own information to help understand this lesson better).

powers of the states Supremacy Clause
Full Faith and Credit clause initiative
referendum recall
governor ordinance (not to be confused with "ordnance"!)
mayor commission
sales tax income tax
property tax excise tax
Federal Reserve Board Keynesian economics
fiscal policy national debt
deficit spending progressive income tax
customs duties
tariffs entitlement programs
welfare public assistance
foreign aid corporation
cooperative economic system
political system public notice

06.02 About state government, and more about economics (Citizenship2)

06.02 Economics, State and Local Government Assignment(Citizenship2)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 60 minutes

****************************************************************************************************************

US Constitution

1. What are some things, according to the US Constitution, that a state cannot do?

2. What are powers only a state has, and what are some examples of them?

3. What does the Supremacy Clause do and where is it found?

4. What does the Full Faith and Credit clause do and where is it found?

5. What does the state do for primary and secondary education?

6. What is an initiative?

7. What is a referendum?

8. What is a recall?

Utah Constitution

9. What are the qualifications for being Governor of Utah?

10. How long does a Governor serve, and is there a limit to how long one can serve in Utah?

11. How is the Utah state legislature set up?

12. How many members are there, and when and where do they meet?

13. What is the term of a member of the Utah House of Representatives? Senator?

14. What are the qualifications for each house of the state legislature?

15. What are some ways that citizens of a state can get directly involved in the legislative process?

16. How are members of the Utah State Supreme Court selected?

17. Is it more powerful that the United States Supreme Court? Why?

18. What does the Utah State Supreme Court do?

19. How many judges are on it? How did they get appointed there?

20. What is the main purpose of state government?

21. Who is the Governor of your state? What party does she/he belong to?

22. What is an ordinance? Who passes these ordinances?

23. Name an ordinance in your given area.

24. Do we have county government? Why?

25. Do we have city government? Why?

26. Who usually runs a city government? How did they get in that position?

27. What does a City Commission do?

28. What does a City Council do?

Budget and taxes

29. Where do most states spend most of their money?

30. Name three other areas where states spend most of their money.

31. Where does a state get its money to spend on these services?

32. What is a sales tax?

33. What is an income tax? What is the difference between a flat income tax and a progressive income tax?

34. What is a property tax?

35. What is an excise tax? Name one.

Government role in economy

36. What is government's role in our economy?

37. What does the Federal Reserve Board do?

38. What is Keynesian economics?

39. What does fiscal policy mean?

40. When our government says we (as a country) are in debt, what does that mean?

41. Why did we get into so much debt?

42. Can you ignore our national debt? Why?

43. What is a deficit?

44. What is deficit spending?

45. What kind of national income tax do we have?

46. Do you pay more taxes the richer you become? Why? Do you pay a higher percentage of your income in taxes the richer you become? Is this different at the state and federal levels?

47. What are Customs, Duties or Tariffs?

48. How many days does the average worker work to pay his taxes for the year?

49. The largest amount of money the government spends is on what are called entitlement programs. What are these?

50. But 16% of the National Budget must be set aside every year to pay what?

51. Where does the national government get most of its money from? (be specific)

52. Where does the state get most of its money from? (be specific)

53. What is welfare? Then what is public assistance?

54. Do we give money to foreign countries? Why?

55. What is a corporation? What is good about a corporation? Anything bad about them? Name one corporation.

56. What is a cooperative? Do you have one near where you live? What does it do?

57. What is the name of our economic system?

58. Name another economic system, and a country that uses that system.

59. What do we call our government system in the United States?

60. Give me the name of a political system different from the United States, and a country that uses that system.

****************************************************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.02 State Government Exam(Citizenship2)

computer-scored 75 points possible 30 minutes

This test will assess your understanding of the concepts presented in this section of Unit 6. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.03 Unit 6 test (Citizenship2)

computer-scored 50 points possible 30 minutes

You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 85%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.04 US Government second quarter project (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 90 minutes

You may continue to work on later assignments before you finish this project. The instructions are included here so that you can begin work and have the project completed before you take your final test.

Second Term Project: Multimedia slide show For this quarter's term project (100 points) you will be using PhotoStory (if you have a Windows computer) or iMovie, iPhoto and/or Keynote (if you have a Mac) to create a multi-media slide show about one of the topics we have covered this quarter. Choose a topic you are interested in, and you will enjoy the project more. Here are some suggested topics:

Recent Supreme Court cases

First Amendment

Rights of the Accused

Civil Rights (general, or focus on a specific group you are interested in- an ethnic group, women, etc.)

Immigration

Gun Control

Homeland Security

Socialism vs. Capitalism

Economic Systems

If there is a topic that is not on the list, but that fits in with what we have studied this quarter, write me a message about it, and I can approve it.

DO NOT copy and paste information--write in your own words. About Photo Story:

Photo Story is a great product made by Microsoft that allows you to create colorful and exciting presentations with your own photos or photos you get off of the Internet. This program allows you to add text, music, and motion to your photos so that your story comes alive. Follow the instructions below to create yours! The best part--Photo Story is free and completely safe (it is a Microsoft download, so you don't need to worry about it damaging your computer). Before you use the program, you will need to collect the pictures for your slide show. Use Internet resources such as Google images. Be sure to look for pictures with the highest resolution possible. Save your pictures in a folder. Then you are ready to begin!

Steps to creating your Photo Story project:

1. Check to see if your computer has Photo Story already. Click on Start and All Programs. PhotoStory should be listed there. If not, go to the link below where you can download a free copy of the program. Now you're ready to get started!

2. Open Photo Story 3 for Windows.

3. Choose Begin a New Story. Click Next.

4. Click on Import Pictures. Browse to the folder you're using pictures from. Choose your pictures for your presentation. As you add pictures, they will pop up in the Film Strip at the bottom of the screen. You can rearrange your pictures by clicking and dragging.

5. Save your presentation by clicking on Save Project. Do this often so you won't lose your project and all your hard work!

6. You can add text (captions) to your photos if you like on the next screen. Choose your photo, then add the text in the text box on the right. You may experiment with your text format using the tools above the text box. Click Next.

7. The next screen allows you to add audio files to your project, such as narration. You can use the built-in microphone on your computer, or you can use a plug-in microphone to record your material.

8. This screen also allows you to Customize Motion for each picture in your project. Experiment with the motions to get the look you want. You can click Preview to see how your project looks so far.

9. Save your project!

10. Click Next.

11. The next screen allows you to add background music to your project. You may use audio files you have saved on your computer or files from the Photo Story collection. To use your own files, click on Select Music. To use files from the Photo Story collection, click on Create Music. When you find a song you like, click OK. You'll see your music in an audio track above your pictures/slides. You can Preview your project as well from this screen.

12. Click Next.

13. If you are finished creating your project, and you believe it's perfect, you'll want to save it as a finished project. Click Browse under File Name and choose where you would like to save your project. Click Next and Photo Story will save your project as a Windows Media file. This will allow Windows users to open your project on any Windows computer.

For more detailed instructions, tips and tricks, go to the excellent tutorial video on Photostory, linked below. To see a sample Photo Story project on the Civil Rights Movement, see the link below. NOTE: If you are working on a Mac, and absolutely do not have access to a PC (Public library? School library? Friend's house?) you may use the program iPhoto, iMovie, Keynote or similar to create a project that meets the same requirements/specifications as the one described below. Depending on how much experience you have with multimedia, you may find it easier to do this assignment on a PC.

Here is how the project will be graded:

PhotoStory Rubric This project is worth 100 points, broken down as follows

  excellent good average unsatisfactory
Content 15 -30 pictures, appropriate music from resources folder, narration that is clear, articulate, accurate and based on research but written in the student's own words, title slide that is professional and clear, and a credit slide listing resources used. All work is done at a highly professional level and is consistent. (30 points) 15 -30 pictures, appropriate music from resources folder, narration that is clear, accurate and based on research but written in the student's own words, title slide that is professional and clear, and a credit slide listing resources used. (24 points) less than 15 pictures, music may not seem to go with presentation or not be consistent throughout, narration is not always clear and lacks facts and/or may not all be the student's own words, title slide and credits may not be not included or be incomplete. (18 points) less than 15 pictures, may lack other elements, such as title page, credits, and narration. Narration may be unclear, inaccurate, lack facts and/or may not all be the student's own words. Work is incomplete and is not clearly done. (6-12 points)
Audio The audio is clear and includes music in the background that is at appropriate levels to allow narration to be heard easily. Narration is clear, with smooth delivery. The music does not distract from the presentation, but complements it. (20 points) The audio is clear and includes music in the background that is at appropriate levels to hear narration. Narration is clear. The music may not be consistent throughout, and there may be 1 or 2 audio mistakes in slideshow. (16 points) The audio is mostly clear and includes music in the background that is generally at appropriate levels to hear narration. Narration may not always be clear. The music may distract from the presentation. (12 points) The audio and/or narration may not be clear and may include music mistakes with audio levels; or narration is absent or lacking. (4-8 points)
Pictures The slideshow contains 15-30 pictures. All pictures are clear and appropriate to the topic discussed, contributing to the viewer's understanding of the topic. (This means, for example, that air pollution slideshows contain pictures that are clearly related to air pollution.) Pictures, graphs, etc… are not pixilated, but are correct size to display correctly. (20 points) The slideshow contains 15-30 pictures. All pictures are clear and appropriate to the topic discussed, but may not contribute much to content. Pictures, graphs, etc… are not pixilated, but display adequately. (16 points) The slideshow may contain less than 15 pictures. Up to five pictures may not be clear and/or may be pixilated or unrelated to topic. (12 points) The slideshow may contain less than 15 pictures. Six or more pictures may not be clear, or are pixilated or unrelated to the topic. (4-8 points)
Technical/overall The slideshow lasts 2 ½ - 3 ½ minutes and covers a topic with facts stated and shown through pictures, graphs, and charts. The pictures are not pixilated, but clear and appropriate to topic. The story contains clear title slide and credit slide listing all resources used. The story is saved as a project and as wmv file. (30 points) The slideshow lasts 2 ½ - 3 ½ minutes and covers a topic with facts stated and shown through pictures, graphs, and charts. One or two slides may have technical problems, but the remainder are clear and appropriate to topic. The story is saved as a project and as wmv file. (24 points) The slideshow may be less than 2 ½ minutes or does not cover the topic with facts and appropriate pictures. Up to five slides may have technical problems, and the remainders are clear and appropriate to topic. The story is saved as a project and as wmv file. (18 points) The slideshow may last less than two minutes. Topic is not covered with factual information. It lacks info and pictures that clearly explain topic. More than five slides may have technical problems or be inappropriate to the topic. The story may not be saved in two formats.(6-12 points)

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.05 Review Essays for Units 4, 5, and 6 (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 90 minutes

Final Essay

To finish Units 4-5-6 you must write an essay for each of the following questions. You may use whatever sources you would like. Each essay will be worth 10 points. You need to write about ten sentences to adequately complete each essay. However I will be looking at the quality of your writing over quantity. You may see some of these same questions on the proctor final so make sure you know the answers to all of them.

Current Cabinet

1. People either hate or love bureaucracy. Why?

Historical Cabinet

2. What is the significance of the Iron Triangle?

Courts and Judicial

3. What is the debate between judicial activism and judicial restraint?

Civil Liberties and Rights

4. The Supreme Court of the United States is studying a case that would put limits on the Miranda Rule. What do you think should be done to protect due process rights and still maintain law and order in a free society?

5. What is the difference between civil rights and civil liberties?

6. Find Martin Luther Kings "I Have A Dream" speech from 1963 when the civil rights movement marched on Washington. Are we closer to his dream of equality since he made that speech? Use examples.

Economics

7. Our economic system is called capitalism. What are the pros and cons of capitalism?

State and Local Government

8. Should the government break up big corporations and monopolies? Why?

9. The Federal Government makes states adhere to many government policies. Name and explain five policies that affect you where you are.

10. What did this government course teach you about your relationship between being a good citizen and knowing how our government works?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.06 Second quarter extra credit (Citizenship)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 90 minutes

THIS EXTRA CREDIT ASSIGNMENT IS WORTH 25 POINTS

What does this Oath of Citizenship mean?

"I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely without mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God. In acknowledgement whereof I have hereunto affixed my signature."

As you explain it, note that the INS, in some cases, does leave out a part to this oath for new citizens. Which part would you think it is?

Answer the following 100 questions that are those required to be answered if you want to become a naturalized citizen of the United States.

1. What are the colors of our flag?

2. How many stars are there on the flag?

3. What color are the stars on our flag?

4. What do the stars on the flag mean?

5. How many stripes are there on the flag?

6. What color are the stripes?

7. What do the stripes on the flag mean?

8. How many states are there in the Union?

9. What is the 4th of July?

10. What is the date of Independence Day?

11. Independence from whom?

12. What country did we fight during the Revolutionary War?

13. Who was the first President of the United States?

14. Who is the President of the United States today?

15. Who is the Vice-President of the United States today?

16. Who elects the President of the United States?

17. Who becomes President of the United States if the President should die?

18. For how long do we elect the President?

19. What is the Constitution?

20. Can the Constitution be changed?

21. What do we call a change to the Constitution?

22. How many changes or amendments are there to the Constitution?

23. How many branches are there in our government?

24. What are the three branches of our government?

25. What is the legislative branch of our government?

26. Who makes the laws in the United States?

27. What is the Congress?

28. What are the duties of the Congress?

29. Who elects the Congress?

30. How many senators are there in Congress?

31. Can you name the two senators from your state?

32. For how long do we elect each senator?

33. How many representatives are there in Congress?

34. For how long do we elect the representatives?

35. What is the executive branch of our government?

36. What is the judiciary branch of our government?

37. What are the duties of the Supreme Court?

38. What is the Supreme Court law of the United States?

39. What is the Bill of Rights?

40. What is the capital of your state?

41. Who is the current governor of your state?

42. Who becomes President of the United States if the President and the Vice-President should die?

43. Who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?

44. Name the thirteen original states.

45. Who said, "Give me liberty or give me death?"

46. Which countries were our enemies during World War II?

47. What are the 49th and 50th states of the Union?

48. How many terms can the President serve?

49. Who is the head of your local government?(Title)

50. According to the Constitution, a person must meet certain requirements in order to be eligible to be President. Name the requirements.

51. Who was Martin Luther King Jr.?

52. Why are there 100 Senators in the Senate?

53. Who selects the Supreme Court Justices?

54. How many Supreme Court Justices are there?

55. Why did the Pilgrims come to America?

56. What is the head executive of a state government called?

57. What is the head executive of a city government called?

58. What holiday was celebrated for the first time by the American colonists?

59. Who was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence?

60. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted?

61. What is the basic belief of the Declaration of Independence?

62. What is the national anthem of the United States?

63. Who wrote the Star-Spangled Banner?

64. Where does freedom of speech come from?

65. What is the minimum voting age in the United States?

66. Who signs bills into law?

67. What is the highest court in the United States?

68. Who was the President during the Civil War?

69. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?

70. What special group advises the President?

71. Which President is called the Father of our country?

72. What Immigration and Naturalization Service form is used to apply to become a naturalized citizen? (The number or name)

73. Who helped the Pilgrims in America?

74. What is the name of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America?

75. What are the 13 original states of the U.S. called?

76. Name three rights of freedom guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.

77. Who has the power to declare war?

78. What kind of government does the United States have?

79. Which President freed the slaves?

80. In what year was the Constitution written?

81. What are the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution called?

82. Name one purpose of the United Nations.

83. Where does Congress meet?

84. Whose rights are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights?

85. What is the introduction to the Constitution called?

86. Name one benefit of being citizen of the United States.

87. What is the most important right granted to U.S. citizens?

88. What is the United States Capitol?

89. What is the White House?

90. Where is the White House located?

91. What is the name of the Presidents official home?

92. Name the rights guaranteed by the first amendment.

93. Who is Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. military?

94. Which President was the first Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. military?

95. In what month do we vote for the President?

96. In what month is the new President inaugurated?

97. How many times may a Senator be re-elected?

98. How many times may a Congressman be re-elected?

99. What are the two major political parties in the U.S. today?

100. How many states are there in the United States today?

101. Who is the U.S. Congressman from your district?

102. Who is the mayor of your town?

103. Do all people over 18 have to vote?

104. What must you do in order to vote?

105. Do you have to obey the laws of your country and local area?

106. Do you need to know those laws?

107. Do you need to know some of the laws of states that you are visiting, especially driving laws?

108. All states, except one, allow you to cross into them by car without stopping. Which one stops you and asks what is in your car?

109. How did you become a citizen of the United States?

110. What happened on September 11, 2001? Why did it happen?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


16.01.03 Topic Two: Squares, Cubes and Beyond

U. S. Government and Citizenship - 1st Quarter

U. S. Government and Citizenship - 2nd Quarter