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U. S. History II, 4th Quarter

00.0 Start Here - Introduction to this Class (U.S. History)

Course Description

Understanding United States history is essential for the continuation of our democratic society. This course helps students make connections between their world and the rich heritage of United States history. The course is designed as a survey of American history with an emphasis on post-Reconstruction American (1876- Present), but also includes a review of the earlier period.

Class Overview 

The US History II course is a full 1.0 credit but is broken into four quarter classes. You may enroll for one, two, three or all four quarters, BUT you can enroll in only one quarter at a time!

Each quarter of World Civilizations generates a .25 credit. If you do not turn in any work within the first week after you register, you may be dropped from this course.

You have up to 10 weeks to finish each quarter after you are enrolled. Please following the pacing recommendations for each assignment. Once you have completed a quarter (including all work and tests), you can request to be enrolled in the next quarter.

*****Course Requirements*****

To take this class, you MUST have:

1.  A computer with internet access.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

How to Begin the Class

If you are reading this description you have begun the class.  Be sure you have read through all the information in Module 1 before moving on to Module 2. Complete the following in order to unlock the course content, found in Module 3.

1. Read the Start Here information thoroughly. 

2. Click the link for the About Me assignment. Then click the "submit assignment" button and enter the required information.  When you are happy with your assignment, click the save button and it will submit the assignment to your instructor. Completing this and earning at least 3/5 points will unlock the course material(Module 3).

3. The course material found in Module 3 consists of the subject material and the corresponding assignments. You should work through the material by clicking each link, reading through the material and viewing the URLs. 

4. Completing assignments: The assignment instructions are found in the Lessons.  Some assignments need to be copied and pasted into a word document from astericks to astericks and then the questions answered. I suggest then saving the word document and be sure that your answers are bolded or italicized. 

5. Submitting assignments: To submit assignments go to the class homepage and click on the link with the A-page next to it that corresponds with the Lesson number where you found the assignment. You should then copy your saved assignment and paste it in the answer box.  Your answers should be bolded or italicized.  If you prefer you may upload the file with your answers. Then save your work and it will be submitted for grading.

6. Submitting Quizzes: The quiz link matches the lesson where the instructions for the quiz are found. Follow the instructions and answer the quiz questions. Then be sure to save the quiz for grading.  Quizzes may be re-taken.

7. You must follow the EHS HONOR CODE: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

8. You have ten weeks to complete the course.

Prerequisites:

There are no prerequisites for this course.

How Work is Graded:

Most assignments have a corresponding rubric and a minimum score requirement. A general rule to understanding the score received is to check the rubric to see where points were lost. Assignments may be resubmitted for more credit. Work should be checked for errors before it is submitted. All work is graded as in the order it is turned in and in a timely manner. 

Final Proctored Exam

The proctored exam must be monitored by a EHS proctor.  You must score 60% in order to pass the course. If you do not earn the required 60% inform your teacher immediately. After taking the test send your teacher a message stating your name and that you have completed the proctored exam for the quarter of the course in which you are enrolled.

You may use 2 pages, handwritten, single-sided notes during the exam.

There are 100 questions on the exam consisting of multiple choice, true false, and four essay questions. 

Final Grade

The grade for the course is based on nine or ten quizzes (worth 10 or 15 points each), video questions, written essay and the final exam (worth 100 points). The results for each quiz and a portion of the final exam will be available as soon they are completed. If you have questions or concerns about your score on any of the work for the course, please contact the teacher and we will decide how to proceed. Students must score at least 60% overall and 60% on the final exam in order to earn credit in this class. 

Grading Scale

A: 93-100%

A-: 90-92

B+:87-89

B: 83-86

B-: 80-82

C+: 77-79

C: 73-76

C-: 70-72

D+: 67-69

D: 63-66

D-: 60-62

 

00.00 *Student supplies for U.S. History II

Requirements: 

1.  A computer with internet access.  This course does not have a specific textbook, but uses many Internet links to help you learn about American history.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

00.00 About Me (US HistoryII)

teacher-scored 5 points possible 15 minutes

With an online class it is more challenging to get to know our students. We want you to be a person and not just a name on an email. Although this introduction will never take the place of being in class with you every day or two, it helps you tell your teacher what's important to you.

1.  Write a paragraph (at least 5 sentences) to your teacher introducing yourself. Tell about your interests, family, school goals, or anything else that describes you.  Include any information that you think it might be important for me to know.

2.  Following the paragraph, include your personal information in any format.  Include:

  • The school you attend
  • Your counselor's name and email address
  • What grade you are in
  • contact information for you (please include at least an email address, but a phone would be great)
  • contact information for your parent/guardian
  • A statement letting me know that you have viewed the short clip "How to review your assignments" found at the link below
  • A statement letting me know you understand the 10-week time limit and that you agree to abide by the EHS honor code:

"As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

Make sure you've carefully reviewed all information in the "Start Here" section--especially the Course Requirements--and let's get to work.

This is a graded assignment, so use proper sentence structure including capitalization, punctuation and spelling. For details on the grading of this assignment please refer to the rubric below. 

ABOUT ME Rubric

                                                Indicators Points
Prompt: Prompt is complete with mention of goals, interests and other introductory information. 1
Sentence: A well written assignment will include; complete sentences using correct grammar and punctuation. Must be at least 5 sentences in length.  1
Contact: Contact information for parent & student are included.  1
School: Current school and grade included as well as counselor's email address. 1
Acknowledge: Includes the student's acknowledgement of the EHS Honor Code, the 10-week time frame for the class, and viewing video clip. 1

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.01

00.01.01

00.01.01 Student Software Needs

 

Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.

$0.00

09.00 Baby Boomers (U.S. History)

US birth rates, 1909-2009: the red area, 1945-1965, is the "baby boom": Wikimedia Commons, Saiarcot895, public domainUS birth rates, 1909-2009: the red area, 1945-1965, is the "baby boom": Wikimedia Commons, Saiarcot895, public domain Investigate the Post-War Baby Boom's influence on America.

09.00 Resource for class assignments

Aerial view of suburban Levittown, Pennsylvania, first "subdivision": Wikimedia Commons, public domainAerial view of suburban Levittown, Pennsylvania, first "subdivision": Wikimedia Commons, public domainBookmark this site and return to it to find information for many assignments and quizzes throughout this class.  You'll find sections 52-60 helpful for this quarter.

09.01 Baby Boomers vocabulary to study before quiz (U.S. History)

Physical therapist assisting two polio-stricken children, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, CDC/Charles Farmer, public domainPhysical therapist assisting two polio-stricken children, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, CDC/Charles Farmer, public domain Quiz 1: Baby Boomers vocabulary list
Study these terms before you take the quiz:

GI Bill of Rights, suburbs, cars, William Leavitt, Henry Kaiser, Fair Deal, franchise,
baby boom, Baby Boomers, Jonas Salk, polio, consumerism, planned obsolescence,
advertising, television (major shows, families, etc), Federal Communication Commission (FCC),
beat movement, rock n' roll, jazz, Elvis Presley, Boomers' impacts and problems ahead

09.02 The Baby Boomers (U.S. History)

Investigate the Post-War Baby Boom's influence on America.

Family watching television, c. 1958: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainFamily watching television, c. 1958: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
Post-war readjustments
With the millions of returning soldiers (GI's) from WWII, America had to find ways to reincorporate these people into the workforce and life in the United States. Family roles were redefined during the war when 75% of married women entered the workforce. Upon their husbands' returns, many women were reluctant to give up their newly-found independence. Most women did leave their jobs, but by 1950 more than a million war marriages had ended in divorce due to differences over family roles.

The economy also had some major readjusting to do after WWII. The war supported million of workers in the defense industries. Within ten days of Japan's surrender, more than a million of these workers were laid off. As returning veterans joined these workers looking for new jobs, unemployment rapidly increased. The economy also struggled in keeping up with the demand for goods. Prices skyrocketed (rising up to 25 percent during two weeks after the war's end) as demand increased. Prices continued to rise for two years until supply caught up with the nation's demand for goods.
However, despite these drawbacks, the economy recovered remarkably well. Consumers increased their spending because of their saved-up money and wants that had accumulated during the war. In addition to this increase in consumption, Cold War fears also created more jobs and money flowing into the economy.
1955 map of planned new interstate highway system: Wikimedia Commons, public domain1955 map of planned new interstate highway system: Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Use the links in the sections below to learn about the post-war baby boom's influence on America.

09.03 Assess the influence of the G.I. Bill on the American lifestyle. (U.S History)

Assess the influence of the G.I. Bill on the American lifestyle.

Lesson Notes:

Background

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, young Americans by the hundreds of thousands enlisted in the military. In their haste to serve their country, many did not wait to complete high school or college educations. When the war ended and the soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen returned home, the nation faced a dilemma. How does the nation help these young men return to civilian life. For those who now wanted to complete their education, how do you put a now-21-year-old infantryman back in a high school classroom? And how can a college student afford to finish his education when he has been unable to save for his books and tuition? The answer was the GI Bill.

GI Bill of Rights

By the summer of 1946, about 10 million men and women had been discharged for the armed forces. These veterans now attempted to rebuild their lives. In 1944, to help ease their return to civilian life, a grateful Congress passed the Serviceman's Readjustment Act, commonly referred to as the "GI Bill." In addition to encouraging veterans to get an education by paying part of their tuition, it also offered low-interest, federally guaranteed loans. Millions of young families used these benefits to buy homes and farms or to establish businesses. A third benefit was that the GI Bill guaranteed veterans a year's worth of unemployment payments while job hunting.

Much of the urgency to pass the GI Bill after World War II stemmed from a desire to avoid the missteps following World War I, when discharged veterans got little more than a $60 allowance and a train ticket home. As you may recall, during the Great Depression, many citizens, including veterans, found it difficult to make a living. In 1924, Congress had tried to help World War I veterans by passing the World War Adjustment Act of 1924, commonly known as the "Bonus Act." This law provided a bonus based on the number of days served. But there was a catch: most veterans wouldn't see a dime for 20 years.

A group of veterans marched on Washington, D.C., in the summer of 1932 to demand full payment of their bonuses. When they didn't get it, most went home. But some decided to stick around until they got paid. They were later kicked out of town following a bitter standoff with U.S. troops. The incident marked one of the greatest periods of unrest our nation's capital had ever known.

The return of millions of veterans from World War II gave Congress a chance at redemption. But the GI Bill had far greater implications. It was seen as a genuine attempt to thwart a looming social and economic crisis. Some saw inaction as an invitation to another depression.

Before the war, college and home ownership were, for the most part, unreachable dreams for the average American. Thanks to the GI Bill, millions who would have flooded the job market instead opted for education. In the peak year of 1947, veterans accounted for 49 percent of college admissions. By the time the original GI Bill ended on July 25, 1956, 7.8 million of 16 million World War II veterans had participated in an education or training program.

Millions also took advantage of the GI Bill's home loan guaranty. From 1944 to 1952, VA backed nearly 2.4 million home loans for World War II veterans.

While veterans embraced the education and home loan benefits, few collected on one of the bill's most controversial provisions--/unemployment pay. Less than 20 percent of funds set aside for this were used.

Thus, the GI Bill helped veterans buy a home or start a business. It also provided educational benefits to returning soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen to give them a college education. One side benefit was that those servicemen and woman who opted to attend a university took pressure of the job market. Finally, though little used, the GI Bill provided minimal unemployment payments to GIs while they were seeking work.

General Educational Development(GED) Test

A separate, but important, benefit for veterans who enlisted before completing high school was a test developed by the military in 1942 to measure skills associated with four years of high school education. It was called the General Educational Development(GED)Test. The original tests were administered only to military personnel so that returning World War II veterans could more easily pursue their educational, vocational, and personal goals.

The opportunity to document the attainment of high school-level skills proved to be a significant aid to many service members whose academic careers had been disrupted during the war. Returning veterans who had not received their high school diploma were able to take a GED test which, if passed, qualified them for a high school equivalency diploma. The rationale was that this test measured whether their life experiences while in the military prepared them for the future. This diploma qualified them for acceptance to a university and allowed them to check "high school graduate" on an employment form.

Conclusion

Thus, the GI Bill eased the transition into civilian life for millions of returning veterans. It allowed them to receive help from their government after having sacrificed years of their lives in defending democracy. Veterans and their families were able to buy homes, build businesses, and pursue their vocational or academic educations. This helped the U.S. make a smooth tranition from a wartime economy to a consumer economy. At the same time, it helped fuel the greatest economic boom in history.

09.03. Assess the influence of the G.I. Bill on the American lifestyle. (U.S History)

President Roosevelt (FDR) signs the GI bill, 1944: WIkimedia Commons, US govt image, public domainPresident Roosevelt (FDR) signs the GI bill, 1944: WIkimedia Commons, US govt image, public domainGI Bill of Rights
To lessen the pressures on returning soldiers from WWII, President Roosevelt signed the GI Bill of Rights. What did this legislation guarantee and give to the returning veterans?

Truman's Fair Deal
Following his close victory over the Republican candidate Thomas S. Dewey and the Dixiecrats (with J. Strom Thurmond as their presidential runner), Truman realized that he had to make a major statement on how he was going to help America change for the better. He proposed his "Fair Deal" as an answer to economic and social problems facing Americans. Go to this link to find out what he proposed to do. What was made into law, and what was not adopted by Congress?

09.04 Trace the development of consumerism and the economy on the Baby Boom generation. (U.S. History)

Trace the development of consumerism and the economy on the Baby Boom generation.

Lesson Notes:

Introduction

Following the end of WW II, most economists were predicting a postwar depression, however, they failed to consider consumers' pent-up accumulations of needs and wants. People had gone without many goods for so long that by the late 1940s, with more than $135 billion in savings from defense work, service pay, and investments in war bonds, Americans suddenly had money to spend. They snatched up everything from automobiles to houses. The demand for goods and services outstripped the supply and increased production, which created new jobs and the American economy boomed.

Consumerism Unbound

By the mid-1950s, nearly 60 percent of Americans were members of the middle class, about twice as many as before WW II. They wanted, and had the money to buy, increasing numbers of products. Consumerism, or buying material goods, came to be a measure of a family's success. One new product after another appeared in the marketplace, as various industries responded to consumer demand. With more leisure time, people invested in recreational items. They bought televisions, hi-fi phonograph record players, power lawn mowers, barbecue grills, and swimming pools for their new suburban homes.

In addition to creating new products, manufactures began using a marketing strategy called "planned obsolescence." In order to encourage customers to purchase more goods, manufactures intentionally designed products to become obsolete, i.e. to wear out or become outdated, in a short period of time. Because of planned obsolescence, Americans came to expect a "new and improved Tide" on a regular basis. America was, according to some observers, becoming a "throwaway society."

Many consumers made their purchases on credit or installment plans and, therefore, did not have to pay for them right away. Home mortgages and automobile loans worked the same way. During the Fifties, the total private debt grew from $73 billion to $179 billion. Instead of saving money, Americans were spending it even faster than they were making it.

The advertising industry either capitalized on OR initiated this runaway consumerism by turning strangers into acquaintances; acquaintances into friends; and, friends into customers. Ads were everywhere--in newspapers and magazines, on radio and television, and on billboards along the highways. Advertising went from $6 billion in 1950 to $9 billion just five years later. And when most Americans had satisfied their basic needs, advertisers tried to convince them that "wants" were really "needs" so they would buy things they didn't really need.

Television: A Selling Machine

Television developed with lighting speed. First widely available in 1948, television reached 9 percent of American homes by 1950 and almost 90 percent by 1960. Clearly, TV was the entertainment and information marvel of the postwar years. But it was more than that. It was a selling machine where you had a voluntary, captive audience. Advertising expenditures just on TV, which were $170 million in 1950, ballooned to nearly $2 billion just 10 years later. Commercials touted the benefits of a multitude of products to an audience willing to watch almost anything. One executive at CBS is reported to have claimed that people would tune in just to watch a hand rolling dice over and over again across a green felt table.

There were comedy shows, children's shows, family shows, westerns, and variety shows--and each had sponsors who paid the bills. Comedy shows like I Love Lucy and children's programs such as The Mickey Mouse Club and The Howdy Doody Show attracted loyal young fans with parents willing to spend money on the products these shows advertised. Television in the 1950s portrayed an idealized white America. Women were the stereotypical ideal mothers in shows such as Father Knows Best, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and later, Leave It To Beaver. And in every case, minor life problems were solved in a 30-minute episode. For the most part, it omitted references to poverty, diversity, and conflicts, either within the home or in the nation. Instead, it glorified the Western frontier in shows like Gunsmoke and Bonanza. Then, there were the daytime 'Soap Operas,' melodramas sponsored by various household products such as laundry detergents, or 'soaps.' Advertisers targeted all the 'stay-at-home moms' who cared for the children and home while their spouses were at work.

The television variety shows had acts that targeted all ages. The most popular was The Ed Sullivan Show, a one-hour variety show that showcased acts for children, adults and teenagers. Sullivan was shrewd enough to always have a rock 'n roll group to reach the youth market. Elvis Presley and the Beatles, for example, each performed to a national audience on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Business Expansion and Ingenuity

During the 1950s, businesses expanded rapidly. By 1956, the majority of Americans no longer held blue-collar, or industrial, jobs. Instead, more people worked in higher-paid, white-collar positions-- clerical, managerial, or professional occupations. Unlike blue-collar workers, who manufactured goods for sale, white-collar workers tended to perform services in fields like sales, advertising, insurance, and communications. Many white-collar workers performed their services in large corporations, such as AT&T, Xerox, and General Electric.

Another business strategy for business expansion was 'franchising.' (Franchise refers to a company that offers similar products or services in many locations and sells the right to do business using the parent company's name and its business system.) Fast-food restaurants developed some of the first and most successful franchises. For example, when the McDonald brothers developed unusually efficient service, based on assembly-line methods and a simplified menu of just a 15-cent hamburger, fries and a milk shake. Salesman Ray Kroc paid the McDonald brothers $2.7 million for the franchise rights to their hamburger drive-in. He began building drive-ins using the McDonald's blueprint and introduced the golden arches that are now familiar all over the world.

Suburbia and Automania

Another man with an idea was former Navy Sea Bee (construction battalion), Bill Levitt. During the war, he learned to mass-produce Combat Operations support buildings and personnel barracks alongside airstrips in the South Pacific as the Allies 'island hopped' their way to Japan. Levitt's idea was simple. Just like Henry Ford mass-produced automobiles 30 years before or the McDonald brothers mass-produced hamburgers, he would mass-produce homes. "I've got to have a home," said every factory worker or returning serviceman. Before the war, the average contractor built 5 homes a year. Bill Levitt, using mass-production techniques, was able to complete over 30 homes A DAY! He build some 17,000 homes on Long Island outside New York City and 'suburbia' was born.

Suburban living made owning a car a necessity. Most of the new suburbs, built in formerly rural areas, did not offer public transportation, so people had to drive to their jobs in the cities. The more cars there were, the greater the demand for more and better roads. The Interstate highway Act, signed by President Eisenhower in 1956, authorized the building of a nationwide highway network of 41,000 miles of expressways. With access to cars, affordable gasoline, and new highways, more and more Americans hit the road. The flocked to the mountains, lakes, national parks, historic sites and amusement parks for family vacations. Disneyland, which opened in California in July 1955, attracted 3 million visitors the next year.

Suburbia was also responsible for creating many additional jobs. Shopping malls sprang up far from the city center. Drive-in movies, restaurants, supermarkets and gas stations were built in suburbia.

Conclusion

Consumerism grew out of years of suppressed 'wants' and 'needs.' Suppressed due to the Great Depression and World War II. With an enthusiastic boost from advertising agencies, innovative new ideas, and money in their pockets, Americans began to reach for the stars. They began to enjoy the greatest surge in prosperity that the world had every known. With only six percent of the world's population, the United States was producing over half of the world's consumer goods. For many Americans, the 1950s were a time of unprecedented prosperity. But not everyone experienced this financial well-being. In the 'other' America, about 40 million people lived in poverty, untouched by the economic boom. In addition, there were thousands of women who, having worked in the industry during the war years, felt unfilled. They enjoyed their lives in the suburbs, but they had the feeling that, "I want more."

09.04. Trace the development of consumerism and the economy on the Baby Boom generation. (U.S. History)

Baby BoomAerial view of suburbs (tract housing) in Kentucky: Wikimedia Commons, Derek Jensen, public domainAerial view of suburbs (tract housing) in Kentucky: Wikimedia Commons, Derek Jensen, public domain Please go to this site to find a list that shows the rapid increase in births that occurred after the war (hence the term "Baby Boom" that is given to this generation of Americans). Read down this page to find out major heros and fads of this generation. Suburbs After WWII, the car and the exploding population of young families supported the new development of suburb housing. Housing developers like William Levitt and Henry Kaiser used efficient methods to mass-produce homes for less cost to the consumer. Please go through this exhibit (navigate through the red dots in the upper right hand corner) and find out about 1950's suburban life and the influence of the car on America during this decade. Work in 1950's Because of the rapid increase of consumerism following WWII, businesses expanded quickly in the 1950's. By 1956, the majority of Americans no longer held blue-collar, or industrial, jobs. Instead, more people worked in higher-paid, white-collar positions (like clerical, managerial, or professional occupations). Franchising as a strategy for business expansion developed during this time. A franchise is a company that offers similar products or services in many locations. During the 50's, franchises like McDonald's began appearing around the country. Dr. Jonas Salk Not only were more children being born in this period, but there were major advancements in fighting childhood diseases. Find out about Dr. Jonas Salk through this short description. What vaccine did he create? 1950's index This is a great resource to learn about 1950's fashions, fads, and even slang. There is tons of information on music and television shows. What was it like to be a teenager during this decade? Women in the 1950's During the 1950's, the role of homemaker and mother was glorified in popular magazines, movies, and television programs. In contrast to the ideal portrayed in the media, some women were not happy with their roles; they felt isolated, bored, and unfulfilled. According to one survey in the 1950's, more than one-fifth of suburban wives were dissatisfied with their lives. Please read this short excerpt from a 1950's home economics textbook. Was this a realistic ideal for women to live up to? Consumerism The 1950's was marked by a sharp increase in consumerism, or the buying of material goods. Please go to this site to learn about the growing purchases of the 1950's middle class. What popular phrase came into being during this period? How did (and does) advertising shape what people want to buy? Planned Obsolescence To fuel the growing demand from consumers, manufacturers began using a marketing strategy called planned obsolescence. In order to encourage consumers to purchase more goods, manufacturers purposely designed products to become obsolete--that is, to wear out or become outdated--in a short period of time. Carmakers brought out new models every year, urging consumers to stay up-to-date. Because of planned obsolescence, Americans came to expect new and better products, and they began to discard items that were sometimes barely used. Some observers commented that American culture was on its way to becoming a "throwaway society."

09.05 Television and its impact on American culture (U.S. History)

Trace the development of television and its impact on American culture.

Family portrayed in TV show "Leave It to Beaver", 1960: Wikimedia Commons, public domainFamily portrayed in TV show "Leave It to Beaver", 1960: Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Golden Age of Television
Compared with other forms of mass media--means of communication that reach large audiences--television developed with lightning speed. First widely available in 1948, television reached 9 percent of American homes by 1950 and 55 percent of homes by 1954. The 50's became known as the "golden age" of television because of the rapid expansion of shows and availability of television. News reporting and advertising also began entering American homes through TV.

TV families of the 50's
Please go to this site and find out about some of the major television families of the 50's. How does TV reflect real life? How do you think these families changed how Americans viewed themselves?

Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
Because of the growing influence of TV, the FCC grew in importance as it licensed and regulated the growing number of stations. This link goes to the FCC's website. You can find out about the history behind many of the mediums the FCC regulates and also learn about how they control different types of media.

Stereotypes and Violence in 1950s TV
Even though TV was quickly gaining popularity, not everyone was thrilled with its success. Critics objected to its effects on children and its stereotypical portrayal of women and minorities. Women did, in fact, appear in stereotypical roles, such as the ideal mothers of Father Knows Best and the Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. Male characters outnumbered women characters three to one. African Americans and Latinos rarely appeared in television programs at all.
Television in the 1950s portrayed an idealized white America. For the most part, it omitted references to poverty, diversity and contemporary conflicts, such as the struggle of the civil rights movement against racial discrimination. Instead, it glorified the historical conflicts of Western frontier in hit shows such as Gunsmoke and Have Gun Will Travel. The level of violence in these popular shows led to ongoing concerns about the effect of television on children. There were also television programs like "I Led Three Lives" (and movies like "The Manchurian Candidate") that dramatized the internal communist threat.

Movies of the 1950s
Even though television's popularity cut into the movie market, Hollywood remained competitive by capitalizing on what the televisions did not have: color, stereophonic sound, and large screens. This link contains information on some of the prominent movies of the era.

Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Nixon during the first televised U.S. presidential debate, 1960: Wikimedia Commons, public domainSenator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Nixon during the first televised U.S. presidential debate, 1960: Wikimedia Commons, public domain

09.06 Create a Political Cartoon

"Close the gate": political cartoon about immigration, 1919: Wikimedia Commons, Orr -- Chicago Tribune, public domain"Close the gate": political cartoon about immigration, 1919: Wikimedia Commons, Orr -- Chicago Tribune, public domainCreate a political cartoon that depicts the beginning, middle and end of the Baby Boomers era.

09.06. Create a Political Cartoon

teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

Cartoons can be a great teaching tool to help explain a historical or current event. However, cartoons can also be used to teach higher-level thinking skills. In order for a cartoon to be meaningful, readers must be able to analyze, interpret the images and define all parts of the metaphor, while keeping in mind the historical or political context of the issue at hand.

Through your readings and using the internet, find out what makes up a political cartoon. Search for the effects that the baby boomers had on changing the life style in the United States during the 1950s and what they are faced with today.

Create an original work. Your cartoon must contain at least three or more frames depicting the information you found, one frame about the beginning of the baby boomer era, one frame about the middle of the era, and one frame about the end of the era. When you are finished, send it to your instructor.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


09.07 Investigate the cultural and social impact of the Baby Boom generation on the American people. (U.S. History)

Beat Movement Find out about this counterculture movement of the 50's. What did being a 'beatnik' mean? Jazz Learn about jazz and its unique history and traits through this site. Think about how its traditions of improvisation and rhythms continue to influence music today. Rock n' Roll During the 50's a new music emerged. Rock n' roll grew out of rhythm and blues, country, and pop, and came to represent the new generation of youth in America. Please go to this site and go through their timeline on rock n' roll. Also, who are the inductees in the hall of fame--do you think there are any that are missing? Elvis Presley Find out about the 'King of Rock n' Roll' through this site. What made Elvis unique in the 50's? What did different generations think about him (teenagers, middle-aged, etc.)? Baby Boomers turn 60 Throughout their lifetimes, the Baby Boomers have continued to have a major impact on American society. Now, members of this generation are around 60 years of age. What does this mean for the United States? What are some of the problems that we are facing as a group this large thinks about retirement? Please read this article to learn about the Boomers' history and the challenges that are facing our nation.

Investigate the cultural and social impact of the Baby Boom generation on the American people.

Lesson Notes:

The American Dream

After World War II ended, Americans turned their attention to their families and jobs. The economy prospered. New technologies and business ideas created fresh opportunities for many, and by the end of the decade Americans were enjoying the highest standard of living in the world. The American dream of a happy and successful life seemed within the reach of many people and Americans were ready to begin realizing the American Dream: a good job, a home and a family.

The Baby Boom

As soldiers returned from World War II and settled into family life, they contributed to an unprecedented population explosion known as the "Baby Boom." Married veterans returned to their wives, and single men married the girls who wrote them three to five letters a week. During the late 1940s and through the early 1960s, the birthrate in the U.S. soared. At the height of the baby boom, in 1957, one American infant was born every seven seconds--a total of over 4 million that year. The result was the largest generation in the nation's history. There were many factors contributing to the size of the baby boom generation: reunion of husbands and wives after the war, couples marrying at a younger age, desirability of large families, confidence in continued economic prosperity and advances in medicine.

Medical Advances

Among the medical advances that saved hundreds of thousands of children's lives were the discovery of drugs to fight and prevent childhood diseases such as typhoid fever. Another breakthrough came when Dr. Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for the crippling disease--polio.

Teenagers as Consumers

Life after World War II brought changes in the family. For the first time, the teenage years were viewed as an important and unique stage in the transition between childhood and adulthood. The booming postwar economy made it possible for teens to stay in school instead of working to help support their families. Teenagers were given generous allowances by their parents and those teens who did work, worked part-time. Still, they made more money than a family just twenty years earlier. Advertising executive recognized teens were not only consumers, but consumers for a very long time. American business rushed to court this new consumer group. And leading the way was an new musical genre--rock 'n roll.

Publicity shot of Elvis Presley,: Wikimedia Commons, public domainPublicity shot of Elvis Presley,: Wikimedia Commons, public domain

Rock 'n Roll

Teens were drawn to music as a form of entertainment, but also as a way of rebelling against their parents' generation. Radio was still a medium that played the top songs of the times. For teens this was rock 'n roll. Rock 'n roll radio audiences were primarily white, but the music usually was produced by African-American musicians. Rock 'n roll performers like Little Richard, Fats Domino, and Chuck Berry were popular, but they were not, as yet, acceptable to mainstream America. To make rock 'n roll acceptable, the phonograph record industry was looking for a white entertainer to popularize this "crossover" or "race" music, as it was called.

They found their man in a young man from Tupelo, Mississippi by the name of Elvis Presley. His rebellious style captivated young audiences. Girls screamed and fainted when he performed, and boys tried to imitate him. One contemporary said Elvis had a "black man's soul in a white man's body." Presley's live appearances were immensely popular, and 45 of his records sold over one million copies each. Phonograph record sales, which reached 189 million in 1950, grew with the popularity of rock 'n roll, to over 600 million in 1960.

Economics and Education

The baby boom had a tremendous impact on other aspects of the American economy and the educational system as well. With money to spend and an economy that sustained growth, parents began to provide for their children luxuries they never had themselves. In 1958, toy sales alone reached $1.25 billion. During the decade, 10 million new students entered the elementary schools. The sharp increase in enrollment caused overcrowding and teacher shortages in many parts of the country. In California, a new school opened every seven days.

Conclusion

The Boomers were at the forefront of dealing with social, political, economic, and technological change and innovation. They walked on the moon, brought more equality to America, won the Cold War, built the suburbs, revolutionized entertainment, communications and transportation, made major health care advances, improved workplace safety and began an economic boom that saw Americans realize the highest standard-of-living in the world. They also made mistakes along the way like Vietnam, environmental abuses, Watergate, drug abuse, an emphasis on materialism and an oppressive national debt.

09.07 The Baby Boomers - Quiz 1 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 20 minutes

The presidential motorcade shortly before the JFK assassination, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, public domainThe presidential motorcade shortly before the JFK assassination, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, public domain Quiz Instructions Please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck! Quiz 1 - Baby Boomers This quiz should be taken after the unit on the baby boomers has been completed. You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent, you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.00 Unit 10 - Cold War (U.S. History)

Crossing the 38th parallel. United Nations forces withdraw from Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, 1950: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainCrossing the 38th parallel. United Nations forces withdraw from Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, 1950: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainCold War

Analyze the Cold War ideology of the United States' involvement in Asia.

Learn about the political, social and economic reactions to the Cold War in the United States.

Investigate the end of the Cold War, and examine America's role in the changing world.

10.01 Cold War vocabulary to study before quizzes(U.S. History)

Study these terms and vocabulary words before you take each quiz:

Quiz 2: The Cold War in China and Korea vocabulary list
Chiang Kai-shek, Nationalists, Mao Zedong, Red Army, Taiwan,
Korean War, "police action," 38th parallel, General Douglas MacArthur
US Army Engineers clear trail of mines in Cambodia during Vietnam War, 1960's: Wikimedia Commons, Starry, public domainUS Army Engineers clear trail of mines in Cambodia during Vietnam War, 1960's: Wikimedia Commons, Starry, public domain
Quiz 3: The Vietnam War vocabulary list
Dwight Eisenhower, domino theory, Ho Chi Minh, Vietminh, Geneva Accords,
Ngo Dinh Diem, Vietcong, Ho Chi Minh Trail, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,
Robert McNamara, William Westmoreland, Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN),
draft, Tet Offensive, Vietnamization, Mei Lai (My Lai) massacre, Fall of Saigon,
Henry Kissinger, Vietnam War memorial, Vietcong tunnels, guerilla warfare,
search and destroy missions, napalm, Agent Orange

Quiz 4: American political, social and economic reactions to the Cold War vocabulary list
John F. Kennedy, 1960 election, Cuban missile crisis, Bay of Pigs, Nikita Krushchev,
Fidel Castro, Berlin Wall, hot line, Limited Test Ban Treaty, New Frontier, bomb shelters, mushroom cloud,
Peace Corps, Alliance for Progress, Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren commission, Lyndon B. Johnson,
Great Society (changes in education, housing, health care, environment & consumer protection),
War on Poverty, Economic Opportunity Act (EOA), Warren court, Medicare, Medicaid,
Immigration Act of 1965, 1968 Presidential election, Robert Kennedy, Eugene McCarthy,
Hubert Humphrey, Richard Nixon, Cambodia invasion, Joseph McCarthy,
House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), Hollywood Ten, blacklist,
Ethel and Julius Rosenburg, Alger Hiss, Watergate, Committee to Reelect the President,
Bernstein and Woodward, Deep Throat, Sputnik, Neil Armstrong, John Glenn, NASA, Space Race,
televised debates

Quiz 5: End of Cold War vocabulary list
hawks and doves, silent majority, Ronald Reagan, War Powers Act, Mikhail Gorbachev, glastnost,
perestroika, INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty), Boris Yeltsin,
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), Berlin Wall, superpower

10.02 The Origins and Development of NATO

You will be learning how and why NATO was created.

10.02. The Origins and Development of NATO

teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

You will need to copy the information between the rows of asterisks below and paste it into a word processing document so you can answer the questions. Please BOLD YOUR ANSWERS after each question. Once completed, you will copy and paste the information into your assignment submission window.

If you have trouble accessing the video, email me for help.

*********************************************************************************************************The Origins and Development of NATO
Video Questions

Name:

[Each answer is worth one point except #22 which is worth four points.]

1. According to the video, what historic meeting took place near Berlin in 1945?

2. What was the “Cold War"?

3. What does the acronym NATO stand for and what was NATO’s purpose?

4. Who was the U.S. president who suggested the formation of NATO?

5. What did former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill refer to that had descended across the continent of post-World War II Eastern Europe?

6. What was the idea behind Soviet expert George F. Keenan’s theory on how to stop the spread of communism in Europe?

7. What two European nations were the first tests of Keenan’s theory?

8. What is the Truman Doctrine?

9. What was the name of the U.S. plan for the economic recovery of Europe?

10. One nation affected by the Marshall Plan was Germany. How many occupation zones was post-WW II Germany divided into?

11. Why was the Soviet Union opposed to a reunited Germany?

12. In 1947, what did the Soviets do in Berlin?

13. What was President Truman’s solution to the confrontation in question 12?

14. After uniting the British, French, and American zones in 1949 into the Federal Republic of Germany, how long did Germany remain divided into two countries?

15. What significant event happened in September of 1949?

16. What was the name of the Cold War film that was shown in schools around America?

17. With Europe in a stalemate, where did the Soviets turn their attention in 1950?

18. How long did the Korean War last?

19. What was the name of the 1955 communist military alliance opposite NATO?

20. Besides the Berlin Blockade, what else did the communists do in Berlin to try to separate Germany?

21. From what you’ve learned and your own knowledge of world affairs, write a paragraph of five or more sentences and giving specific examples, answer the question: Do we still need NATO today?

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.03 Analyze the Cold War ideology of the United States' involvement in Asia. (U.S. History)

U.S. Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange (defoliant) over Vietnam, killing trees and plants to expose the enemy: Wikimedia Commons, Trewyn, public domainU.S. Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange (defoliant) over Vietnam, killing trees and plants to expose the enemy: Wikimedia Commons, Trewyn, public domain

Analyze the Cold War ideology of the United States' involvement in Asia. Explain America's reaction to the fall of China to Communism under Mao Zedong. Trace American and United Nations involvement in the Korean Police Action. Examine the various factors that drew the United States into conflict with North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh. Investigate how the Vietnam War changed the nature of warfare.

10.04 Explain America's reaction to the fall of China to Communism under Mao Zedong. (U.S. History)

Chinese civil war: Chinese Communist troops head north to Manchuria, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, 佚名, public domainChinese civil war: Chinese Communist troops head north to Manchuria, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, 佚名, public domainChiang Kai-shek
Find out about this Chinese leader. Did America support or oppose his leadership? Also, where did he go in exile after the war?

10.04. Explain America's reaction to the fall of China to Communism under Mao Zedong. (U.S. History)

Mao Zedong
Please read this short summary on Mao Zedong. What political party did he lead in China, and were its members victorious? This site also has an index to explain other terms in the Chinese civil war.

American reaction to Communist China

After the Communist party gained control of China, the American public was outraged. Truman's policy of containment (containing communism and not letting it spread to any more countries) had failed. In Congress, conservative Republicans and Democrats attacked the Truman administration for supplying only limited aid to Chiang. If containing communism was important in Europe, they asked, why was it not equally important in Asia?
The State Department replied by saying that what had happened in China was a result of internal forces. The United States had failed in its attempts to influence these forces, such as Chiang's inability to retain the support to of his people. Trying to do more would have started a war in Asia--a war that the United States was not prepared to fight.
Some conservatives in Congress rejected this argument. They claimed that the American government was riddled with Communist agents. Like wildfire, American fear of communism began to burn out of control, and the flames were fanned even further by events in Korea the following year.

10.05 Trace American and United Nations involvement in the Korean Police Action. (U.S. History)

American involvement in Korea began at the end of World War II. Korea had been controlled by the Japanese from 1910 until 1945 and when the Japanese in Korea surrendered they surrendered to two different groups. North of the 38th parallel they surrendered to the Soviets and south of the line they surrendered to the Americans. The situation was very similar to what happened in Germany and the Americans and the Soviets controlled their halves of Korea the way they saw fit. North Korea came under the control of Communist leader Kim Il Sung and South Korea was lead by Syngman Rhee. By 1949 the Soviets decided that the United States wouldn't come to the aid of South Korea since they had pulled all but 500 troops out of South Korea. Now, in case you didn't know, any country that surrendered to the Soviets and became communist actually became a puppet of Soviet Russia.

On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea and the Korean War began. South Korea then asked the United Nations to step in to stop North Korea, who at that point had penetrated deep into south Korea. The Soviets boycotted the council because China was there, and the vote for police action was passed. By June 27th, President Harry S. Truman ordered troops into South Korea.

Okay, now you need to do a little leg work. As you read through the following links, think about the following questions;
(These do not need to be answered and turned in, your Reading Log is separate. This should help you to focus your reading and help you to answer the Reading Log questions.)
*What happened next?
*Who led the troops in Korea? What kind of reputation did he have?
*What was the worldwide response?
*What was the end result of the Korean War? What did the result foreshadow in future world affairs?

10.05. Trace American and United Nations involvement in the Korean Police Action. (U.S. History)

Korean War summary Please read this summary of the Korean War. Was the United States the only country that was fighting Chinese forces? How long did the conflict last? Korean War Find out all about the Korean War through this site. This site has a very detailed timeline with suggested links if you would like more information on this conflict. Korean War This site also has great information about the Korean War. It also has some oral histories from Americans who fought in this war. Maps and other valuable information are also included. General Douglas MacArthur Find out about the main American military leader in the Korean War. This site has a brief biography of MacArthur's life, but make sure to concentrate on the last paragraphs, which chronicle his Korean War involvement. Recall of General MacArthur Find out why MacArthur was relieved of his duty in Korea. Who was in charge of his removal and why was it done? Korea divided: Wikimedia Commons, Hezhenjie, public domainKorea divided: Wikimedia Commons, Hezhenjie, public domain 38th parallel Learn about this important line of demarcation in Korea. Korean War stalemate As the MacArthur controversy died down, the Soviet Union unexpectedly suggested a cease-fire on June 23, 1951. Truce talks began in July 1951. The opposing sides reached agreement on two points: the location of the cease fire line at the existing battle line and the establishment of a demilitarized zone between the opposing sides. At best, the agreement was a stalemate. On the one hand, the North Korean invaders had been pushed back, and communism had been contained without the use of atomic weapons. On the other hand, Korea was still two nations rather than one (and still is today). On the home front, the war had affected the lives of ordinary Americans in many ways. It had cost 54,000 American lives and $67 billion in expenditures. This high cost for an unsuccessful war led to the rejection of Democratic leadership in the election of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower and also fueled the fear of communism within the United States.

10.06 The Cold War in China and Korea (U.S. History)

Quiz Instructions
This quiz is worth 10 points and has a time limit of 30 minutes. Once you start the quiz you need to finish it. Please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

10.06. The Cold War in China and Korea - Quiz 2 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Quiz 2 - The Cold War in China and Korea
This quiz tests your knowledge of the section covering the Cold War in China and Korea.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.07 Conflict with North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh. (U.S. History)

Examine the various factors that drew the United States into conflict with North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh.

Causes of Vietnam War
This site has an explanation of how the United States became involved in Vietnam. What was the United States' first participation in this matter and what nation were they helping? This site also has a link to a valuable timeline dealing with American involvement in Vietnam.
Illustration of the fears of the "Domino theory": Wikimedia Commons, Nyenyec, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedIllustration of the fears of the "Domino theory": Wikimedia Commons, Nyenyec, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Ho Chi Minh
Learn about this revolutionary leader through this link. What was he fighting for and how did his troops change the nature of warfare?

Vietminh
Learn about the Vietminh through this short description.

Dwight D. Eisenhower's Presidency
This site will help you learn about this president and his reactions to the Cold War times in which he lived.

Domino Theory
Find out about this foreign policy idea and why it spurred United States involvement in Vietnam. Do you think that this theory is valid?

Geneva Accords
From May through July 1954, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States, China, Laos, and Cambodia met to determine how peace could be established in Vietnam. The result of this peace conference was the Geneva Accords (this link goes to the text of this agreement). This agreement temporarily divided the nation along the 17th parallel. Ho Chi Mihn and the communists were to control the northern section of the country and the anticommunists were to have control over the south. In 1956 there was to be an election to unify the nation. Which nations did not sign this agreement?

Ngo Dinh Diem
Recognizing Ho Chi Minh's widespread popularity (fighting the Japanese and French for many years had made him a national hero), South Vietnam president Ngo Dinh Diem refused to hold the 1956 elections that were scheduled by the Geneva Accords. The United States supported this action because they believed that the countrywide election would probably be in favor of Ho Chi Minh and the communists. To help South Vietnam gain strength, the Eisenhower administration promised military aid and training to Diem in return for a stable reform government in the South.
Diem, however, failed to hold up his end of the bargain. He ushered in a corrupt government that suppressed opposition of any kind and offered little or no land distribution to peasants (Ho Chi Mihn had redistributed the land in the North). In addition, Diem, a devout Catholic, angered the country's majority Buddhist population by restricting Buddhist practices.
By 1957, a Communist opposition group in the South, known as the Vietcong (later known as the National Liberation Front - NLF), had begun attacks on the Diem government, assassinating thousands of South Vietnamese government officials. Ho Chi Minh supported the group, and in 1959 began supplying arms to the Vietcong via a network of paths along the borders of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia that became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
As Diem's government grew more and more corrupt, it was obvious that he would have to be removed from power before South Vietnam could become stable. On November 1, 1963, a U.S.-supported military coup ended Diem's regime. Against President Kennedy's wishes, Diem was assassinated. Diem's death brought even more chaos to the region. President Johnson was very sensitive to being too "soft" on communism and was worried that a communist take-over of the region was probable.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Find out about this American action through this site. What prompted Congress to pass this action at Johnson's request? In addition to information on the resolution, this site is an excellent resource for information about the Vietnam War.

U.S. enters Vietnam
In March of 1965, President Johnson began dispatching tens of thousands of U.S. Soldiers to fight in Vietnam and to keep communism from spreading. Foreign-policy advisors that were fundamental in Johnson's decision were Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Secretary of State Dean Rusk. At the time America entered troops into the Vietnam conflict, 61 percent of Americans supported the action, with only 24 percent opposing. Over the long war that followed, public opinion would be altered and the nature of warfare would be changed forever.

General William Westmoreland
This link has a short description of the American commander in South Vietnam, General William Westmoreland. One of the reasons that Westmoreland continued to request so many troops was because of the inadequacy of the South Vietnamese troops, known as the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). This site also has excerpts from an interview with him describing conditions and public reaction to the war.

Drafting Troops
Find out about the draft system that was modified during Vietnam. How did it work and who was eligible to be drafted?
As Americans' doubts about the war grew, thousands of men attempted to find ways around the draft, which one man characterized as a "very manipulatable system." Some men sought out sympathetic doctors to grant medical exemptions, while others changed residences in order to appear before a more lenient draft board. Some Americans even joined the National Guard or Coast Guard, which often secured a deferment from service in Vietnam.
One of the most common ways to avoid the draft was to receive a college deferment, by which a young man enrolled in a university could put off his military service. Because university students during the 1960s tended to be white and financially well-off, many of the men who fought in Vietnam were whites or minorities from a lower socio-economic level of American society. With almost 80 percent of American soldiers coming from this demographic, Vietnam became known as the "working-class war."

Tet Offensive
Please read this short description about what many consider the turning point of the Vietnam War.

Vietnamization
Find out about this plan to reduce American involvement in the war.

Mai Lai Massacre
American opinion continued to turn against the war as people learned of the Mai Lai Massacre. Find out about this event through this link.

Pentagon Papers
Find out about this report and what it said about American involvement and intentions in Vietnam. How did the public react to its' findings?

Fall of Saigon and the end of the war
With the 1972 presidential election in sight, Nixon changed his strategy of attacking Vietcong supply lines in Cambodia to one where his Secretary of State and main Vietnam negotiator, Henry Kissinger, stated that, "peace was at hand." Nixon won reelection, but his peace did not come as expected. Peace talks ended unsuccessfully and the U.S. retaliated with massive bombings known as the "Christmas bombings," because over eleven days the U.S. dropped 100,000 bombs pausing only on Christmas day.

With growing pressures from around the world, peace was finally agreed upon on January 27, 1973. Under the agreement, there was to be a cease-fire between North and South Vietnam; based on this understanding, the U.S. finally withdrew their troops.
What happened to this agreement--was it upheld? Please read this short description of the fall of Saigon and the end of the war.

Vietnam soldiers
Here are a few recollections from some people who served in Vietnam. How did they feel about the war and returning home?

Vietnam War Memorial
As American soldiers returned home, they were often welcomed by their family and shunned by society. Many adjusted to civilian life quickly, but 15 percent of the 3.3 million soldiers developed post-traumatic stress disorder. The Vietnam Memorial was established to recognize the service by these American soldiers and to help heal a nation that was bitterly divided over this conflict. Learn about the memorial, and see pictures through this link.

10.08 How the Vietnam War changed the nature of warfare (U.S. History)

Investigate how the Vietnam War changed the nature of warfare.

Flexible Response

Please go to this short description of JFK's new foreign policy. What did this new policy mean for future wars?
A group of handicapped children, most of them probable victims of Agent Orange: Wikimedia Commons, Alexis Duclos, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedA group of handicapped children, most of them probable victims of Agent Orange: Wikimedia Commons, Alexis Duclos, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Vietnam war terms

New tactics were used by U.S. troops to fight in Vietnam. The thick jungle and sometimes even farm crops provided cover for the Vietcong. To counteract this, American planes dropped napalm, a gasoline-based bomb that set fire to the jungle. They also sprayed Agent Orange, a leaf-killing toxic chemical. The saturation use of these weapons often wounded civilians and left villages and their surroundings in ruins. Years later, many would blame Agent Orange for cancers in Vietnamese civilians and American veterans. Another military tactic was the 'search and destroy' mission. In these missions, soldiers would uproot civilians with suspected ties to the Vietcong, destroy their livestock and burn their villages.

Guerilla Warfare and Air War

Please read this description of the Vietcong and how their war tactics made the Vietnam War different than any other conflict in which the United States had been involved. What were their strategies, and was it effective? Also, use the link at the bottom of the guerrilla page to learn about the planes involved in the air war in Vietnam. How were airplanes important to the U.S. efforts in Vietnam?

10.08 How the Vietnam War changed the nature of warfare. Quiz 3 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Quiz Instructions
Each quiz is worth 10 points and has a time limit of 30 minutes. Once you start the quiz, you need to finish it because you only have one attempt at taking each quiz. Because you only have one chance at each quiz, please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

Quiz 3 - The Vietnam War
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the two sections covering the Vietnam War.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.09 Reactions to the Cold War in the United States (U.S. History)

Learn about the political, social, and economic reactions to the Cold War in the United States.

President Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One two hours and eight minutes after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, 1963; Jackie Kennedy, the late President's widow, is on his left.: Wikimedia Commons, public domainPresident Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One two hours and eight minutes after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, 1963; Jackie Kennedy, the late President's widow, is on his left.: Wikimedia Commons, public domain

Use the links in the sections below to complete the objectives:

  • Examine the successes and failures of various political administrations during this period.
  • Analyze the Great Society programs aimed at ending poverty.
  • Examine the impact of McCarthyism and Watergate on citizens' attitudes toward government.
  • Trace the development of space exploration.

10.10 Successes and failures of administrations during this period (U.S. History)

Examine the successes and failures of various political administrations during the 1960's and early 1970's.

Overview
There is a lot of information in this section on the political, social, and economic reactions to the Cold War in the United States. Since the information is not always presented chronologically (there is more information on the Johnson's Great Society, Watergate, and Space Exploration in the next three sections), please make sure that you read each president's summary in this section so that you understand the timeline of major events. Let me know if you have any questions or would like additional information on anything presented here.

1960 Presidential Election
This election between Nixon and Kennedy was a turning point in the way presidential elections are run. Please read this information (focus on the campaign section) to find out what was different about this race.

John F. Kennedy's Presidency
Please look through this photographic history of our 35th president, John F. Kennedy. Be.
sure to look through the section on the presidential years. The public was fascinated by the Kennedy family (their fashion, lifestyle, and knowledge). What are some of the reasons this president was so popular?

Cuban Missile Crisis
Learn about the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis through this site (the Crisis Center link has a great summary of both). Who were the major players and what were the issues at stake?

Berlin Wall
Learn all about the Berlin Wall and the role it played in the Cold War. Why was the wall erected and what purpose did it serve?

Hot Line and Limited Test Ban Treaty
To begin to ease Cold War tension, in 1963, a phone hot line was established to connect the United States and U.S.S.R. Later that year, the two nations also agreed to a Limited Test Ban Treaty that barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere. Through this link, find out about the hot line and what its purpose was.

New Frontier
This link has a summary of JFK's time in office. Find out about his inaugural address and what he meant by the "new frontier" that America was approaching.

Peace Corps
Two ways that Kennedy tried to involve Americans in overseas efforts was through the Peace Corps and the Alliance for Progress. The Alliance for Progress offered economic and technical assistance to Latin American coutries in part to deter them from succumbing to communist governments. Find out about the Peace Corps and what they continue to do for other countries. Who serves in them?

President Kennedy's assassination
On a trip to Dallas on November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was shot in the head while driving with his wife in the back of an open-air limousine. The nation was shocked by the news and publicly mourned the young president's death. People who were alive during this period will most likely remember where they were when they heard the news about the president (probably how it was for you during September 11th).

Following JFK's death, the vice-president Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in on the presidential aircraft and Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the murder based on his palm print on the murder rifle. Harvey had a suspicious past as a ex-Marine who had received a dishonorable discharge, moved to the Soviet Union, and supported Castro. When he was being moved between jails, Oswald was shot by a nightclub owner named Jack Ruby.

Because of this bizarre chain of events, many wondered if Oswald was part of a conspiracy to kill the President. The Warren Commission was established to investigate these theories. While the Warren Commission believed that Oswald acted alone, subsequent reinvestigations kept the theory alive that he was part of a conspiracy. This website has all of the original documents and has diagrams of the shooting to analyze where bullets came from. What do you think about this tragedy?
President Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Medicare Bill, 1965: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainPresident Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Medicare Bill, 1965: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
Lyndon B. Johnson's Presidency
Find out about JFK's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, through this biography. What was the first political actions he took after Kennedy's death? What did he want for America, and what was his plan called?

Warren Court
The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren made several landmark decisions that drastically changed the American way of life. Please go to this summary and look at the influential cases that were tried by the Warren Court. What changes did they make?

Presidential Election of 1968
The presidential election of 1968 mirrored the turbulent time in American history. Please go to this site and learn about this election. Who were the candidates? What were the major issues? And who was assassinated in his attempt to run for president?

Richard Nixon's Presidency
Please learn about Richard Nixon and his presidency through this short biography. What were his major triumphs while in office?

Nixon's Cambodia Invasion
As Nixon began scaling down forces in Vietnam, he authorized an invasion of Cambodia to weaken Vietcong supply lines and create a more powerful position in peace negotiations. Find out about the American reaction to this announcement through this link.

10.11 Great Society programs aimed at ending poverty. (U.S. History)

Analyze the Great Society programs aimed at ending poverty.

The Great Society
Lyndon B. Johnson had an ambitious domestic agenda during his presidency. Early in 1964, he announced that his administration was fighting an "unconditional war against poverty." This idea about the fight against poverty was expanded when in May of 1964 he gave this speech about the "Great Society" that he wanted to help Americans build. Please read this speech and think about what we have accomplished as a nation and what still needs work.

Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)
Please read about this legislation that was central to President Johnson's "War on Poverty" and the "Great Society." The EOA legislation created many programs: the Job Corps Youth Training Program, VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America), Project Head Start, and the Community Action Program. Which programs are still being used today?

Medicaid and Medicare
Johnson fought against poverty by changing Social Security and creating Medicaid (extended health insurance to welfare recipients) and Medicare (provided hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance for almost every American age 65 or older). Please go to this site for a brief history of the action and links to pictures of the signing and audio of the speech given at the event.

Immigration Act of 1965
Please go to this site and learn about how Johnson opened up the Great Society with the Immigration Act of 1965. What did this act change from the previous immigration rules?

Great Society Programs in Education, Housing, Environment, and Consumer Protection

Education
Johnson considered education "the key which can unlock the door to the Great Society." To provide better access to education, his administration introduced a number of bills funding more textbooks and materials for schools. Over $1 billion in federal aid was given in 1965 to schools needing new supplies. This was one of the earliest federal aid measures to schools in our nation's history.

Housing
Congress gave funds to create some 240,000 units of low-rent public housing and to help low- and moderate-income families pay for better private housing. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was also created with the first African-American cabinent member, Robert Weaver, appointed as the Secretary.
Carson's book Silent Spring alerted Americans to declining bird populations (due partly to pesticides like DDT): Wikimedia Commons, US Fish & Wildlife Service, public domainCarson's book Silent Spring alerted Americans to declining bird populations (due partly to pesticides like DDT): Wikimedia Commons, US Fish & Wildlife Service, public domain
Environment
Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring exposed the hidden dangers of pesticides on the environment. This prompted the Water Quality Act of 1965. Johnson also ordered the government to search out major industrial polluters.

Consumer Protection
Truth-in-packaging laws were passed that set standards for labeling consumer goods. Safety standards were also imposed on the automobile industry and tire manufacturers. The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 was also passed to more thoroughly protect meat products.

Summary of Great Society
Please review this short summary of the Great Society programs and results. Was Johnson successful in reducing poverty? How did the public react to his ideas?

Warren Court
As we learned in the last section, the Warren Court had a major impact in the way cases were tried. Many of the Great Society aims were helped by the court's decisions. Please review this link if you have any questions about the impact this court had on America.

10.11 Great Society programs aimed at ending poverty. (U.S. History)

10.12 McCarthyism, Watergate, and citizens' attitudes toward government. (U.S. History)

Examine the impact of McCarthyism and Watergate on citizens' attitudes toward government.

Senator Joseph McCarthy of the HUAC, circa 1954: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainSenator Joseph McCarthy of the HUAC, circa 1954: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Learn about this legislative committee and how it investigated claims about the American people.

Hollywood Ten
Among other investigations, HUAC focused on the film industry and the claims that communists had infiltrated this business. Ten 'unfriendly' witnesses were called to testify on communism and the movies, but they refused to cooperate because they believed the hearings to be unconstitutional. Because of this action they were sent to prison. Find out more about these people and why they defied Congress through this link. In response to the hearings, Hollywood executives instituted a blacklist which listed all people whom they condemned for having communist ties. Approximately 500 writers, producers, and directors had their careers ruined because being on this list meant that they could no longer get jobs in the film industry.

Prominent Spy Cases Increase Fears of Communism

A State Department official named Alger Hiss was found guilty of spying for the Soviet Union.

On September 3, 1949, the Soviet Union successfully tested their first atomic bomb. This knowledge shocked Americans as they believed that the Soviet Union was still 3-5 years away from gaining this technology. It was concluded that vital information must have been leaked from spies within the U.S. for the Soviets to make such gains.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, minor activists in the American Communist Party, were charged with this crime. Even though they continued to maintain their innocence and believed that they were being targeted because of their beliefs and minority status (they were Jewish), they were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death. Despite pleas from around the world to review the case, both were executed in June of 1953, making them the first U.S. civilians executed for espionage.

Senator Joseph McCarthy
Please learn about this central figure in the anti-communist fervor of the Cold War. How did he use fear to gain power?

Watergate
Watergate is one of the major political events in American history. This burglary (of the Democratic National Committee headquarters) and subsequent coverup forever changed the way that Americans view presidential honesty and politicians in general. Please go through this excellent site on the Watergate scandal. Be sure to look at the timeline to understand the key events of this affair. Also, please learn about the major players in this event (Committee to Reelect the President, Deep Throat, Woodward and Bernstein).

10.13 Crisis of Authority Video (US History)

President and Mrs. Nixon at the Great Wall of China, 1972: Wikimedia Commons, Byron E. Schumaker, public domainPresident and Mrs. Nixon at the Great Wall of China, 1972: Wikimedia Commons, Byron E. Schumaker, public domainThe Unfinished Nation Part II. Episode 24: Crisis of Authority

10.13 Crisis of Authority Video (US History)

10.13. Crisis of Authority Video (US History)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 45 minutes

To view the video, click on the link below; it will ask you to type in the user name and password for the Pioneer Library. You can get the Pioneer Library username and password from your EHS teacher or from your local school librarian.

If you have trouble accessing the video, email me for help.

Answer the following questions as you view the video:

(Copy the information between the rows of asterisks below and paste the questions into a word processing-document that you will save on your computer. Pleae bold your answers so they stand out from the questions. Then paste your work into the assignment submission window.)

********************************************************************************************

1) What is Vietnamization?
2) Why did a negotiated peace not work?
3) Why did Nixon decide to bomb locations in Cambodia and Laos?
4) What were the results of these raids?
5) Explain what happened at Kent State University.
6) What were the Christmas bombings?
7) What were the terms of the Paris Peace Accords?
8) Who announced that the American involvement in Vietnam was over?
9) What did the Vietnam experience say to the United States as a world power?
10) Why were Nixon and Kissinger considered geniuses of foreign policy?
11) When did Nixon go to China?
12) Explain shuttle diplomacy and how this was used in the Middle East.
13) Did Nixon expand or shrink the Great Society?
14) What was the first Impeachment controversy dealing with Nixon over?
15) What caused the first energy crisis in the United States?
16) What economic measures did Nixon take to try to improve the economy?
17) What two scandals emerged from the Watergate break-in?
18) What was the turning point in the Watergate investigation?
19) How could have Nixon saved his presidency?
20) How did the Watergate scandal change the attitude of the media?

21) In a paragraph explain what happened in Watergate and what that told about how the country felt about its government.

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.14 The space race (U.S. History)

Analyze the American reaction to the Soviet space program in the context of the Cold War.

Soviet satellite Sputnik I, the first manmade satellite launched into orbit, 1957: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domainSoviet satellite Sputnik I, the first manmade satellite launched into orbit, 1957: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domain

Race to the Moon
On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin became the first human in space. Kennedy saw this as a challenge and decided that America would surpass the Soviets by sending a man to the moon. This site has crew recordings from Apollo 8, and excerpts from remembrances of a Russian astronaut and the families of American astronauts of this time.

Race to the Moon
This site has detailed descriptions of major events in the race with the Soviet Union to get to the moon first. Who was the first person to step on the moon?

Space Exploration
Learn more about space exploration and the developments in this field through this link.

10.15 American reactions to the Cold War. (U.S. History)

Quiz 4 - American political, social, and economic reactions to the Cold War
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the sections regarding American political, social and economic reactions to the Cold War.

10.15. American reactions to the Cold War. Quiz 4 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 20 minutes

Quiz 4 Instructions
This quiz is worth 15 points, and you need to pass it at 80 percent. If you do not score 80 percent or higher, you will need to wait 24 hours before you can retake the quiz. Once you start the quiz you need to finish it. Please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.16 The end of the Cold War (U.S. History)

Investigate the end of the Cold War and examine America's role in the changing world. Compare differing American reactions to overseas military involvement. Trace the events that resulted in the breakup of the USSR. Examine the superpower status of the United States in the world.

Since you should be familiar with the Cold War from previous lessons the end is a pretty easy to finish.

    Counterculture

    The counterculture (hippies and anti-war sentiment) is going to push politicians to look into their constituancies. But it really is only a catalyst not really an ending.
    Richard Nixon A president almost as well known for his foreign policy as he was for his domestic policies. His foreign policies are credited with bringing an end to the Cold War.

  • Nixon's Foreign Policies
  • realpolitik: literally means political realism. It is an idea that policy should be based on power not ideals or morals.
    detente: Policy put into place by what I will call the "detente duo," President Nixon and Henry Kissier. It is the policy of thawing Cold War tensions.
    China Visit: In 1949 communists took over China and it officially became a communist country. The United States at this point chose not to recognize China, because they were communist. President Richard Nixon changed that by making a visit to China in 1972. When announcing to the nation that he would be visiting the "red country" he said the purpose was, "to seek normalization of relations between the two countries." This is a win for the United States for several reasons including; the opening of economic relations, the opening of diplomatic relations, and agreements abou how to participate in the Pacific.

    SALT I Treaty: Once the thaw had begin with China, Nixon is going to turn his attention to the other "red country," the Soviet Union. Three months after Nixon's visit to China he headed to Moscow, he was the first American president to visit the Soviet capital. The meetings between Nixon and Brezhnev became known as the SALT meetings. (What does SALT stand for?) In short they came away from the meetings agreeing to limit ICBMs and submarine launched missiles.
    Henry Kissinger
    Kissinger's role was the second part of the detente duo. He is considered on of the great masters of foreign policy. His work in pulling troops from Vietnam and ending the Vietnam war along with the 'thaw,' gives him the master title easily. An interesting note; Kissinger didn't consider Nixon one of the greatest presidential candidates, but as a team they were unstopable in foreign policy.

10.16. End of the Cold War Quiz 5 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Quiz 5 - End of the Cold War
This quiz should be taken after the materials have been studied in the sections on the End of the Cold War.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


10.17 American reactions to overseas military involvement (U.S. History)

Compare differing American reactions to overseas military involvement.

Students protest the Vietnam War, University of Wisconsin, 1967: Wikimedia Commons, uwdigitalcollections, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericStudents protest the Vietnam War, University of Wisconsin, 1967: Wikimedia Commons, uwdigitalcollections, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic

Reactions to Vietnam

By 1967, Americans increasingly found themselves divided into two camps regarding the Vietnam War. Those who strongly opposed the war and believed the United States should withdraw were known as the doves. Feeling just as strongly that America should unleash much of its greater military force to win the war were the hawks.
Despite the visibility of the antiwar protesters, a majority of American citizens in 1967 still remained committed to the war. Others, while less certain about the proper U.S. role in Vietnam, were shocked to see protesters publicly criticize a war in which their fellow Americans were fighting and dying.

Silent Majority

Nixon believed that there was a "silent majority" of Americans who believed in the war. He called upon these people to support his war policies and later the invasion in Cambodia. While many average Americans did support the president, the events of Vietnam continued to sharply divide the nation.

War Powers Act

The War Powers Act was in response to the view that the power of the president as Commander in Chief of the armed forces had been extended too far during the Vietnam War (in particular during the Johnson and Nixon administrations). It was hoped that this law would safeguard against reckless actions in the future.

10.18 Breakup of the USSR (U.S History)

Trace the events that resulted in the breakup of the USSR.

Collapse of the Soviet Union - Summary
This is a short summary of why the Soviet Union collapsed so quickly. What were the differences in demographics (population traits of groups) that moved reform forward?

Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev's rise to power marked the beginning of a new era in the Soviet Union. Please go to this site to learn about him.

Gorbachev's political reforms
Because of the many problems that Gorbachev inherited when he entered office, he began a new policy called glasnost (Russian for openness). This policy made questioning government acceptable and granted new freedoms to the press that they did not have under previous communist leaders.
In 1985, he also outlined the major social restructuring plan for perestroika. In this he called for less government control over the economy, the introduction of some private enterprise, and steps towards establishing a democratic society.
Gorbachev realized that better relations with the United States would allow the Soviets to reduce their military spending and reform their economy. As a result, he initiated a series of arms-control meetings that led to the INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty), which was signed in December of 1987. The treaty eliminated two classes of weapons in Europe and allowed each nation to make on-site inspections of the other's military sites.
Jubilant crowds climb the Berlin Wall as it is about to be torn down, November 1989: Wikimedia Commons, Sue Ream, CC Attribution 3.0 UnportedJubilant crowds climb the Berlin Wall as it is about to be torn down, November 1989: Wikimedia Commons, Sue Ream, CC Attribution 3.0 Unported
Fall of the Berlin Wall
This site explains the implications of the collapse of the Berlin Wall. As you read this information, please think about what it must have been like for people in East and West Germany to have the wall removed.

End of Soviet Union
Gorbachev's introduction of democratic ideals led to a dramatic increase in nationalism on the part of the Soviet Union's non-Russian republics. In December 1991, 14 non-Russian republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Gorbachev was pushed aside as president by those who believed he was moving too slowly towards democracy. After 74 years, the Soviet Union dissolved and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created.

End of Cold War
Please read this short article to find out about the events that officially led to the end of the Cold War.

10.19 The superpower status of the United States (U.S. History)

Examine the superpower status of the United States in the world. (U.S. History)

The US and other potential superpowers, in color: Wikimedia Commons, Maciej Szczepańczyk, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedThe US and other potential superpowers, in color: Wikimedia Commons, Maciej Szczepańczyk, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedUnited States as a Superpower

This article outlines guidelines for determining which countries can be considered "superpowers" in the world.
What criteria does a nation have to meet to be a superpower? Who does this author consider to be the only superpower today? Do you agree?

11.00 Unit 11 - Human Rights Movements (U.S. History)

President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Civil Rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, James Farmer - 1964: Wikimedia Commons, Yoichi R. Okamoto, public domainPresident Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Civil Rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, James Farmer - 1964: Wikimedia Commons, Yoichi R. Okamoto, public domainUse the links in the sections below to complete the objectives:

Analyze how the civil rights movement affected United States' society.

Identify the causes and consequences of civil rights legislation and court decisions.

Analyze how the black civil rights movement utilized both social and political actions to achieve its goals.

Investigate the gains in civil rights made by the American Indian nations, Mexican Americans, and other ethnic groups in the last half of the twentieth century.

Investigate the fight for political, economic and social equality of women.

11.01 Human Rights Movements vocabulary to study before quizzes (U.S. History)

Study the following terms and vocabulary words before you take each quiz:
Rosa Parks with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (ca. 1955): Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainRosa Parks with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (ca. 1955): Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
Quiz 6: African-American civil rights movement vocabulary list
Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Little Rock Central High School, sit-ins,
segregation, NAACP, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, freedom riders,
James Meredith, Children's Crusade, March on Washington, Civil Rights Act of 1964,
Freedom Summer, Fannie Lou Hamer, Voting Rights Act of 1965, de facto segregation,
de jure segregation, Malcolm X, Nation of Islam, Stokely Carmichael, Black Power,
Black Panthers, Kerner Commission, Civil Rights Act of 1968, Shirley Chisholm,
Jesse Jackson, Rainbow Coalition, affirmative action

Quiz 7: Civil rights for other minorities and women vocabulary list
United Farm Workers, Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, La Raza Unida, Lauro Cavazos,
Antonia Coello, Alberto Gonzales, American Indian Movement (AIM), Ben Nighthorse Campbell,
Indian Self-Determination and Education Act, Betty Friedan, The Feminist Mystique,
feminism, National Organization for Women (NOW), Gloria Steinem, Higher Education Act,
Roe v. Wade, Equal Rights Amendment, Phyllis Schlafly, The New Right, pay equity,
conservative backlash

Quiz 8: Counterculture of the 1960's vocabulary list
anti-war movement, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS),
Free Speech Movement (FSM), Kent State Massacre, counterculture, hippie culture,
Silent Spring, Earth Day, Haight-Ashbury, pop art, Andy Warhol, the Beatles,
Woodstock, drugs, War on Drugs

11.02 Civil rights legislation and court decisions (U.S. History)

Identify the causes and consequences of civil rights legislation and court decisions.

Educational separation in the US prior to Brown v. Board of Education (red: required, blue: optional, green: forbidden, yellow: no laws about it: Wikimedia Commons, King of Hearts, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedEducational separation in the US prior to Brown v. Board of Education (red: required, blue: optional, green: forbidden, yellow: no laws about it: Wikimedia Commons, King of Hearts, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedPlessy v. Ferguson and the System of Segregation

Please learn about the landmark case, Plessy v. Ferguson, where the Supreme Court found that separate resources for black and white people could be used if they were equal. Also, learn about the history of segregation and what it meant to those living during this time. Was segregation only practiced in the South?

Thurgood Marshall

Learn about this visionary attorney who worked for the NAACP. What were his major victories (cases won), and how did he legally change how white and black people live together in the United States?

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Learn about what many consider to be the most important Supreme Court case of the 1900's. What did this case change for Americans?

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Learn about the passing of this legislation which prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender. It also gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, restrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Learn about how this act sought to change people's access to voting. How had they been barred from voting before? What events prompted this bill to be passed?

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Considered by some to be the most important civil rights legislation since Reconstruction after the Civil War, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 ended the practice of discrimination in housing.

11.03 Social and political actions used to achieve civil rights (U.S. History)

Analyze how the black civil rights movement utilized both social and political actions to achieve its goals.

Campaign button from 1972 presidential election: WIkimedia Commons, public domainCampaign button from 1972 presidential election: WIkimedia Commons, public domain

Civil Rights Movement Sites

This link goes to a register of the sites of major importance during the Civil Rights Movement. You can find out more information about each site by clicking on "list of sites" and then the name of the place in which you are interested. Make sure to find out about Central High School in Arkansas and Brown v. Board of Education site in Kansas.

Civil Rights Veterans and their Stories

This is a great site which has many accounts given by those who were fighting the battles for civil rights. Members of many groups (many of them student organizations like CORE and SNCC), these people tell their stories. Please read some of them and think about the sacrifices they made for this cause.

Civil Rights Timeline

Please refer to this timeline to get an overall idea of the course of events during the Civil Rights Movement.

Greensboro Sit-ins

Find out about this effective, nonviolent way that people protested segregation. What were they doing and where?

Rosa Parks

Find out what civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks did in Montgomery, Alabama to begin civil rights boycotts there.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Please learn about the most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement. Read his biography, which has links to any terms for which you would like more information. Also, this site has access to many of his papers and speeches. Please read his most famous speech, "I Have a Dream," which was delivered at the Lincoln Monument in Washington, D.C. Why would this be a powerful place to talk about issues of civil rights? Also, learn how Dr. King died.

Freedom Riders

Find out how these people challeged segregation. Were they successful in breaking down barriers?

Ole Miss Integration

This site details the integration of Ole Miss. Who wanted to attend this school, and what did it take for him to be able to do so? There are first hand accounts of the violent events that occurred in this integration.

Children's Crusade and Birmingham Demonstrations

Because Birmingham, Alabama, was viewed as the nation's most strictly segregated city, Dr. King and the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth decided to focus their efforts of nonviolent demonstration there. After demonstrating for a number of days, King and a number of others were jailed for their actions. To continue the demonstrations, more than a thousand African American children marched in Birmingham. In response to this march, Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor's forces arrested 956 of them. The next day a second Children's Crusade was performed, and in response to this march, police swept marchers off of their feet with high-powered fire hoses, set attack dogs on them and clubbed those who fell. These events were televised, and many around the nation were shocked by the violence against the children who were demonstrating.

March on Washington

In response to the violence that demonstrators met with, President Kennedy urged Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would eliminate segregation in all public places and would give the Attorney General the power to file suits against schools that were not desegregating their facilities. To support this bill, a massive march was organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin of SCLC. Learn about how many people came to this event and what major events happened. What kind of statement does this many people make about any kind of cause?

Freedom Summer

Find out what civil rights activists were trying to accomplish in the South during this summer. How were they received, and what major act of violence occurred?

Fannie Lou Hamer

Learn about this inspirational civil rights activist. What area of civil rights was she working to improve?

African Americans Continue to Seek Greater Equality

What civil rights groups had in common in the early 1960's were their calls for a newfound pride in black identity and a commitment to change the social and economic structures that kept people in a life of poverty. However, by 1965, the leading civil rights groups began to drift apart. New leaders emerged as the movement turned its attention to the North, where African Americans faced not legal segregation but deeply entrenched and oppressive racial prejudice.
In the North, African Americans had the problem of facing de facto segregation, or segregation that exists by practice and custom. This was a much different fight than that in the South of battling de jure segregation, or segregation that is established by law. Southern segregation was an easier target because it meant that to end it, laws had to be eliminated, but in the North, to fight segregation, activists would have to change people's attitudes and customs.

Violence Around the Nation

In the mid 1960's clashes between white authorities and black civilians spread rapidly. In New York City in July 1964, an encounter between white police and African-American teenagers ended in the death of a 15-year-old student. This sparked race riots in Harlem. On August 11, 1965, one of the worst race riots in American history raged through the streets of Watts, a predominantly African American neighborhood in Los Angeles. Thirty-four people were killed, and hundreds of million of dollars-worth of property was destroyed. In the following years violence continued, with riots occurring in more than 100 cities just in the year 1967.

Malcolm X

Learn about this dynamic civil rights leader, Malcolm X. What were his views, and how did they support or oppose what was being taught by Dr. King and his followers?

Nation of Islam

Learn about this religious and social movement that gained a large following during the civil rights movement. Why would African Americans identify with this group instead of using churches and other groups that were already established?

Black Power and Civil Rights Timeline

Please learn about Stokey Carmichael and the movement for "black power" that began diverging from Dr. King's teaching. What was one of the major militant groups called? This is a great timeline that explains many events in more detail.

King's Death

On April 4, 1968, Dr. King was shot by James Earl Ray while standing on his hotel balcony. News of King's death shocked the nation, and as the nation mourned, many turned to violence to express their outrage at the death of such a visionary leader. Over 100 cities exploded with riots and fires. The hardest-hit cities included Baltimore, Chicago, Kansas City, and Washington, D.C.
James Peck, in a hospital, Birmingham, Alabama, following attack on a "Freedom Riders" bus, 1961: Wikimedia Commons, Chapman, Joseph M., Library of Congress, public domainJames Peck, in a hospital, Birmingham, Alabama, following attack on a "Freedom Riders" bus, 1961: Wikimedia Commons, Chapman, Joseph M., Library of Congress, public domain
Kerner Commission

Learn about this group and what their findings about urban violence explained.

Shirley Chisholm

Find out why Shirley Chisholm holds a place as a pioneer in African American rights.

Jesse Jackson

This civil rights leader continued the work of the 50's and 60's by founding the Rainbow Coalition and running for President of the United States in 1984. Even though he did not gain the Democratic nomination, his prominence continues today as one of the voices helping us become closer to equality for all.

Affirmative Action and the Continuing Civil Rights Movement

To help equalize education and job opportunities, the government in the 1960's began to promote affirmative action. Affirmative action programs involve making special efforts to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination. However, the people that are hired or enrolled as a result of these programs have to meet the same requirements as all applicants. Many colleges and almost all companies that do business with the federal government adopted such programs. But in the late 1970's , some people began to criticize affirmative action programs as "reverse discrimination" that set minority hiring or enrollment quotas and deprived whites of opportunities. In the 1980's, Republican administrations eased affirmative action requirements for some government contractors. The fact of affirmative action is still to be decided.

Today, African Americans and whites interact in ways that could have only been imagined before the civil rights movement. In many respects, Dr. King's dream has been realized--yet, much remains to be done.

11.04 African American Civil Rights Movement (U.S. History)

African American Civil Rights

African-American rights have been an issue since the birth of the country. After the Civil War the issue became what rights, if any, they should have, and from the beginning it was a bigger issue in the south than in the north.

    Segregation
    Segregation becomes the first area that is addressed when it comes to African American Civil Rights.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson:
  • An 1890 Louisiana law was passed requireing that the railroads provide "equal but separate accommodatiosn for the white and colored races." This supreme court ruling stated that "separate but equal" did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. In response to this decision many states, especially in the South, began to pass "Jim Crow" laws. These laws were focused on separating the races. What happened was that the accommodations were never really equal. The facilities provided to the African Americans were never as nice as the white facilities.

  • Great Migration:
  • As many African Americans moved to cities, especially after World War I, these southerners were met with hostility in the north. Many African Americans saw northerners as their advocates, as they had fought for the slaves' freedom in the Civil War. Consequently, the African Americans' shabby treatment at the hands of The Northern whites was a shock.

  • Steps to Civil Rights:
    The question I have now is this, why now? Why did African Americans wait almost 100 years to fight for the freedoms that they received during the Civil War Reconstruction years?

    1. The Wars of the first half of the century. The first and second world wars created a shortage of white male workers, and in turn opened up employment opportunities for minority groups.

    2. Nearly 1,000,000 African Americans were soldiers in the armed forces during those wars. The armed forces ended many discriminatory policies. They returned from the war ready to fight again for the rights they felt they had earned.

    3. During the war President Roosevelt prohibited racial discrimination in the federal government. These actions helped to set the stage for the civil rights movement.

  • NAACP:
    This group led the campaign for desegregation. They decided that their legal strategy would be to focus on the inequality between whites and African Americans. The NAACP put their team under the direction of Thurgood Marshall and they won 29 out of the next 32 Supreme Court cases. Many of these cases were weakening the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling.
  • Brown v. Board of Education:
    In 1954 the father of an 8-year-old girl charged the board of education in Topeka, Kansas with violating her rights by denying her entrance to a white school near her home. The Browns (the families name) won the case, and the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schooling was unconstitutional and a violation of the 14th Amendment.

11.04 African American Civil Rights Movement Quiz 6 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 20 minutes

Quiz Instructions

Quiz 6 - African American Civil Rights Movement
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the two sections covering the African American Civil Rights Movement.

You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test, and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent, you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


11.05 Gains in civil rights made by the American Indian nations, Mexican Americans, and other ethnic groups (U.S. History)

Investigate the gains in civil rights made by the American Indian nations, Mexican Americans, and other ethnic groups in the last half of the twentieth century.

The Latino Presence Grows

Latinos, or Americans of Latin-American descent, are a large and diverse group. During the 1960's, the Latino population in the Untied States grew from 3 million to more than 9 million. As the presence of these people grew, so too did their demand for greater representation and better treatment. During the 1960's Latinos demanded not only equal opportunity, but also a respect for their culture and heritage.

Farm Workers Fight Back

Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta were two of the main leaders who fought back against unfair treatment and wages for farm workers. Please go to this site and find out what they did to protest unfair treatment. How did they unite people and lead them? What were their results?

La Raza Unida

Latinos also organized politically to challenge the two-party system. In the 1970's, Texan Jose Angel Gutierrez organized a political party for Latinos, La Raza Unida (meaning Mexican-Americans United.) This group ran Latino candidates in five states, winning races for mayor, school board, and city council. This was the first time an ethnic group formed their own successful political party.

Latinos in National Government

During the 1980's many Latinos made strides towards representation in national government. Latino governors were elected in New Mexico and Florida. In 1988, President Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos as secretary of education. In 1990, President Bush named Dr. Antonia Coello Novello to the post of surgeon general. Under President George W. Bush, Alberto Gonzales served as the Attorney General of the United States, and there are many Latinos at all other levels of government, including on the Supreme Court.

American Indian Movement

The American Indians are another group of varied cultures (many tribes and nations) that united more during this period to make gains towards common goals. Learn about the American Indian Movement that occurred during this period. What were they fighting for and what goals did they achieve?

Ben Nighthorse Campbell
Ben Nighthorse Campbell, US Senator from Colorado (1993-2005): Wikimedia Commons, US Senate, public domainBen Nighthorse Campbell, US Senator from Colorado (1993-2005): Wikimedia Commons, US Senate, public domain
Learn about the first American Indian that has been elected to the U.S. Senate in over 60 years. Why is it important to have people of different backgrounds in our Congress and Senate?

Indian Self-Determination and Education Act

American Indians made gains in their access to education through the Indian Education Act of 1972 and the Indian Self-Determination and Education Act of 1975. Find out what benefits this second act gave the American Indian people.

Asian-American Population

Asian Americans were the second-fastest growing minority in the United States during the 1980's. While Asian Americans have low crime rates, low school dropout rates, and low divorce rates, Asian American unemployment and poverty have been higher than the national figures.

11.06 Political, economic, and social equality of women (U.S. History)

Investigate the fight for political, economic, and social equality of women.

Betty Friedan

Please go to this link and found out how Betty Friedan made women aware of inequalities in society. How did her work become central to the women's movement and what was this book called?

Margaret Sanger

This link takes you to a biography of Margaret Sanger, a nurse who was jailed for violating laws against educating women about reproductive issues.

Feminism

Find out about feminism and the studies that are associated with furthering women's rights throughout the world. The term "feminism" is often given a negative connotation in today's society; however, this is simply the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men. Many of the common things that women do today are a result of the women's movement and feminist ideas being accepted into society.

National Organization for Women (NOW)

This organization was created to pursue women's goals and organize women who wanted societal change. The original NOW group pushed for the creation of child-care facilities that would enable mothers to pursue jobs and education. NOW also pressured the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce more vigorously the ban on gender discrimination in hiring. NOW's efforts prompted the EEOC to declare sex-segregated job ads as illegal and to issue guidelines to employers, stating that they could no longer refuse to hire women for traditionally male jobs. Find out about NOW today and what their goals continue to be for women in America.

Gloria Steinem
Gloria Steinem at news conference, Women's Action Alliance, 1972: Wikimedia Commons, Warren K. Leffler, public domainGloria Steinem at news conference, Women's Action Alliance, 1972: Wikimedia Commons, Warren K. Leffler, public domain
As the women's movement expanded, it also gained new leaders. Gloria Steinem entered the women's movement and put it in the national spotlight by leading a demonstration at the 1968 Miss America pageant in which they threw bras, girdles, wigs, and other "women's garbage" into a "Freedom Trash Can." Learn more about this leader and her publication which talked about current issues through a feminist perspective.

Legal gains of the Feminist Movement

In 1972, Congress passed a ban on gender discrimination in "any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance," as a result of part of the Higher Education Act. As a result, several all-male colleges opened their doors to women. That same year, Congress expanded the powers of the EEOC and gave working parents a tax break for child-care expenses.

Roe v. Wade

Learn about this case that is still very controversial and central to many politcial careers. What is the central controversy, and why would organizations like NOW be pleased with such a court decision?

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

The women's movement also pushed for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. Find out what this amendment was about, and whether it passed.

Phyllis Schlafly

As the feminists made gains towards their goal, there became a conservative backlash to the changes. Phyllis Schlafly became a main voice against the feminists. She boldly stated that feminists "hate men, marriage, and children" and were oppressed "only in their distorted minds." This debate over women's issues contined with the establishment of the "pro-family" movement called The New Right. Many of the debates that occurred between this group and the feminist community continue today. Learn more about Schlafly through this link.

Feminization of Poverty

Although the feminist movement has had many successes, women continue to earn less than men and have fewer opportunities for advancement (often because of family responsibilities). This is what has led to the "feminization of poverty." By 1992, 57.8 percent of the nation's women were part of the work force, and a growing percentage of women worked as professionals and managers. However, in that year women earned only about 75 cents for every dollar men earned. Female college graduates earned only slightly more than male high school graduates. Also, about 31 percent of female heads of households lived in poverty, and among African-American women the poverty rate was even higher.
To lessen this gap, women's groups pushed for a system of pay equity. Jobs would be rated on the basis of the amount of education they required, the amount of physical strength needed to perform the task, and the number of people that an employee supervised. Women also fought for improvements in the workplace that would enable them to have more flexibility and maternity leave.

11.06. Civil Rights for Women and Minorities Quiz 7 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Sonia Sotomayor, justice of the US Supreme Court: Wikimedia Commons, public domainSonia Sotomayor, justice of the US Supreme Court: Wikimedia Commons, public domainQuiz Instructions
Each quiz is worth 10 points and has a time limit of 30 minutes. Once you start the quiz you need to finish it because you only have one attempt. Because you only have one chance, please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

Quiz 7 - Civil Rights Movements for Women and Minorities
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the two sections on the civil rights movements for women and minorities.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


11.07 Civil Rights Movements of the 1960s (US History)

Investigate the fight for the political, economic, and social equality of women. Investigate the gains in civil rights made by the American Indian nations, Mexican Americans, and other ethnic groups in the last half of the twentieth century.

Civil Rights Movement of 1960's

Womens Rights:

  • The Feminine Mystique,
  • written by Betty Friedan, a woman married with children. She did a survey of her former classmates after they had been out of school 15 years and she found out that women were not happy. They had been told that because they were living this June Cleaver dream, they should be happy, but they weren't. So women began to push, like many other minorities, for their rights.

  • feminism:
  • The women's rights movement becomes known as feminism. It was a belief that women should have the same ecomonic, political and social equality as men. Women had gained the right to vote in 1920, but felt in the 1960s that they were still treated differently than men.

  • Presidential Commission on the Status of Women:
  • In 1950 only a third of women worked for wages, and in 1960 that number increased to 40%. Women were shut out of 'men's' jobs. Women were pushed into mostly clerical, domestic service, retail, social work, teaching and nursing jobs. All of these jobs available to women came with poor pay. JFK set up this commission to study the truth behind these statistics, it found that women were paid much less than men for the same job.

  • Women's Activism
  • Many women became involved in antiwar and civil rights movements. Just as in the workplace, women involved in these movements were given lesser roles and when they argued men brushed them aside.

  • NOW:
  • Women then began to work together for change and organizations like the Women's Liberation Movement, emerged. The National Organization for Women (NOW). The organization pushed for child-care facilities and it also pressured the EEOC to fight harder to ban gender discrimination in hiring. Within the first three years the organization grew to 175,000 members

  • Gloria Steinem:
  • A journalist, activist and supporter of women's liberation movement opened up on the Women's Movement. She also founded a group to encourage women to run for political office.

  • Roe v Wade:
  • The 1973 Supreme Court decision on abortion. It decided that women have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. This was a major issue feminist groups pushed, and is still an issue discussed in politics today.

  • Equal Rights Amendment
  • Passed in 1972 was ratified by 38 states. This amendment scared people, even women. Not all women were pro-women's liberation. Women like Phyllis Schlafly felt that that Equal Rights Amendment would lead to the end of many traditional values. The "pro-family" movement focused on social, cultural, and moral problems. It focused on promoting family-centered issues, and would play a role in the election of Ronald Reagan.

    Native American Rights:

    A group of people who are often viewed as one group. This group contains hundreds of distinct tribes and nations, with many of its groups refusing to assimilate, hanging on to their cultural heritage. They many be the poorest Americans and have the highest unemployment rate of the minority groups. The Eisenhower administration tried to help the Native Americans; however, its measures didn't respect the culture and the Native Americans were relocated from reservations and into mainstream life. The measure failed, and many remained poor with a sense of detachment from their people.

  • Declaration of Indian Purpose:
  • Written in 1961 by representatives from 61 Native groups in Chicago. The document focused on allowing Native Americans to "choose our own way of life." It also called for an end of the Eisenhower termination program, and the creation of new economic opportunities on their reservations.

  • American Indian Movement:
  • (AIM)A Native American group unsatisfied with the pace of reform. This group was often militant, though it did not begin that way. In 1972 they, with Russell Means at the help, organized a march to protest the government's broken treaties. The pushed for the abolition of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which they believed was corrupt. In a raid on its offices, they destroyed records and caused $2 million in damage. They later led a group to the town of Wounded Knee, they took hostages and after negotiations and a shootout with the FBI, two members of the group were dead. The government promised to re-examine treaty rights.

  • victories:
  • Congress passed the Indian Education Act in 1972 and the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. These gave the tribes more control over their affairs and their children's education. The Native Americans were able to regain some of their lost land. They also inspired other civil rights movements.

    Latino Rights:

    Like the Native Americans, Latinos are a very diverse group. During the 1960s the Latino population grew from 3 million to 9 million. They hail from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Central America, and South America. During the 1960s they lived in segregation and were faced with prejudice and discrimination, their unemployment rate was nearly 50% higher than that of whites.

  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee:
  • A group formed to help farm and migrant workers unionize. The most well known of the founders was Cesar Chavez. They insisted that California's large fruit and vegetable companies accept their union as the bargaining agent for the farm workers. These groups then boycotted companies that would not accept the union. Chavez, like Martin Luther King Jr., opposed the use of violence, instead he went on a three-week fast to push the companies to agree to the terms.

  • culture:
  • One of the areas in which many Latinos wanted to be recognized was in their culture. People began to rally behind Chavez and what they call the "brown power" movement. This movement led to the Bilingual Education Act in 1968, which provided funds for bilingual and cultural heritage programs for English language learners. Chicanos (Mexicanos) expressed pride in their ethnic heritage, and pushed for reforms in schools in Los Angeles.

  • politics:
  • Groups like the Mexican American Political Association began in the 1960s to help elect Latinos to the House of Representatives. Other groups tried to create independent Latino political movements like La Raza Unida which was able to win races in five states.

    11.07. Civil Rights Movements of the 1960s slideshow (US History)

    teacher-scored 25 points possible 90 minutes

    Create a slideshow presentation of one of the Civil Rights Movements from your reading. Use pictures and applicable text to describe their journey. Be brief and concise with your text while also being accurate and thorough.

    Your pictures may be made from any graphic media of your choice:

    • poster board and construction paper, paint or crayons, (scan or take a digital picture of the poster),
    • graphic computer software (like Linkway, Photostory, etc.), or
    • any other suitable medium for graphic illustration and page development (like Prezi).
    • Your pictures may be hand-drawn or pasted on from magazine pictures from a magazine in collage fashion, but must closely reflect the Civil Rights period.
    • Photos may be found at the Library of Congress, the Utah Pioneer Library, or other educational web sites.

    Relate the pictures around the theme the Civil Rights movements you have chosen (you may use pictures from another movement on the comparison slide): Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainCivil Rights March on Washington, 1963: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain

    1) African American 2) Asian American 3) Womens’ movement 4) Migrant Workers 5) Native American

    Create at least eight slides.  

    • an introduction,
    • one explaining the goals of the Movement,
    • three with photographs/graphics and explanations of the significance of each picture (should mention some of the major figures and events of the movement)
    • one how it compares to one other movement,
    • a conclusion (which should mention if their goals were achieved), and
    • one listing your sources.
    • Upload your slideshow in the Topic 3 area.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


    11.07.01 Civil Rights Movements of the 1960s slideshow (US History)

    Here are some options for creating your slideshow. You can also use Power Point or even just a word processing program.  You may also do it by hand and then send in a digital picture of your slideshow.  Feel free to use the tool you think is best.

    Remember that the file must be less than 5 MB in size and must be saved in a generic format such as .jpg, .pdf,  .mov, or .pptx.   If you post your slideshow somewhere on the Internet, then create a regular document to upload that contains the URL to your creation.

    11.08 Development of the counter culture from the anti-Vietnam movement (U.S. History)

    Trace the development of the counter culture from the anti-Vietnam movement.

    Why did so many young people oppose the war?

    The most common reason that people opposed American involvement in Vietnam was the belief that it was a civil war and that the U.S. military had no business there. Some said that the oppressive South Vietnamese regime was no better than the Communist regime it was fighting. Others argued that the United States could not police the entire globe and that war was draining American strength in other important parts of the world. Still others saw the war as simply unjust. Are any of these arguments heard today in regards to the conflicts in which we are involved?

    The Anti-War Movement

    During the Vietnam War, people of differing backgrounds began to organize themselves against the war. Please read this history of the anti-war movement and learn about Students for a Democratic Society and the Free Speech Movement. What did these people do to get their points of view heard?

    Kent State Massacre

    Violence erupted on campuses as students continued to protest the Vietnam War. This link provides information about what happened at Kent State University. Ten days after this event, National Guardsmen fired into a crowd of student protesters at Jackson State in which 9-12 students were wounded and 4 were killed.

    The Counterculture
    Hippies (early 1970's): Wikimedia Commons, Pireotis, public domainHippies (early 1970's): Wikimedia Commons, Pireotis, public domain
    Historian Theodore Roszak first used the term "counterculture" in the late 1960's to refer to these young people (most college aged) that were idealistic and opposed to the war. He believed that it was a culture so different than the mainstream "that it scarcely looks to many as a culture at all, but takes on the alarming appearance of a barbarian intrusion."

    Hippie Culture

    With their unofficial capital as Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco (mostly because California did not outlaw hallucinogenic drugs until 1966), the hippies began to make a major impact in America. Learn about the hippie generation and what made them so different from any generation that had gone before or has come since.

    11.09 Mass media as the voice of the counter culture (U.S. History)

    Assess the development of mass media as the voice of the counter culture.

    Part of the crowd on the first day of the Woodstock Festival, 1969: Wikimedia Commons, Derek Redmond and Paul Campbell, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedPart of the crowd on the first day of the Woodstock Festival, 1969: Wikimedia Commons, Derek Redmond and Paul Campbell, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

    Pop Art

    A new form of art called pop art (popular art) became a product of the counterculture. Find out about what these artists used as their inspiration and view some of their work in the provided link. Make sure to check out Andy Warhol's famous pieces.

    The Beatles

    The counterculture movement embraced rock n' roll. The music was an offshoot of African American rhythm and blues music that had swept the nation in the 1950's. The Beatles was the band that propelled rock into the mainstream and became a legend around the world. Learn about them through this site. Why did they appeal to so many people?

    Woodstock

    One example of rock n' roll's popularity occurred in August 1969 on a farm in upstate New York. More than 400,000 showed up for a free music festival called Woodstock Music and Art Fair. This festival represented, as one songwriter put it, "the '60's movement of peace, love and some higher cultural cause." For three days, the most popular bands and musicians performed, including Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joe Cocker, Joan Baez, the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane.

    11.10 Impact of drugs on the counter culture (U.S. History)

    Examine the impact of drugs on the counter culture and the United States.

    Drug Use in the Sixties

    As mentioned before, one of the major social changes in the counterculture of the Sixties was the substantial use of drugs. However, after a time the counterculture glamour began to fade, and as one disillusioned hippie stated, at first "we were together at the level of peace and love...[then] we fell apart over who would cook and wash dishes and pay bills." Many communes (experiments in communal living and/or farming) started during the 1960s or early 1970s, but few lasted more than a year or two.

    By 1970s many had fallen victim to the drugs they used, experiencing drug addiction and mental breakdowns. The rock singer Janis Joplin and the legendary guitarist Jimi Hendrix both died of drug overdoses in 1970.

    As the mystique of the 1960s began to fade, thousands of hippies lined up at government offices to collect welfare and food stamps--dependent on the very society they had once rejected. The majority, though, simply finished school, got jobs, got married and became good citizens, but perhaps retaining a sympathy for anti-war, environmental, civil rights, or drug-legalization movements.
    Annual estimates of the number of people in the USA aged 12 years and older who use hallucinogens for the first time that year, from 1967 to 2008: Wikimedia Commons, Zhunn, public domainAnnual estimates of the number of people in the USA aged 12 years and older who use hallucinogens for the first time that year, from 1967 to 2008: Wikimedia Commons, Zhunn, public domain
    War on Drugs

    As a conservative response to the widespread drug use, the War on Drugs began. Find out which president started the war against what he claimed was "public enemy number one."

    Drug Use in the 60's
    As mentioned before, one of the major social changes in the counterculture of the 60's was the substantial use of drugs. However, after a time the counterculture glamour began to fade and as one disillusioned hippie stated, at first "we were together at the level of peace and love...[then] we fell apart over who would cook and wash dishes and pay bills." By 1970's many had fallen victim to the drugs they used, experiencing drug addiction and mental breakdowns. The rock singer Janis Joplin and the legendary guitarist Jimi Hendrix both died of drug overdoses in 1970.
    As the mystique of the 1960's began to fade, thousands of hippies lined up at government offices to collect welfare and food stamps - dependent on the very society they had once rejected.

    War on Drugs
    As a conservative response to the widespread drug use, the War on Drugs began. Find out which president started the war against what he believed was "public enemy number one."

    Quiz 8 instructions
    After you have studied these sections on the counterculture movement and reviewed the vocabulary list, you are ready for Quiz 8.

    11.10 The Counterculture of the 1960's Quiz 8 (U. S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

    Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C., 1963: Wikimedia Commons, Rowland Scherman, NARA, public domainJoan Baez and Bob Dylan, Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C., 1963: Wikimedia Commons, Rowland Scherman, NARA, public domain
    Quiz Instructions
    This quiz is worth 10 points and has a time limit of 30 minutes. Once you start the quiz you need to finish it because you only have one attempt. Because you only have one chance, please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

    Quiz 8 - The Counterculture of the 1960's
    This quiz should be taken after you have studied the course materials for the counterculture of the 1960's.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


    12.00 4th Quarter: Contemporary America (U.S. History)

    Playing computer games: Wikimedia Commons, Love Krittaya, public domainPlaying computer games: Wikimedia Commons, Love Krittaya, public domain
    Contemporary America - Learning Goals

    Analyze the economy of the contemporary United States.

    Determine how politics have changed since the end of the Cold War.

    12.01 Contemporary America vocabulary to study before quizzes (U.S. History)

    Study the following terms and vocabulary words before you take each quiz:

    Quiz 9: Economy and communication changes vocabulary list
    The "green revolution" applied agricultural research to increase food supplies world-wide.: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, public domainThe "green revolution" applied agricultural research to increase food supplies world-wide.: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, public domain
    Gerald R. Ford, Jimmy Carter, Camp David Accords, human rights, inflation, service sector economy,
    Bill Gates, dot-com boom, World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,
    communications revolution, information superhighway, internet, telecommute,
    Telecommunications Act of 1996, 'green revolution,' genetic engineering

    Quiz 10: Contemporary America vocabulary list

    National Energy Act, Iran Hostage Crisis, entitlement benefits, New Right, Christian Coalition,
    reverse discrimination, conservative coalition, Moral Majority, Ronald Reagan, reaganomics,
    Strategic Defense Initiative, Sandra Day O'Connor, AIDS, Tianamen Square, Iran-Contra Scandal,
    Oliver North, Operation Desert Storm, George H. Bush, Rachel Carson, Bill Clinton, Earth Day,
    Three Mile Island, environmentalism, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), George W. Bush,
    September 11th, War on Terror

    12.02 The economy of the contemporary United States (U.S. History)

    Analyze the economy of the contemporary United States.

    President Bush discusses the economy at a small business, 2006: Wikimedia Commons, EOP, Eric Draper, public domainPresident Bush discusses the economy at a small business, 2006: Wikimedia Commons, EOP, Eric Draper, public domain

    Examine the effects of economics on modern society.

    Trace the development of computers and the Internet and their impact on American business and globalization.

    12.03 The effects of economics on modern society (U.S. History)

    Examine the effects of economics on modern society.

    President Carter (center) at at the G7 Economic Summit, 1978: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainPresident Carter (center) at at the G7 Economic Summit, 1978: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain

    Gerald R. Ford's Presidency

    Learn about Ford's term as the president through this site.

    Jimmy Carter's Presidency

    When Carter entered office, the nation was in the middle of a recession and energy crisis. While he tried different economic programs, the nation did not recover from its slump until after he had left office. He did play a major role in promoting human rights by cutting off aid to countries who were treating their citizens inhumanely. Please go to this site and make sure to check out the timeline of major events during his administration. He continues to be active in politics today, playing a role as an American diplomat. He has also been a leader in the Habitat for Humanity organization.

    Service Sector Economy

    The major shift in the economy during the 1990's was the change to a service sector economy, or the part of the economy that provides services to consumers. By 2000, nearly 80 percent of all Americans were teachers, medical professionals, lawyers, engineers, store clerks, waitstaff and other service workers. Low-paying jobs, such as sales and fast-food, grew fastest. These positions, often part-time or temporary, offered limited benefits. Many corporations, rather than invest in salaries and benefits for full-time staff, hired temporary workers, and begin to downsize, trimming payrolls to streamline operations and increase profits

    World Trade Organization

    In 1994, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT). Find out what the WTO does and who it effects.

    12.04 Computers and the Internet and their impact (U.S. History)

    Trace the development of computers and the Internet and their impact on American business and globalization.

    Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at a 2007 interview: Wikimedia Commons, Joi Ito, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericSteve Jobs and Bill Gates at a 2007 interview: Wikimedia Commons, Joi Ito, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic

    Bill Gates

    Learn about Bill Gates through this site and find out what he did to become one of the richest and most influential people in the world. What character qualities does he have?

    Apple history

    Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded Apple Computers, one of the first companies to make user-friendly personal computers widely available.

    Dot-Com Boom

    Learn about this explosion of dot-com industries and the fortunes that were made during this period.

    Communications Revolution

    The computer industry transformed the 1980's. Instead of giant mainframes and minicomputers, desktop workstations now ruled business. Home computers became widely available, and many thousands of people joined online subscription services that provided electronic mail and magazine-style information.
    The information superhighway became a network of people and institutions linking people across the nation and the world. Information became much more accessible, and with the explosive growth of the Internet, text, images, and sound were available from around the globe. This also meant that people had more options for working, such as flex-time and telecommuting.

    Telecommunications Act of 1996

    Learn about this piece of legislation through this link. What type of industries are regulated by this bill?

    Genetic Engineering

    Learn about the new technology of genetic engineering and the possibilities it presents for the future.

    12.04 Economy and Communications Changes Quiz 9 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

    These transgenic plums contain a gene that makes them highly resistant to plum pox virus: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, public domainThese transgenic plums contain a gene that makes them highly resistant to plum pox virus: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, public domain
    Quiz Instructions
    This quiz is worth 10 points and has a time limit of 30 minutes. Once you start the quiz you need to finish it because you only have one attempt. Because you only have one chance, please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

    Quiz 9 - Economy and Communications Changes
    This quiz should be taken after you have studied the sections relating to the economic and communication changes that America experienced from the 1970's to today.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


    12.05 Changes since the end of the Cold War (U.S. History)

    Examine the "Reagan Revolution," its goals, successes, and failures. Determine the impact of environmentalism on the United States. Analyze the impact of international terrorism on the United States.

    Deepwater Horizon oil rig on fire, 2010: Wikimedia Commons, USCG, public domainDeepwater Horizon oil rig on fire, 2010: Wikimedia Commons, USCG, public domainThe years since the end of the Cold War have seen many more changes for the United States. We have seen economic prosperity and the recent housing market crash and recession, coupled with a new energy crisis. We saw many years with no major military involvement, and then the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. We can't know exactly what new events the future will bring, but your generation and those to follow will surely continue to see challenges with issues such as the environment and energy, national security and immigration, and jobs and the economy.

    12.06 The Reagan Revolution (U.S. History)

    Examine the "Reagan Revolution," its goals, successes, and failures.

    Conservative Movement Builds Momentum

    Along with disapproval of the counterculture and New Left of the civil rights era, conservative backlash began to build over government functioning. By 1980, government spending on entitlement programs, programs that provide guaranteed benefits to particular groups, was nearly $300 billion annually. The costs together with the stories of fraudulently-obtained benefits caused resentment among many taxpayers.
    As the 1970's progressed, many right-winged grassroots groups emerged to voice their concern over social issues such as abortion, blocking the Equal Rights Amendment, and evading court-ordered busing. These movements became known as the New Right. Many also believed that affirmative action was becoming reverse discrimination by taking away a white applicant's places and putting a minority in the position. These groups eventually formed a conservative coalition which strengthened each group's position.

    Moral Majority

    Religion also began to play a role in the conservative movement, by organizing people to promote their moral values. Find out about the Moral Majority and what they were trying to promote.

    Ronald Reagan's Presidency

    Please go to this site to learn about Ronald Reagan and his two-term presidency. Make sure to check out his biography (which is in time-line form) to find out the major issues during his presidential career.

    Strategic Defense Initiative

    Find out about this proposed plan by President Reagan. What was it nicknamed and what was its purpose?

    Judicial Power Shifts to the Right

    One of the most important ways in which Reagan met his conservative goals was in the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court. During his presidency he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony M. Kennedy to fill vacant seats. President Bush later made the court more conservative with the appointment of David H. Souter (although Souter proved to be more moderate) and Clarence Thomas. Learn more about Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female justice, through the link.

    AIDS

    Please go to this site for a timeline of events tied to this disease. What were politicians' and public reactions to the rapid spread of AIDS?

    Tiananmen Square
    President Reagan and Sandra Day O'Connor, 1981: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainPresident Reagan and Sandra Day O'Connor, 1981: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
    Please go to this link to learn about Tiananmen Square and what happened to students who protested there. What were they protesting?

    Iran-Contra Scandal
    This was one of the major scandals of the Reagan administration. Learn about Oliver North and what outraged the American public about his actions.

    George H. Bush's Presidency
    Please read the following biography to learn about the presidency of George H. Bush.

    Operation Desert Storm
    Please learn about this recent American military action through the following link. Make sure to look at the timeline to understand the course of events.

    12.07 Impact of environmentalism (U.S. History)

    Determine the impact of environmentalism on the United States.

    National Energy Act

    President Carter was active in efforts to protect the environment. He presented Congress with more than 100 proposals on energy conservation and development, in hopes of lessening America's dependence on foreign oil. However, these proposals met strict opposition from automobile manufacturers and many representatives. Out of these confrontations came the National Energy Act, which placed a tax on gas-guzzling cars, removed price controls on oil and natural gas produced in the United States, and encouraged energy conservation.

    Rachel Carson

    Learn about this writer who led America into an age of environmentalism. What was her major work named in which she challenged the prevailing agricultural practices?

    Earth Day

    One visible result of the environmental movement is the celebration of Earth Day. Find out about this day and when it was first celebrated through this link.
    Metate Arch, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (declared a national monument by President Clinton): Wikimedia Commons, US govt image, public domainMetate Arch, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (declared a national monument by President Clinton): Wikimedia Commons, US govt image, public domain
    Three Mile Island

    Learn about this event and what environmental problem occurred here.

    Environmental Protection Agency

    This government agency was established as a result of environmental concerns and the difficulties of industry regulation. Find out about thier history through the following link.

    Bill Clinton's Presidency

    Please go to this site to learn about Bill Clinton's presidency. What did he do differently than his conservative predecessors?

    Continuing Environmentalism

    The environmental movement that blossomed in the 1970's became a struggle in the 1980's and 1990's to balance environmental concerns with jobs and progress. In the years since the first Earth Day, however, environmental issues have gained increasing attention and support.

    12.07. Impact of environmentalism (U.S. History)

    12.08 International terrorism (U.S. History)

    Analyze the impact of international terrorism on the United States.

    Flight 175 flying into World Trade Center south tower, September 11, 2001: WIkimedia Commons, US govt image, public domainFlight 175 flying into World Trade Center south tower, September 11, 2001: WIkimedia Commons, US govt image, public domainIran Hostage Crisis

    Find out about the Iran Hostage Crisis through the provided link. What triggered this event, and what was the result?

    George W. Bush

    Here is a link to our previous president's information.

    September 11th

    Go to this site to see a photo-history of the day that you probably remember, September 11th. How has it changed the way we live?

    War on Terror

    After the September 11th attacks, President Bush issued a "War on Terror" that is continuing today. This link goes to current information on the war and any progress that we are making. What makes it difficult to fight terrorism?

    12.09 Contemporary America Quiz 10 (U.S. History)

    Images from US involvement in the war in Afghanistan: Wikimedia Commons, Youngottoman, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 GenericImages from US involvement in the war in Afghanistan: Wikimedia Commons, Youngottoman, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 GenericQuiz Instructions
    Please make sure you review the material (course materials and vocabulary list) before starting. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

    12.09. Contemporary America Quiz 10 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 15 points possible 20 minutes

    Quiz 10 - Contemporary America
    This quiz should be taken after you have studied the sections covering Reagan, environmentalism, and terrorism in contemporary America.

    You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test, and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


    12.10 Written Essay Assignment (U.S. History)

    <strong>Analyze one of the three questions in a written essay.</strong>

    Assignment Notes

    Listed below are three essay questions. Select which one of the three questions you want to answer. Please answer the question thoughtfully in an original expository or argumentative essay that is 500-600 words (2-4 pages in length, double-spaced with 12 point font).

      Rubric
      • Introduction: 8 points
        ___/2 Thesis answers the question.
        ___/2 All parts of the question have been addressed.
        ___/1 Alludes to why. . . (this is different with each question.)
        ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 1)
        ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 2)
        ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 3)
      • Body Paragraph 1: 8 points
        ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
        ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
      • Body Paragraph 2: 8 points
        ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
        ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
      • Body Paragraph 3: 8 points
        ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
        ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
        ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
      • Conclusion: 4 points
        ___/2 Some kind of wrap-up of the material is evident without the use of the phrase, "we wouldn't be here today if. . ." or any variation of that phrase.
        ___/2 Thesis is re-stated is some form. (The thesis is the answer to the question.)
      • Sources: 3 points
        ___/1 First source is cited.
        ___/1 Second source is cited.
        ___/1 Third source is cited.
      • Format:
        ___/1 Essay is written in 2 pages and is double spaced.

      Writing Assignment Option 1
      What kind of divisions in society are we experiencing with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan today that are similar to those during Vietnam? Why was the nation so divided during this war?

      Writing Assignment Option 2
      Did 1950's television relfect reality for American families? Why or why not? Does television today reflect our society's reality?

      Writing Assignment Option 3
      What goals did the civil rights movements gain? What work still needs to be done?

      Be sure to look at the assignment rubric in the assignment section.

    12.10. Written Essay Assignment (U.S. History)

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 70 minutes

    To submit this assignment: 1. Create and save the assignment in a word processing document; 2. When you have finished, click [Edit Submission] in the assignment window, and copy and paste it into the text box; 3. Click [Save changes]

    Scoring rubric for this assignment is as follows:

    Introduction (4 pts); Conclusion (3 pts); Answered ALL of the question (5 pts); Sources as required (3 pts); and Argument Development (15 pts). Your argument should include three main points supported by specific facts and/or examples (5 points each). Additionally, points may be deducted for a lack of proofreading, e.g., grammar errors and poor sentence construction.

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


    12.11 US History.Q4.Reading Log

    This assignment is to be completed during your study of U.S. History from post-World War Two America to the present.

    12.11. US History.Q4.Reading Log

    teacher-scored 40 points possible 120 minutes

    As you progress through the lesson pages, answer the questions below on a separate reading log that you will turn in as your final assignment.  Make sure you write your answers as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class.
    A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police during an anti-Vietnam war demonstration, 1967.: Wikimedia Commons, Albert R. Simpson, public domainA female demonstrator offers a flower to military police during an anti-Vietnam war demonstration, 1967.: Wikimedia Commons, Albert R. Simpson, public domain
    Each question must be answered in your OWN words and in a complete paragraph of five sentences or more. This reading log will help you gage your understanding of events of this period and can be used as a study guide for the final.

    Keep in mind that your 5 sentences need to be meaningful, information-packed sentences.  Empty sentences such as "And that's why this was important" don't count.

    1. Why was Europe divided between East and West following World War Two and what caused the tension between the two regions?
    2. Why is the era between 1945 and 1990 referred to as the “Cold War" and what caused an increase in tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during this time?
    3. Explain the rationale behind the creation of the United Nations and tell why you think it has been a success or failure.
    4. What did Winston Churchill mean when he said “an iron curtain” had descended over Eastern Europe?
    5. What were the purposes of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact?
    6. How did the Communists led by Mao Zedong gain control of China?
    7. What caused the Korean War?
    8. Who was Joseph McCarthy and what was McCarthyism?  Why was it referred to as a “witch hunt?”
    9. What do the terms “HUAC,” “Hollywood Ten,” and “blacklisting” have to do with anti-communist fears in the 1950s?
    10. What does the term “arms race” have to with the Cold War?
    11. How did the “U-2 incident” lead to an increase in tensions in U.S.-Soviet relations?
    12. What was the “baby boom?” Explain the impact (positive and negative) baby boomers have had on America over the years.
    13. What led to the growth of suburbs in post-World War Two America?
    14. What influence did television have on Americans beginning in the 1950s? Has it changed between then and now?
    15. What brought about “rock ’n roll?” and how did rock ’n roll help propel African-American performers into mainstream America and aid the civil rights movement?
    16. What was “white flight” and how did it create problems for cities?
    17. How were Latinos and Native Americans treated in post-World War Two America?
    18. What was the “American Dream” of the 1950s and to what groups was it unavailable? Why?
    19. What was the cause of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 and how did it end?
    20. Why was the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education so significant?
    21. How did the Supreme Court strengthen the rights of people accused of a crime?
    22. Looking back to Quarter 3, how did World War Two help start the civil rights movement of the 1960s?
    23. Explain the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1956.
    24. How did the methods of protest and resistance used by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. differ from those advocated by other civil rights leaders?
    25. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?
    26. Discuss events of 1968 that made it such a pivotal year in the political, social, and cultural history of the United States.
    27. Who are Latinos and how did they seek equality and change in America in the 1960s and 1970s?
    28. How did the women’s movement emerge?
    29. What brought about the counterculture movement of the Sixties and what was the conservative backlash? 
    30. Explain the Native American righs movement.
    31. Why did the United States get involved in Vietnam and who were considered the “hawks” and “doves” in America during the Vietnam War?
    32. How did the Tet offensive affect America?
    33. Why were so many African-American leaders opposed to the Vietnam War?
    34. What brought about the environmentalist movement in America and which environmental issues still face Americans today?
    35. What ended the Cold War?
    36. What was Operation Desert Storm and was it necessary?
    37. Following a popular victory in Kuwait in 1991, why was President George H.W. Bush defeated just a year later in 1992?
    38. What was so controversial about the presidential election of 2000?
    39. How has immigration affected America in the latter half of the 20th century and into the 21st century?
    40. Discuss what YOU think will be the three biggest challenges America will face in the 21st century.

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


    12.12 Proctored Final Test (U.S. History)

    Final Exam

    This is your final step after you've reviewed the course material, taken all of the quizzes for the class, and completed all the other assignments.

    THE EXAM:

    • Comprehensive final exam for this quarter of U.S. History only. Please make sure before you begin that you have reviewed the material thoroughly.
    • There is an hour-and-a-half time limit and this test consists of objective questions and essays that will test your knowledge of the themes in this class. Because this is a final test and I want to see what you have learned in this course.
    • This test consists of over thirty questions which are a combination of multiple choice and true/false. These will be machine-graded automatically by the computer.
    • There are also four essay questions covering general themes from this quarter and will be submitted to me for grading. These essay questions are worth ten points apiece and will require a comprehensive answer of, at least, five sentences including an Introduction where you state your position (thesis statement) on the question. In your essay you will need to give specifics to support your position. If, for example, you are asked to explain the causes of World War Two, you would need to discuss (not simply list) causes like nationalism, militarism, economic instability, rise of totalitarian governments, appeasement, or discontent with the Treaty of Versailles. To earn all points you must have a minimum of three main points to support your position. Your score will also depend on how well you explain your three main points. Fewer than three main points or little or no support for your main points will result in a lower score. I will return your grade for the final after I have graded your essays.
    • You are NOT expected to memorize all you have learned, but you must be able to demonstrate mastery of the material. Consequently, you are allowed to use two (2) pages of handwritten notes - one-side only. You may NOT use any xeroxed copies or typed pages on the Final. You may NOT use the typed Reading Log assignment, although you are free to handwrite any of those items you submitted for the Reading Log assignment.
    • Set up an appointment to take the Proctored Test once you have fulfilled all of the requirements to do so and feel confident that you can pass.
    • You must pass the final test at 60 percent to earn credit in this class.