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U. S. History II, 3rd Quarter

00.0 Start Here - Introduction to this Class (U.S. History)

Course Description

Understanding United States history is essential for the continuation of our democratic society. This course helps students make connections between their world and the rich heritage of United States history. The course is designed as a survey of American history with an emphasis on post-Reconstruction American (1876- Present), but also includes a review of the earlier period.

Class Overview 

The US History II course is a full 1.0 credit but is broken into four quarter classes. You may enroll for one, two, three or all four quarters, BUT you can enroll in only one quarter at a time!

Each quarter of World Civilizations generates a .25 credit. If you do not turn in any work within the first week after you register, you may be dropped from this course.

You have up to 10 weeks to finish each quarter after you are enrolled. Please following the pacing recommendations for each assignment. Once you have completed a quarter (including all work and tests), you can request to be enrolled in the next quarter.

*****Course Requirements*****

To take this class, you MUST have:

1.  A computer with internet access.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

How to Begin the Class

If you are reading this description you have begun the class.  Be sure you have read through all the information in Module 1 before moving on to Module 2. Complete the following in order to unlock the course content, found in Module 3.

1. Read the Start Here information thoroughly. 

2. Click the link for the About Me assignment. Then click the "submit assignment" button and enter the required information.  When you are happy with your assignment, click the save button and it will submit the assignment to your instructor. Completing this and earning at least 3/5 points will unlock the course material(Module 3).

3. The course material found in Module 3 consists of the subject material and the corresponding assignments. You should work through the material by clicking each link, reading through the material and viewing the URLs. 

4. Completing assignments: The assignment instructions are found in the Lessons.  Some assignments need to be copied and pasted into a word document from astericks to astericks and then the questions answered. I suggest then saving the word document and be sure that your answers are bolded or italicized. 

5. Submitting assignments: To submit assignments go to the class homepage and click on the link with the A-page next to it that corresponds with the Lesson number where you found the assignment. You should then copy your saved assignment and paste it in the answer box.  Your answers should be bolded or italicized.  If you prefer you may upload the file with your answers. Then save your work and it will be submitted for grading.

6. Submitting Quizzes: The quiz link matches the lesson where the instructions for the quiz are found. Follow the instructions and answer the quiz questions. Then be sure to save the quiz for grading.  Quizzes may be re-taken.

7. You must follow the EHS HONOR CODE: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

8. You have ten weeks to complete the course.

Prerequisites:

There are no prerequisites for this course.

How Work is Graded:

Most assignments have a corresponding rubric and a minimum score requirement. A general rule to understanding the score received is to check the rubric to see where points were lost. Assignments may be resubmitted for more credit. Work should be checked for errors before it is submitted. All work is graded as in the order it is turned in and in a timely manner. 

Final Proctored Exam

The proctored exam must be monitored by a EHS proctor.  You must score 60% in order to pass the course. If you do not earn the required 60% inform your teacher immediately. After taking the test send your teacher a message stating your name and that you have completed the proctored exam for the quarter of the course in which you are enrolled.

You may use 2 pages, handwritten, single-sided notes during the exam.

There are 100 questions on the exam consisting of multiple choice, true false, and four essay questions. 

Final Grade

The grade for the course is based on nine or ten quizzes (worth 10 or 15 points each), video questions, written essay and the final exam (worth 100 points). The results for each quiz and a portion of the final exam will be available as soon they are completed. If you have questions or concerns about your score on any of the work for the course, please contact the teacher and we will decide how to proceed. Students must score at least 60% overall and 60% on the final exam in order to earn credit in this class. 

Grading Scale

A: 93-100%

A-: 90-92

B+:87-89

B: 83-86

B-: 80-82

C+: 77-79

C: 73-76

C-: 70-72

D+: 67-69

D: 63-66

D-: 60-62

 

00.00 *Student supplies for U.S. History II

Requirements: 

1.  A computer with internet access.  This course does not have a specific textbook, but uses many Internet links to help you learn about American history.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

00.00 About Me (US HistoryII)

teacher-scored 5 points possible 15 minutes

With an online class it is more challenging to get to know our students. We want you to be a person and not just a name on an email. Although this introduction will never take the place of being in class with you every day or two, it helps you tell your teacher what's important to you.

1.  Write a paragraph (at least 5 sentences) to your teacher introducing yourself. Tell about your interests, family, school goals, or anything else that describes you.  Include any information that you think it might be important for me to know.

2.  Following the paragraph, include your personal information in any format.  Include:

  • The school you attend
  • Your counselor's name and email address
  • What grade you are in
  • contact information for you (please include at least an email address, but a phone would be great)
  • contact information for your parent/guardian
  • A statement letting me know that you have viewed the short clip "How to review your assignments" found at the link below
  • A statement letting me know you understand the 10-week time limit and that you agree to abide by the EHS honor code:

"As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

Make sure you've carefully reviewed all information in the "Start Here" section--especially the Course Requirements--and let's get to work.

This is a graded assignment, so use proper sentence structure including capitalization, punctuation and spelling. For details on the grading of this assignment please refer to the rubric below. 

ABOUT ME Rubric

                                                Indicators Points
Prompt: Prompt is complete with mention of goals, interests and other introductory information. 1
Sentence: A well written assignment will include; complete sentences using correct grammar and punctuation. Must be at least 5 sentences in length.  1
Contact: Contact information for parent & student are included.  1
School: Current school and grade included as well as counselor's email address. 1
Acknowledge: Includes the student's acknowledgement of the EHS Honor Code, the 10-week time frame for the class, and viewing video clip. 1

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.01

00.01.01

00.01.01 Student Software Needs

 

Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.

$0.00

06.00 Great Depression and New Deal (U.S. History)

The 1920's were years of optimism in the United States. The Great War (what we now call World War I) was over, and many hoped there would never again be a war that major and devastating. Automobiles were becoming almost commonplace, and most people had jobs. Then came the stock market crash in 1929, followed by the Great Depression of the 1930's. Migrant mother - one of the most famous photos of the Great Depression era: Wikimedia Commons, Dorothea Lange, USFSA, public domainMigrant mother - one of the most famous photos of the Great Depression era: Wikimedia Commons, Dorothea Lange, USFSA, public domain 08.07 US History.Q3.Reading Log During your study of U.S. History from the start of the Great Depression through the end of World War Two. Select and answer any 25 of the questions or statements below. I suggest you write your answers as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class. Also be sure that each of your 25 answers are 5 sentences in length, the assignment is graded credit/no credit based on the 5 sentence criteria.

06.00 Great Depression and New Deal vocabulary to study for quizzes(U.S. History)

These are terms you should study and review before you take each quiz.
Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas, 1935: Wikimedia Commons, NOAA George E. Marsh Album, public domainDust storm approaching Stratford, Texas, 1935: Wikimedia Commons, NOAA George E. Marsh Album, public domain

Quiz 1: The Great Depression vocabulary list

The Dustbowl, overproduction, Black Tuesday, deflation, price-supports, McNary-Haugen
Bill, easy credit, Herbert Hoover, Alfred E. Smith, speculation, buying on margin,
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, Hoovervilles, shantytowns, soup kitchens, bread lines,
Dorothea Lange, Boulder Dam, Hoover Dam, Bonus Army, Walter W. Waters, Douglas MacArthur,
Dwight Eisenhower, Woody Guthrie, Marx Brothers, Orson Welles and "War of the Worlds",
"Gone With the Wind," 'escapism'

Quiz 2: New Deal vocabulary list

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), Eleanor Roosevelt, New Deal, Hundred Days, "Relief, Recovery and Reform",
deficit spending, John Maynard Keynes, Huey Long, Charles Coughlin, Dr. Frances Townsend,
Alphabet Agencies, AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act), CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps),
CCC workers on a soil conservation project, 1934: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainCCC workers on a soil conservation project, 1934: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
WPA (Works Progress Administration), NYA (National Youth Administration),
NLRB (National Labor Relations Board), SSA (Social Security Administration),
TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority), FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation),
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act,
Wagner Act, Mary McCleod Bethune, John Collier, Indian Reorganization Act, Francis Perkins,
Federal Writers Project, Richard Wright, John Steinbeck, "The Grapes of Wrath,"
Federal Art Project, Packing the Court, bank holiday

06.00. Great Depression and New Deal link (U.S. History)

Bookmark this site, and you can use it to find information for many of the assignments and quizzes throughout this class.  You'll find sections 48-52 helpful for this quater.

06.01 Investigate the causes of the Great Depression on the United States. (U.S. History)

US Farm prices, 1928-1935: Wikimedia Commons, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, public domainUS Farm prices, 1928-1935: Wikimedia Commons, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, public domain Causes of the Great Depression

 

While the 1920's seemed to be an era of decadence and prosperity, many consumers began slipping further and further into debt.  Many industries were also in trouble; Railroads (because of trucks, busses, and automobiles), textiles, and the steel industry. Mining thrived during WWI but wasn't needed as much after the war ended.  Coal mining was specifically effected by electricity, hydroelectric energy, fuel and natural gas.  Then, similar to what happened just a few years ago, the housing market dropped and caused a loss in jobs. Farmers also struggled with increased debt, and as they produced more than they could sell, the cycle continued to get worse.

Four major causes of the Depression were:

  • a crisis in the farm sector
  • the availability of easy credit
  • an unequal distribution of income
  • tariffs and war debt policies

McNary-Haugen farm legislation

Farmers were doing pretty well at the end of WWI and during the 1920s.  Prices of wheat and corn rose and farmers were doing really well.  After the war, demand for goods dropped and so the price dropped by 40%. The mentality was "if I am planting -x- amount of wheat or corn and am producing -x- and in turn making -x-, then if I plant more all of those, numbers will increase."  That doesn't work.  When they increased what they were producing, the demand for the product decreased, and they made even less.  Between 1919 and 1921 the income of the farmers of the United States dropped from $10 million to $4 million.  Farmers had to go into debt and then in turn couldn't pay their bills; this caused many rural banks to fail.

Senator Charles McNary and Congressman Gilbert Haugen proposed the McNary-Haugen Bill.  The goal of the bill was to create price supports for wheat, corn, cotton, and tobacco.  What this means is if they couldn't sell their products, the government would buy the surplus and guarantee the prices.  In February 1927 Coolidge vetoed the bill saying, "Farmers have nevery made money.  I don't believe we can do much about it." This was a huge blow to farmers, and they were dealt another in 1928 when he vetoed another batch of farm assistance legislation. Herbert Hoover also opposed the bill, but not long after his election as president, was coerced by congress to pass a bill to help the farming sector. In 1929 he signed a compromise bill which had similar goals, the Agricultural Credits and Marketing Act.  Needless to say there were many who celebrated after the signing of the bill, but it may have been too late.  Farmers along with many Americans bought fewer goods because of rising prices and stagnant wages.

Buying on Credit

​​Everyone saw the 1920s as this extremely prosperous time.  Instead it was really a sham.  People everywhere, but especially in the US were buying on credit and using installment programs.  It was easy to go into a store and see something you wanted and get it.  The store would put you on a payment plan, the consumer would pay so much a month in order to own the product.  It wasn't exactly like credit cards today but was very similar.  This credit was easy to obtain and people were encouraged to go into debt.  What ended up happening was that so many people had these monthly payments that they began to buy less because they spent the money they would have used to buy stuff on their payments.  In the long run buying on credit hurt the economy a lot more than it helped.  (This may sound very familiar as credit is a huge factor in our current economic problems.)

Income Distribution

Between 1920 and 1929 the distribution of income in the United States changed drastically in favor of the 1%.  The income of the wealthiest 1% rose 75% during these years.  The income of the other 99% only rose 9%.  This was a problem.  Because of inflation, goods were more expensive but people's income did not match the increase. 70% of families during the 20s made less than $2,500 per year.  Most people only bought one new outfit a year!  Most of us have a closet full of clothes we rarely wear; they probably had one or two outfits total.  Only half of the population had electricity; many of them did not because they couldn't afford it. 

Herbert Hoover's Presidency

1928- Herbert Hoover had been the Secretary of Commerce during the Coolidge administration, but Hoover was not really a politician.  He ran against Alfred Smith, who was a career politician and a 4 term governor of New York State. Hoover had the prosperity of the Coolidge administration going for him.  He also promised prosperity and an end to poverty.

This link goes to Herbert Hoover's archives and a biographical sketch of our 31st president. Please read about his election (and opponent during the election) and presidential years. Learn about how he dealt with the problems during his presidency.

Hoover Dam: Wikimedia Commons, Ansel Adams, NARA, public domainHoover Dam: Wikimedia Commons, Ansel Adams, NARA, public domain Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam)

Find out about one of Hoover's largest public works projects of his presidency. Where is this dam and what states does it serve?

Tariffs and War Debt

The Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act of 1930 was the highest protective tariff in US History. The purpose of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act was to protect American farmers from foreign competitors, but it had the opposite effect; it actually reduced the amount of goods coming to the US and kept other countries from earning money in the US and in turn buying US goods.  So instead of making US products more buy-able it made world trade fall by 40%.  The Great Depression was a world wide depression; it wasn't just the US.  But what the US didn't realize, and what we know better now, is that any tariffs passed hurt the economy--they don't help it.

Black Tuesday

Economists had been forecasting and warning about a failing or weak economy. Stocks had been a symbol of a good economy. In the 1920s the stocks had risen steadily topping at 381.  They called it a "bull market."  There was a lot of optimism and investor confidence in the market.  There was a lot of speculation which means people were buying a lot and ignoring the risks because they were making a quick profit. What happened is similar to what happens when farmers produce too many goods--it overdoes it and floods the market, in turn reducing the prices. People were also buying stocks on margin, paying a little money up front and then borrowing the rest.  Like many other things when there isn't really money backing, it lessens the actual value. 

Warnings in the peak in September caused people to panic; then the stocks dropped and people began to sell their stocks and pull out of the stock market. On October 24 the stocks plunged and investors dumped their stocks again.  By October 29, 16.4 million shares dropped and by mid-November $30 billion was lost; it was the same amount that was spent on WWI. 

This web site explains about the day the stock market crashed.

Terms of the Great Depression

This site has a list of the key terms (with definitions) of the Great Depression era. This is a great reference if you have questions throughout your studying. It also has links to summaries of the causes and course of the Great Depression. Find out about speculation, buying on a margin, and Hoovervilles.

06.01 Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States. (U.S. History)

06.02 Examine the social effects of the Great Depression. (U.S. History)

Examine the social effects of the Great Depression.

Life in the Great Depression

Families

  • Men struggled to support families. Families were a source of support but especially men felt the pressure of having to provide for them was high. Many couldn't find work and became discouraged and abandoned their families.  They became hoboes and wandered the country hopping the trains and looking for work.
  • Women did their best and tried to make as much out of what they can as possible. Women canned food and sewed clothes, many worked outside the home to bring in as much money as they could. The problem with working was that they would receive less money and were resented by men.  Some cities wouldn't hire women for a lot of jobs considered "pink collar," like teaching. 
  • Children suffered as well.  Rickets was on the rise, caused by malnutrition. Many cities cut budgets for child welfate.  Many worked in sweatshops and teens hopped trains like hoboes, this was very dangerous.
  • New York City had the highest relief benefits in the country at $2.39 per family a week. The school year was shortened and by 1936, 2,600 schools had closed. 

Cities

  • The large cities were hit hard by the depression.  People lost jobs, they were evicted and ended up living in shantytowns eventually known as Hoovervilles. The Hoovervilles were made of orange crates and piano boxes, anything they could get their hands on.
  • Life was hard on everybody but espeically so for minorities, there was a lot of racial violence and their pay was lower and they had high unemployment rates. 24 blacks were lynched by 1933.  The minority group targeted depended on the geographic area, Latinos were targeted in the south and many began to call for deportation. Hundreds of thousands of Latinos relocated to Mexico, some of whom were deported.

Rural Areas

  • Life was bad in the rural areas but at least they could grow their own food.  The problem is that many had farms they had bought on credit and now that crop prices were low they couldn't pay their mortgage.  Between 1929 and 1932 400,000 farms were forclosed  on and the farmers turned to tenant farming.

The Dust Bowl

  • The pre-war and wartime period of prosperity in the farming sector came to a crashing hault as a drought hit the midwest in the 1930s.  The plowing and overproduction had ruined the grasslands. The dust traveled as far as the east coast. The farmers left and headed west on Route 66, and they were discriminated against.  

Social Effects of the Great Depression

  • The country was demoralized, between 1928 and 1932 suicide rates rose 30%.  Admissions to mental institutions rose by three times.
  • Dreams of higher education ended and many people put off marriage and having children.
  • People stopped going to the Doctor.
  • The main focus of most was financial security and Americans began to distrust the government because it had not kept its promises.
  • Positive things came out of the depression as well.   People began to help others and became thrifty.

Presidential Response: Hoover's Philosophy

Many people felt that recession and depression were part of a normal business cycle.  They tru,sted in the system and felt that doing nothing was best.  Hoover agreed to an extent but believed that the government could play a limited role.

  • Hoover believed that the role the government could play in the mess was to encourage cooperation between groups.  Those groups would find a solution to the problem and work together to solve it.
  • "Rugged Individualism" was a major philosophy.  He believed that people should and were better off taking care of themselves. He opposed federal welfare or direct relief.  He said handouts would weaken "moral fiber."  But that charities and local organizations should help take care of people, not the government

Hoover Responds

  • Meetings:  After the stock market crashed he called meetings with big business, Labor Unions, and other organizations, he wanted them to work together for a solution.  He asked that they not cut wages or lay people off.  He asked labor not to strike.  He asked local organizations and charities to help the needy.  Results: They didn't work together and within a year the economy was shrinking.
  • Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam):  They began work on the huge hydroelectric project in 1929, it would provide flood control and electricity to southern California. Result: The results were good.  It was a huge project and not only benefited the residents of California, but provided many jobs.

Hoover Acts

  • Federal Farm Board: created a farm co-op to raise prices on agricultural goods.
  • National Credit Corporation: gave small banks to prevent the banks from forclosing
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932): Lowered mortgage rates and provided for refinancing for farms.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation: $2 billion was provided for emergency bank financing.  The purpose was to bail out life insurance, railroads and other big businesses.  The government loaned $805 million in the first 5 months. Hoover hoped that it would cause a trickle down effect but it was too late.

Bonus Army

  • The Patman Bill passed congress in 1932.  This bill would authorize the government to pay World War I veterans a bonus for the funds they weren't compensated for during their service. It was approved for payouts of $500 and life insurance but not until 1945.
  • The Army: The "Bonus Army" thought the $500 per soldier should be paid immediately, with Walter Waters at their head they marched on Washington. Hoover felt that they wer communists, he opposed the legislation but respected the right to assemble and provided food and supplies. The bill had passed Congress but was voted down in the Senate.  This is when the whole thing took a turn for the worst.  When Hoover asked the marchers to leave, 2,000 refused.  Under Hoovers direction 1,000 soldiers, under the direction of Douglas MacArthur, gassed the remaining marchers.  Those left included women, an 11 month old infant and an 8 year old child.  The results of the march were not good, 2 marchers were shot and many were either injured or partially blinded.  This did not look good on Hoovers reputation or his administration.

Hoover's Legacy

  • Hoover's name was put with everything during the depression with a bad connotation.  Shantytowns became Hoovervilles.  Newspapers became Hoover Blankets.  Up until this point he had considered himself and had been seen by others as a humanitarian.  Now he was a cold heartless leader, all of his later attempts at helping the economy were too late.

Lesson Notes: Now that you have studied about the social impact of the Great Depression, you will take quiz 1. You will have only one opportunity to take this quiz, the first in Quarter 3.

 

06.02. Examine the social effects of the Great Depression. (U.S. History)

These sites are designed to add to your knowledge about the Great Depression after you've read through the lesson.

Bank and Business Failures

The stock market crash signaled the beginning of the Great Depression--the period from 1929 to 1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed. Because of the crash, many people panicked and withdrew their money from banks. But because banks had been speculating (investing) deposits in the stock market, many banks could not give everyone their money back. In 1929, 600 banks closed. By 1933, 11,000 of the nation's 25,000 banks had failed. Businesses were also seriously affected during the Depression. Between 1929 and 1932, the gross national product--the nation's total output of goods and services--was cut nearly in half, from $104 billion to $59 billion. Approximately 90,000 business went bankrupt, which meant that many people lost their jobs.

Worldwide Depression The Great Depression did not only affect the United States. This crisis was worldwide, significantly affecting much of Europe. Find out more about the causes of this worldwide depression through this site. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act Find out about this law and what it did. Looking back, do we think that it helped or worsened economic conditions during the Depression? Society of the Great Depression This site has indexed magazines, films, pictures, cartoons, and much more from the 1930's. Learn about prominent films like Gone with the Wind and entertainers like the Marx Brothers (film) and Orson Welles (radio and film). Find out how life was during the Depression and what changed in America because of these hard economic times. Woody Guthrie Please find out about this folk singer who wrote many songs that we still sing today. How did he document the Great Depression life through his music? Farm life during the Depression

Even though farmers were feeling negative economic effects before the Great Depression hit the rest of the nation, things continued to get harder for them as the midwest became the Dust Bowl. Because of a severe drought, dust storms, and insect invasions, farming became harder than ever in the 1930's. Find out about farm life and how people survived through this site.

Dorothea Lange's photographs This site has a small collection of the work of the influential photographer, Dorothea Lange. Please look through these images to understand more about the conditions of the Great Depression. Unemployed men outside a depression soup kitchen in Chicago, 1931: Wikimedia Commons, USIA, public domainUnemployed men outside a depression soup kitchen in Chicago, 1931: Wikimedia Commons, USIA, public domain The Depression in the Cities

In cities across the country, people lost their jobs, were evicted from their homes and ended up in the streets. Some slept in parks or sewer pipes, wrapping themselves in newspapers to try and keep warm. Others built makeshift shacks out of scrap materials. Before long, numerous shantytowns (or "Hoovervilles")--little towns consisting of shacks--sprang up. One observer in Oklahoma City recalled, "Here were all these people living in old, rusted-out car bodies...There were people living in shacks made of orange crates. One family with a whole lot of kids were living in a piano box...People were living in whatever they could junk together." Every day many people dug through garbage cans or begged to eat. During the Depression, soup kitchens (places which offered free or low cost food) and bread lines (lines of people waiting to receive food given by charitable organizations) became a common sight in the cities. What would your family do if you had no income and there were no government programs to help you get food or shelter? People during the Depression had to make these kind of decisions and find ways to survive.

The Bonus Army Please go to this description to find out what the Bonus Army was and what they were demanding from the government. Quiz 1 instructions After you have reviewed the course materials and vocabulary list for the section on the Great Depression, you are ready to take Quiz 1. Let me know if you have any questions, and good luck on the quiz!

06.02. Examine the social effects of the Great Depression. Quiz 1 - Great Depression (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

You will be tested on your understanding of social effects of the Great Depression on America. This quiz is worth 10 points and you will only have one (1) opportunity to take this quiz, so come prepared.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.03 Explore the purposes and effectiveness of the New Deal. (U.S. History)

Franklin D. Roosevelt's Presidency

This site contains a brief description of FDR's presidency. Learn about his own personal handicap and his influential leadership during a difficult time in American history.

Deficit Spending

John Maynard Keynes, an influential British economist, promoted the idea of deficit spending to stimulate economic recovery. In his view, a country should spend its way out of a depression by putting money into the hands of consumers. This would make it possible for them to buy goods and services and thereby fuel economic growth. FDR used this principle in his New Deal. Please go to this link to find out a little more about deficit spending (it also shows how much debt and deficit the United States currently maintains).

Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal

This site has a great history of FDR and his plan to get America out of the Great Depression. Please look through this site to get an understanding for the era and how people were feeling. They even have clips from interviews with people who lived during this time. (There is also a game you can play to test your knowledge of federal agencies).

President Franklin Roosevelt during one of his "Fireside Chats" over the radio: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domainPresident Franklin Roosevelt during one of his "Fireside Chats" over the radio: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domain

The New Deal and the first Hundred Days

Please go to this site to get a quick overview of the New Deal and its efforts to put people back to work. Also, go to the link to learn about what was accomplished during the First Hundred Days that President Roosevelt was in office. What did he do first? Were the programs that he initiated in this period successful?

The New Deal

Please go through this site to find speeches, pictures, and narratives about the New Deal and its impact on America.

New Deal agencies

This site contains an alphabetical list of the agencies that were created under the New Deal (make sure to check out "S" and "F"). Please look through them and think about the changes that these programs made to American life. Do you recognize any of these agencies as still existing?

Banking Reforms

To restore public confidence in American banks, FDR made two agencies that are still maintaining people's financial safety today. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) help ensure that banks and the stock exchange are safe. Please go to this link to find out what the FDIC does.

Expanding utilities and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

The Second New Deal also included laws to promote rural electrification and to regulate public utilities. In 1935, only 12.6 percent of American farms had electricity. Roosevelt established under executive order the Rural Electrification Administration (REA), which financed and worked with electrical cooperatives to bring electricity to isolated areas. By 1945, 48 percent of America's farms and rural homes had electricity. That figure increased to 90 percent by 1949. One experiment with increasing access to electricity was the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Please read about this agency and the changes it made for people in that area through this link.

Wagner Act

Learn about the Wagner Act and who FDR was trying to protect with this legislation.

Social Security Act

This site contains a brief description of this act which changed the American way of life. It also has links to the original documents for this legislation. This act has three major safety mechanisms for Americans: an old-age insurance for retirees 65 or older and their spouses, unemployment compensation, and aid to families with dependent children and the disabled.

Federal Art Project

The Federal Art Project was a branch of the popular Works Project Administration (WPA). Through this project, many artists made works that represent the people and culture of the 1930s. Please go to this site and look at some of the work done through this federal program.

The Federal Writers' Project

This site is a search engine for the many works which were completed as a result of another FDR creation, the Federal Writers' Project. Famous writers that contributed through this project were Richard Wright, Zora Neal Hurston, and John Steinbeck (author of "The Grapes of Wrath").

Native Americans and the New Deal

FDR appointed John Collier as the commissioner of Indian Affairs. During his time in office, he helped to create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. This act moved away from the previous practice of trying to assimilate Native Americans to the majority's ways of living, to letting Native Americans maintain their unique heritages. This act helped restore some reservation lands to tribal ownership and gave tribes the ability to elect their own councils to govern the reservations. Please learn about more of the changes this act made through this link.

Mary McLeod Bethune

During the New Deal FDR appointed more than 100 African Americans to key positions in the government. Please learn about Mary McLeod Bethune and what her role was in the federal government.

Francis Perkins

FDR also changed the role of women and minorities in the federal government. One example of a prominent women appointment that he made was in Francis Perkins. Please read this short explanation of what she did in the FDR government.

Second Hundred Days

By 1935, the Roosevelt administration was seeking ways to build on the programs established during the Hundred Days. Although the economy had improved during FDR's first two years in office, the gains were not as great as he had expected. Unemployment remained high despite government work programs, and production still lagged behind the levels of the 1920s.
Despite these setbacks, the New Deal was widely popular with most Americans and President Roosevelt began a second burst of activity, often called the Second Hundred Days, to provide more extensive relief for both farmers and workers.
To help the farmers, FDR replaced the AAA (which was ended by the Supreme Court) with the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. This, along with a second AAA that took out the unconstitutional aspects that the Supreme Court disagreed with, paid farmers for practicing good soil conservation methods and producing only set amounts of goods.
Workers were helped with the Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administration. Please review the work of these two agencies in the links listed above.

Opposition to the New Deal

Louisiana Senator Huey Long, circa 1934: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainLouisiana Senator Huey Long, circa 1934: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domain

This site explains the opposition that FDR faced in implementing his "New Deal" for Americans. How did the Supreme Court respond to the new agencies of the period? Also, who were the three major opponents to the New Deal?

06.03. Explore the purposes and effectiveness of the New Deal. (U.S. History)

06.04 New Deal For The Dust Bowl Video

You will watch a video titled, "New Deal For the Dust Bowl," and learn about FDR's efforts to help farmers in the "Dust Bowl" area of the Great Plains. You will also learn how many tenent farmers packed up and moved West. They traveled on the "Mother Road," as John Steinbeck called Route 66, on their way to California seeking a better life. [Video assignment.]

teacher-scored 10 points possible 45 minutes

“New Deal for the Dust Bowl”

If you have trouble accessing the video, email me for help.

Video Questions

You will copy the information between the rows of asterisks below and paste the questions into a word processing program. You will bold your answers for each question, and once finished, you will copy and paste the same information into the assignment submission area.

**************************************************

Name:________________________________

1. How do people in this video describe the dust storms?

 

2. Name the five states that were affected the most.

 

3. What climate features (plural) of the Great Plains contributed to these dust storms?

 

4. When did large scale farming begin in the Great Plains area? What were some results?

 

5. Why did dry farming work well?

 

6. Why did dry farming turn out to be disastrous?

 

7. When did farmers on the Great Plains begin to feel the effects of the Stock Market Crash of 1929? What was their status before this?

 

8. What happened on April 14, 1935?

 

9. How many people were forced off their land?

 

10. What was the response of the Federal Government?

*************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.05 Investigate the shift of power from state to federal government. (U.S. History)

The states were originally given many of the powers that the federal government has now taken. The New Deal was one of the major steps in removing many of the responsibilities to the federal level that the states originally held. Please read this short article to find out how state power has been taken away over America's history. Do you think that it is a good or a bad change?

06.05. Investigate the shift of power from state to federal government. (U.S. History)

Power shift from the state to federal government

The New Deal expanded the power of the federal government, giving it--and particularly the president--a more active role in shaping the economy. It did this by infusing the nation's economy with millions of dollars, by creating federal jobs, by attempting to regulate supply and demand, and by increasing the government's active participation in settling labor and management disputes. And although the New Deal did not end the Great Depression, it did help reduce the suffering of thousands of men, women, and children by providing them with jobs, food, and money. It also gave people hope and helped them to regain their sense of dignity. By becoming much more active in every sphere of American life, the federal government took over many of the responsibilities that had traditionally been for state governments. The federal government began influencing state policy by giving grants to states for certain policy. At the end of the New Deal, the states would forever be weaker and dependent on the federal government for resources and support.

Did the founding fathers want the federal government to be this powerful?

 

Quiz 2 instructions After you have studied the course materials on the New Deal and reviewed the vocabulary terms, you are ready to take Quiz 2. Good luck!

06.05. Investigate the shift of power from state to federal government. Quiz 2 - (U.S. History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

Quiz 2 - New Deal
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the course materials and vocabulary list for the New Deal.

You will have 40 minutes to take this quiz and you must pass it at 80 percent or higher. If you score below 80 percent you will have to wait 24 hours before you can take this test again.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.00 Unit 7 - World War II (US History)

WWII in Europe: Battle of the Bulge, Belgium, January 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US Army photo, public domainWWII in Europe: Battle of the Bulge, Belgium, January 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US Army photo, public domain
Determine how America shifted from isolationism to intervention.

Examine the impact World War II had on the American home front.

Evaluate how the rules and weapons of war changed during World War II.
WWII in Africa: Second Battle of Alamein, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, UK government image, public domainWWII in Africa: Second Battle of Alamein, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, UK government image, public domainWWII in the Pacific: Japanese bomber attacks US carrier, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy image, public domainWWII in the Pacific: Japanese bomber attacks US carrier, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy image, public domain

07.01 World War II vocabulary to study for quizzes. (US History)

Study the following vocabulary and terms before you take each quiz:

Adolf Hitler, circa 1933: Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1990-048-29A / CC-BY-SAAdolf Hitler, circa 1933: Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1990-048-29A / CC-BY-SA

Quiz 3: Diplomacy during the Inter-war time period vocabulary list.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff, high tariffs, Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928, Latin American policies, Lend-Lease program,
Neutrality Acts of 1935-1937, German persecution of Jews, Occupation of manchuria in 1931, Spanish Civil War,
Benito Mussolini, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge,

Quiz 4: Causes of World War II vocabulary list.
Totalitarianism, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, fascism, Adolph Hitler,
Nazism, Spanish Civil War, communism, Francisco Franco, Neville Chamberlain,
Blitzkrieg, nonaggression pact, Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle,
isolationism, Neutrality Acts, Pearl Harbor, Atlantic Charter, Axis Powers,
Allies, Lend-Lease Act

Quiz 5: Major campaigns of the United States in the European and Pacific theaters vocabulary list.
Tuskegee Airmen, Congress of Racial Equality, James Farmer, Zoot Suit riots,
internment camps, Nisei, women during WW II, Rosie the Riveter,
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACs/WACs), Selective Service System,
production increases, A. Philip Randolph, Office of Price Administration,
War Production Board, rationing, minorities during WW II

Quiz 6: American mobilization for war and the home front.
Holocaust, "Final Solution", concentration camps, death marches, Auschwitz,
civilian targets, civilian bombing, cavalry, tanks, gas masks, kamikaze, Manhattan Project, atomic bomb,
Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Harry Truman, Robert Oppenheimer

Quiz 7: World War II Terms, people, battles vocabulary list.
Europen battles, merchant ships, largest land-sea-air operation in history, Battle of the Bulge,
Battle of Stalingrad, battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, Philippine Islands, island hopping, Pacific Theater of Operatons,
military leaders in the war in the Pacific (James Doolittle, Chester Nimitz, William Halsey, Douglas MacArthur),
Sudatenland, Tripartite Pact, Iwo Jima, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Atlantic Ocean, convoys and U-boats, D-Day,
Battle of the Bulge, V-E Day, Battle of Midway, island hopping, bombing of Japan,
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, George Patton, Douglas McArthur, atomic bombs

Quiz 8 Rules and Weapons Changes of WWII
Atomic bomb, radar, kamakazes, submarines, dive bombers, The Batann, Auschwitz, Banzai attacks, Luftwaffe,
Operation Barbarosa, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Panzer, island hopping, convoy system

07.02 Analyze the factors that led to militarism and fascist aggression in the world. (U.S. History)

Analyze the factors that led to militarism and fascist aggression in the world.

Lesson Notes:

Background
You may recall that "militarism," or the policy of building up a nation's armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and then using these forces as a tool of foreign policy, was one of the causes of WW One. Following The Great War came a bad peace. The Treaty of Versailles placed the burden squarely on Germany. The Allied Powers not only required Germany to take the blame for the war, but they also required Germany to pay "war reparations," or monetary payments to the victorious countries for the damages caused by the German invasion.

Economic Depression
The end of The Great War did not bring prosperity. Instead, in 1929 America experienced the Stock Market Crash that ushered in the Great Depression. As Europe's economy was tied to America's, economic depression also gripped Europe. Instead of prosperity, Europe saw the rise of powerful dictators driven by the belief in nationalism, or the love of one's country, and dreams of territorial expansion. Instead of securing peace, the Treaty of Versailles brought anger and resentment. The new democratic governments that emerged in Europe after the war struggled under the economic stagnation of a world-wide depression. Without a democratic tradition to fall back on, people turned to autocratic leaders who blamed others and promised a return to the greatness of the past.

Russian Revolution
In October 1917, the Communists led a revolution in Russia. They joined more moderate groups in overthrowing Czar Nicholas II. Following the end of the Great War, the Communists took power in Russia in a civil war. The leader who emerged was Joseph Stalin, who planned on making Russia a model communist state that other nations in Europe and around the world would follow. By 1939, Stalin had firmly established a totalitarian government that maintained complete control over its citizens.

Fascism in Italy
While Stalin was consolidating his power in Russia, Benito Mussolini established his own totalitarian regime in Italy where unemployment and inflation produced bitter strikes. Mussolini took advantage of this situation by appealing to Italians' wounded national pride. He played on the people's fears of economic collapse and of communism. By 1921, Mussolini established the Fascist Party. Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state (or nation) above that of the individual. In 1922, he was appointed head of the government and achieved control by crushing all opposition.

Nazism in Germany
In Germany, Adolph Hitler followed much the same path to power as Mussolini. In 1919, Hitler was a jobless ex-soldier who joined the National Socialist German Workers' Party, better known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was a powerful speaker and organizer and soon became the party's leader promising to bring Germany out of the Great Depression. Because of huge war debts, war reparations, and its dependence on American loans and investments, Germany's economy was in shambles. Nazism became the German brand of fascism, based on extreme nationalism. Hitler's grand scheme was to unite all German-speaking peoples into a racially pure, grand German empire.

Japan Takes Manchuria
Finally, halfway around the world in Japan, nationalist military leaders took control of the imperial government. These leaders shared in common with Hitler a belief in the need for more territory for a growing population. The militarists launched a surprise attack seizing control of the Chinese northern industrial province of Manchuria in 1931. Within months the Japanese had consolidated their control of a vast area about twice the size of Texas and rich in natural resources.

League of Nations Fails to Act
The League of Nations was established to prevent just such aggressive acts, but it did nothing. In Germany, Hitler took advantage of the situation and began a military build-up of his own in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Again, the League did nothing. Meanwhile, civil war broke out in Spain. Hitler and Mussolini supported the fascist military officers led by Francisco Franco with troops, weapons, tanks, and fighter aircraft. Meanwhile, western democracies declared their neutrality.

The stage was now set and this rise of dictators in Europe and Asia would lead to World War Two. These dictators of the 1930s and 1940s changed the course of history. This knowledge of the past makes leaders in today's world especially wary of aggressive actions of modern-day dictators.

07.02. Analyze the factors that led to militarism and fascist aggression in the world. (U.S. History)

Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement

Instead of securing a "just and secure peace," the Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment. Germans saw nothing fair in a treaty that blamed them for starting the war. Nor did they find security in a settlement that stripped them of their overseas colonies and border territories. These problems overwhelmed the Weimar Republic, the democratic government set up in Germany after World War I. Similarly, the Soviets resented the carving up of parts of Russia.
The peace settlement had not fulfilled President Wilson's hope of a world that was "safe for democracy." New democratic governments that emerged in Europe after the war floundered. Without a democratic tradition, people turned to authoritarian leaders to solved their economic and social problems. The new democracies collapsed, and dictators were able to seize power.

Joseph Stalin

Find out about the Soviet Union leader, Joseph Stalin, through this web site. Like many other dictators of this period, Stalin established a totalitarian government in Russia. In a totalitarian state, individuals have no rights, and the government suppresses all opposition.

Benito MussoliniMussolini and Hitler, 1937: Wikimedia Commons, Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije, public domainMussolini and Hitler, 1937: Wikimedia Commons, Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije, public domain

Benito Mussolini rose to power in Italy and established the Fascist Party. Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of the individuals. Please learn about Mussolini and his rise to power in the provided link.

Adolph Hitler

This link explains about who Adolph Hitler was and how he gained such total control of Germany. Nazism was the party that brought Hitler to power. Please use this site to learn about the principles the Nazi Party stood for and how such extreme messages became accepted in mainstream Germany.

Militarism in Japan

Although there originally was not one dictator in Japan as there were in Russia, Italy, and Germany, Japan's political structure was altered dramatically prior to WWII. Extreme militarists seeking to gain more living space for the Japanese people gained the Chinese province of Manchuria in a surprise attach in 1931. While the League of Nations denounced this move, the militarists gained popular support in Japan and gained control of the government.

Spanish Civil War

This link ennumerates that in 1936, the Spanish Civil War broke out in Spain as a conflict between the established Spanish Republic and military rebels led by General Francisco Franco. People all over the world took sides in this conflict (the U.S. had a volunteer battalion of 3,000 people who fought for the Spanish Republic) and in the end Spain became controlled by Franco. Spain became another totalitarian government in Europe as fascism continued to gain ground. Please go to this site and learn more.

Ten-year-old Polish girl finds her sister killed by German air raid, 1939: Wikimedia Commons, Julien Bryan, public domain (copyright expired)Ten-year-old Polish girl finds her sister killed by German air raid, 1939: Wikimedia Commons, Julien Bryan, public domain (copyright expired)

War in Europe

On November 5, 1937, Hitler met secretly with his top military advisers. He boldly declared that to grow and prosper Germany needed the land of its neighbors. This belief led to Hitler's first action of taking Austria unopposed on March 12, 1938. He then gained the Czechoslovakia region called the Sudetenland by promising French and British authorities (specifically British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain) that this region would be his "last territorial demand."
However, Hitler did not uphold this agreement (called the Munich Agreement), and on March 15, 1939, German troops invaded the remaining part of Czechoslovakia.
Germany continued their expansion by invading Poland after Stalin signed a nonagression pact which promised that Russia and Germany would not engage in conflict with one another.

Germany used a military strategy called the blitzkrieg, meaning lightning war, which used fast tanks and more powerful aircraft to quickly take their enemy by surprise.
Italy soon entered the war on the side of the Germans, with France and Britain entering and fighting against these aggressors. Germany invaded France and gained control of their country on June 22, 1940. The French general Charles de Gaulle fled to England and set up an exiled French government.

Polish cavalry, still using horses, could not hold off German tanks; 1939: Wikimedia Commons, Apoloniusz Zawilski, public domainPolish cavalry, still using horses, could not hold off German tanks; 1939: Wikimedia Commons, Apoloniusz Zawilski, public domain

Germans next began attacking Britain by sea and air in the summer of 1940. Even though British pilots protected their country, German troops continued to bomb English cities to try and disrupt production and break civilian morale. New British Prime Minister Winston Churchill praised British troops and sent British pilots to bomb German cities in return. The war in Europe continued to rage as Americans tried to stay neutral in the dangerous conflict.

07.03 Understand the focus of American diplomacy during the years between WW One and WW Two. (U.S. History)

<strong> Understand the focus of American diplomacy during the years between WW One and WW Two.</strong>

Lesson Notes:

Most Americans were alarmed by the international conflicts of the mid-1930s, but believed that the United States should not become involved. After all, this was still the generation that had gone "over there" to help the Allies win The Great War. Antiwar feeling was so strong that even the Girl Scouts changed the color of their uniforms from khaki to green to appear less militaristic.

American Diplomatic Actions

In 1928, the U.S. signed the Kellogg-Briand Pace. This was a treaty signed by 62 nations around the world and declared that war would not be used "as an instrument of national policy." Grand words, but the treat failed to include a plan detailing what would be done with any nation that broke their pledge. The Pact was, therefore, an agreement without any means of enforcement.

America's growing isolationism eventually had an impact on newly-elected President Roosevelt's foreign policy. When he first took office, FDR reached out to the world. FDR officially recognized The Soviet Union in 1933 and agreed to exchange ambassadors. He continued America's policy of nonintervention in Latin America and withdrew military forces stationed there. In 1934, Roosevelt pushed the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act through a Democratic-controlled Congress. This act lowered trad barriers by giving the president power to make trade agreement with other nations, including reducing tariffs by as much as 50 percent. In 1935, Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts that outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war or those engaged in civil wars.

Despite these efforts to remain neutral, Roosevelt found it increasingly difficult to remain neutral. When Japan attacked China in 1937, the president found a 'way' around the Neutrality Acts and continued sending arms and supplies to China. A few months later the president spoke about a "quarantine" by peace-loving nations to isolate aggressor nations in order to stop the spread of war. This idea brought a tidal wave of criticism and the president backed off. But he had changed the debate from total neutrality to guarded caution.

07.03.01

07.03.02 Diplomacy during the years between World War One and World War Two. Quiz 3 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

This quiz should be taken after you have studied the course materials and vocabulary list for the period between the two World Wars.

You have three attempts at this quiz and will need to wait 3 hours between each attempt. This will give you the opportunity to review the materials to improve your score.

You only need to take this test once but have the option of taking it again to improve your score. The system will take the average of your attempts.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.04 Attack on Pearl Harbor forces the United States out of isolationism (U.S. History)

07.1.2 Determine how the attack on Pearl Harbor forced the United States out of isolationism. (U.S. History)

American Isolationism

Most Americans were alarmed by the international conflicts of the mid-1930s but believed that the United States should not get involved. Americans' fears of getting involved in another major conflict like WWI led them to practice the policy of isolationism, which is defined as not becoming involved in economic or political entanglements with other countries.

To try and maintain distance from conflicts, Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts beginning in 1935. The first two laws outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war. The third act was passed in response to the fighting in Spain.

Roosevelt did not practice the popular isolationism policies. He sent arms and supplies to China during their conflict with Japan and spoke out to all peace-loving nations to "quarantine" or isolate those nations who were becoming aggressive. However, Roosevelt backed down due to sharp criticism that he was dragging the U.S. into another global conflict.

Lend-Lease Act

To try and stop the spread of the war, FDR encouraged Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act. Find out about this legislation. Do you think that it could keep America out of war?

Atlantic Charter

In the wake of the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) officially joining forces, FDR and Churchill met secretly on the battleship USS Augusta to discuss mutual war goals. The basis of this meeting became the common purpose of the Allies, or those who were fighting against the Axis Powers. Find out about this meeting and see the text of the charter that was written through this link.

Rescuing a survivor at Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy photo, public domainRescuing a survivor at Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy photo, public domain
Attack on Pearl Harbor

Please read this summary on the attack of Pearl Harbor and find out why this event was so crucial to both Japanese and Americans. How many people were lost and what effect did this event have on Americans entering the war?

"A day that will live in infamy.""Remember December 7th" US Government propaganda poster, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, United States Office of War Information, public domain"Remember December 7th" US Government propaganda poster, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, United States Office of War Information, public domain
This link provides access to FDR's radio broadcast following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Please listen to it and think about how Americans felt. Does it remind you of any events that have happened in America recently?

07.04. Attack on Pearl Harbor forces the United States out of isolationism (U.S. History)

Planes and hangars burning at Wheeler Field during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.: Wikimedia Commons, public domainPlanes and hangars burning at Wheeler Field during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.: Wikimedia Commons, public domain

07.05 Examine how the actions of the Axis nations led the United States into World War II.

Examine how the actions of the Axis nations led the United States into World War II.

Lesson Notes:

Overview

As was the case in WW I, the opposing nations were divided up into the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union). As in WW I, the United States adopted the policy of Isolationism. As Germany began to expand, first into Austria, then northern Czechoslovakia, and finally Poland, the western European nations were forced into war. Great Britain and France had promised to aid Czechoslovakia, but when Hitler invaded the northern part of Czechoslovakia, they did nothing. England and France also promised to support Poland and when Hitler invaded western Poland on September 1, 1939, the British and French governments declared war on Germany two days later. Now, only twenty years after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Europe was again at war.

Causes

What were the causes of this world war? Three causes are discussed here. First of all, the world-wide depression that began in America in October, 1929 impacted Europe and brought nationalistic dictators to power. A second reason was a poor peace. Recall that the Treaty of Versailles was a harsh peace that humiliated and punished Germany. These first two causes have been covered in earlier lessons. But the third cause, the need for more land for territorial expansion and raw materials, will be discussed.

Expansionism

Austria - Hitler's first target was Austria. Following WW I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken up into smaller countries. The majority of Austria's 6 million people were Germans who welcomed unification with fascist Germany. On March 12, 1938, German troops marched into Austria unopposed.

Czechoslovakia - Hitler next turned to Czechoslovakia. The mountainous region of Czechoslovakia had been German territory prior to the end of WW I but this area, called the Sudetenland by Germany, contained some 3 million German-speaking people. Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland to "protect" the "mistreated" Germans living there. Hitler also wanted all of Czechoslovakia to provide more living space for Germany as well as to control its important natural resources.

Early in the Czechoslovakian crisis, Great Britain and France promised to protect Czechoslovakia. Just when war seemed inevitable, Hitler invited the French and English leaders (Daladier and Chamberlain) to meet with him in the German city of Munich. In this meeting, Hitler declared that the annexation of the Sudetenland would be his "last territorial demand." In their eagerness to avoid war, they chose to believe him. So, on September 30, 1938 they signed the Munich Agreement, which turned the Sudetenland over to Germany without a single shot being fired. Upon his return to England, Chamberlain uttered his infamous statement, "I believe it is peace in our time." Others felt the Munich Agreement was a shameful policy of "appeasement," or giving up principles to pacify an aggressor. Of course, Hitler was not appeased. Six months later, German troops poured into what remained of Czechoslovakia.

Poland - Hitler now turned toward Germany's eastern neighbor, Poland. Like Czechoslovakia, Poland had a sizable German-speaking population. Again, Hitler charged that the Poles were mistreating the Germans living in Poland. Many Europeans felt that an attack on Poland might bring Germany into conflict with the Soviet Union, Poland's eastern neighbor and no friend of fascism. To the surprise of all, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a "nonaggression pact" promising to never attack each other. Unbeknownst to other nations, they had also signed a second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them. So, on September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Earlier, Great Britain and France had promised to provide military aid to Poland and two days after the German invasion of Poland, England and France declared war on Germany.

Tripartite Pact - In September of 1940, with Europe at war, Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact--promising to come to the defense of the others in case of attack. This meant that if the U.S. was to declare war on any on of the Axis powers, it would be faced with a two-ocean war with fighting in both the Atlantic and the Pacific.

Lend-Lease - FDR still tried to maintain American neutrality but this was becoming increasingly difficult. With the fall of Belgium, Holland, and France, England stood alone. Roosevelt began a Lend-Lease policy where the president would lend or lease arms and other military supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States." Although no friend of the communist Soviet Union, Roosevelt reasoned that "the enemy of my enemy is my friend," so he also began providing aid to Stalin.

Atlantic Charter - In August of 1941, Roosevelt met secretly with the England's new Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, and made a joint declaration of war aims, called the Atlantic Charter. Both countries pledged collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas. The Atlantic Charter became the basis of another document called "A Declaration of the United Nations." Suggested by FDR, the term United Nations suggested the common purpose of the Allies. This declaration was signed by 26 nations who did not support Axis aggression.

Japan's Aggression - Taking advantage of the French, Dutch, and English problems in Europe, Japan moved against their unprotected colonies in the Pacific. Japan had already seized control of Manchuria and had, in July 1937 launched the invasion of China. The Japanese reasoned that the British were too busy fighting Hitler to block Japanese expansion and the France and Holland had already been occupied. Only the U.S. and its Pacific islands (Hawaii, the Philippines, and Guam) remained in Japan's way. The United States, in response to the Japanese southward push in July 1941 into Indochina (now Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos), cut off trade with Japan. This included the one raw material Japan could not live without--oil to fuel its war machine. While conducting peace negotiations with the Americans, the Japanese ruling military junta, in November 1941, ordered its navy to prepare for a plan of attack on the United States.

07.05. Examine how the actions of the Axis nations led the United States into World War II.

World War II

These websites give an excellent summary of the causes and course of WWII. Please make sure to look at the section on the participants of the war. How did WWI relationships and alliances pull more participants into the conflict?
Axis powers (black), Western allies (blue), and Soviet allies (red), 1944: Wikimedia Commons, Roke, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedAxis powers (black), Western allies (blue), and Soviet allies (red), 1944: Wikimedia Commons, Roke, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Quiz 4 instructions
After you have studied the previous sections on WWII causes, Pearl Harbor and the alliance systems, you are ready to take Quiz 3. Please make sure to review the vocabulary list to make sure you covered all of the material for this section.

07.06 Events leading to World War II. (U.S. History)

There is no lesson associated with this assignment. It is the quiz over the materials you have studied regarding the events leading up to the beginning of World War II. Be sure to read the activity instructions and take Quiz 4 when you feel ready.

07.06. Causes of World War II. Quiz 4 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

Quiz 4 - Events leading to World War II
This quiz should be taken after you have reviewed the course materials and vocabulary list for the first three sections on World War II (world-wide factors leading to the war, Pearl Harbor, and the alliance system).

You will have 40 minutes to take this quiz.

You have three attempts at this quiz and will need to wait three hours between each attempt. This will give you the opportunity to review the materials to improve your score.

You only need to take this test once but have the option of taking it again to improve your score. The system will take the average of your attempts.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.07 Investigate the major campaigns of the United States during WW II in the European and Pacific Theaters. (U.S. History)

Investigate the major campaigns of the United States during WW II in the European and Pacific Theaters.

Lesson Notes:

World War II Summary

Once the bombing of Pearl Harbor took place, the United States quickly mobilized and began planning for war. FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met for three weeks, beginning on December 22, 1941, to plan the Allies' strategy. They decided to concentrate on the European battlefront and then move forces to the Pacific to fight the Japanese. As the war continued, there were many civilian and soldiers' lives that were lost. As you look through the following sites, please learn about the following prominent battles and terms of WWII:

European Theater of Operantions

Atlantic Ocean conflicts (German U-Boats and Allied convoy systems)
Battle of Stalingrad
D-Day
Battle of the Bulge
V-E Day

Pacific Theater of Operations

Battle of Midway
island hopping
Navajo codetalkers
kamikaze
Iwo Jima
Okinawa
bombing of Japan

07.07. Investigate the major campaigns of the United States in the European and Pacific theaters. (U.S. History)

British troops landing on the French beach on D-Day, June 6th, 1944: Wikimedia Commons, UK government image, public domainBritish troops landing on the French beach on D-Day, June 6th, 1944: Wikimedia Commons, UK government image, public domain World War II Timeline (refer to corresponding web link above) Please refer to this World War II timeline to understand the chronology of events during this conflict. Notice how many actions occurred before America World War II Timeline (refer to corresponding web link above) Here is another link to a WWII timeline. This one is much more detailed than the first listed timeline and has links to many additional topics. World War II Database (refer to corresponding web link above) This site offers many explanations of battles and the course of events during the war. To find battle information, pull down the "fact files" in the middle of the page.US air attack on Japanese cruisers at Battle of Midway, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, Griffith Baily Coale, US Navy combat artist, public domainUS air attack on Japanese cruisers at Battle of Midway, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, Griffith Baily Coale, US Navy combat artist, public domain

07.07. Investigate the major campaigns of the United States in the European and Pacific theaters. Quiz 5 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

United States involvement during the War

Americans stand in line for rationed sugar, circa 1943: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainAmericans stand in line for rationed sugar, circa 1943: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
Quiz 5 - American mobilization for war
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the sections on life in America during WWII (changes for minorities, women, and the American mobilization efforts).

You will have 40 minutes to take this quiz and you must pass it at 80 percent or higher. If you score below 80 percent you will have to wait 24 hours before you can take this test again.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.08 Examine the impact World War II had on the American home front by focusing on minorities, women, and America's mobilization for war. (U.S. History)

Examine the impact World War II had on the American home front by focusing on minorities, women, and America's mobilization for war.

The more women at work, the sooner we win! (US government poster, 1941-1945): Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainThe more women at work, the sooner we win! (US government poster, 1941-1945): Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain

Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America.

To learn about the impact of WW II on minorities in the United States, study the information in paragraph 07.09.

Examine the role women played in the wartime workforce.

To learn about the role American women played during WW II, study the information in paragraph 07.10.

Trace American mobilization for war.

To learn about the mobilization of America to fight WW II, study the information in paragraph 07.11.

07.09 Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America. (U.S. History)

Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America.

Lesson Notes:

Despite being relegated to second-class citizenship in a peacetime America, several minorities volunteered to fight for the promise of America. They did this even though they were segregated at home and discriminated against, even while bearing arms in defense of their country. African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Native Americans and other minorities' service in the war showed that they revered the freedoms of America just as much as the majority white population did.
African Americans served in the army and the army air corps, always in segregated units. Mexican Americans battled the enemy at home as well as the enemy overseas. Japanese Americans volunteered to fight for their country even though many of their families were interned in 'relocation camps' in the interior of the country, away from the Pacific coast. Finally, Native Americans from the Navajo tribe developed an unbreakable code using their native language to pass messages back and forth from the Front to the Rear.

These minorities in America felt a love for the freedoms contained in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. They were willing to fight for these freedoms even though, in many cases, these same freedoms were denied to them and their families. The service of minorities, both at home and in the field, helped change the attitudes of many white Americans toward men and women of various minorities. This, in turn, paved the way for the civil rights movements of the Fifties and Sixties. But that's another story!

07.09. Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America. (U.S. History)

Minority Heroes in Combat

Men of the 100th Battalion receive grenade instruction, 1943: Wikimedia Commons, US Army image, public domainMen of the 100th Battalion receive grenade instruction, 1943: Wikimedia Commons, US Army image, public domain Even though they were segregated during their service during WWII, many minorities were in the armed forces and distinguished themselves through bravery and dedicated service. African-Americans served with distinction in WW II. The Tuskegee Airmen flew fighter cover for Allied bomber missions from Romania to Berlin. One famous African-American unit was the 92nd infantry division, nicknamed the Buffaloes. They won 7 Legion of Merit awards, 65 Silver Stars, and 162 Bronze Stars for courage under fire. Mexican Americans were also segregated during the Second World War, but seventeen individuals received the Medal of Honor. Also, an all-Mexican-American unit, Company E of the 141st Regiment, became one of the most decorated of the war. Japanese Americans also served in WWII. They faced particular discrimination because we were fighting against Japan. However, the 100th battalion (also called the "Purple Heart Battalion") merged into the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and became the most decorated unit in U.S. history. Their motto "Go For Broke" summed their attitude in battle. Another minority group was the Navajo Americans. Learn about their contribution to the Allied victory in the Pacific with the development and use of their encoded native Navajo language to pass messages from the front lines to the commanders in the rear. The code these Native Americans developed was never broken by the Japanese.

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

During WWII thousands of African Americans left the South for the increased production jobs of the North and Midwest. While there were more opportunities for minorities than ever before, they still faced discrimination wherever they moved. To fight this discrimination and prejudice, James Farmer founded the Congress of Racial Equality. Find out about him and this organization through this link.

A. Philip Randolph

Despite the huge demands on American industry to produce the needed equipment during wartime, many industries would not hire African Americans. To protest such treatment A. Philip Randolph organized a march on Washington, D.C. of 100,000 people. Because the city could not support that large of a march at that time, President Roosevelt passed an executive order calling on all employers and labor unions "to provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries, without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin." Because of this gain, the march was cancelled and many new industries were opened to minorities. Find out more about this civil rights pioneer through this web site.

Zoot Suit Riots

Mexican Americans also faced discrimination and violence during the war. One such eruption occurred in Los Angeles and became known as the Zoot Suit Riots. Find out about these events through this web site.

Japanese Americans in California on their way to internment camps, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domainJapanese Americans in California on their way to internment camps, 1942: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domain Japanese Internment Camps

Because of America's fears of Japan after the Pearl Harbor attack, the War Department evacuated 110,000 Japanese Americans from their homes and put them in internment camps for the duration of the war. Because of prejudices and fears against people with Japanese ancestry, two thirds of the people put in the camps were Nisei (or Japanese people born in this country of parents who emigrated from Japan). These citizens of the United States suffered major losses by being forced to relocate. Many people lost their homes and businesses, and their lives were forever altered by these events. Camps were scattered across the West and a major one, Topaz, was located near Delta, Utah. Please look at the provided link for a brief description and pictures of the camps.

07.10 The role women played in the wartime workforce (U.S. History)

Examine the role women played in the wartime workforce.

Women during WWII

Please go to this site to find summaries about the role women played in the War, as well as many oral histories of women that participated in the wartime efforts of America.

Rosie the Riveter

Man and woman riveting team working on the cockpit of an Air Force plane: Wikimedia Commons, Alfred T. Palmer, public domainMan and woman riveting team working on the cockpit of an Air Force plane: Wikimedia Commons, Alfred T. Palmer, public domain
Rosie the Riveter was a fictional woman, drawn by Norman Rockwell, who represented the many women who took up jobs that had traditionally been seen as men's work to further the war effort. Because of women's contributions, America was able to produce the machinery and arms necessary to win the war. Find out more about these women through the following site.

Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)

Women not only experienced increased opportunities in the workforce, but WWII also opened the doors for their military service. The Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)was organized because of the many needs of the army at wartime. Find out what women did during the war. What did they continue to do in the military after the war ended?

Women in Army History

To find out more about the contributions of women during WWII, check out this website which offers many articles about women during the war.

07.10. The role women played in the wartime workforce (U.S. History)

07.11 American mobilization for war (U.S. History)

Trace American mobilization for war.

Selective Service

After Pearl Harbor, 5 million Americans volunteered to enter the military. However, despite these large numbers, many more soldiers were needed. Find out about the draft during WWII and what was significant about it compared to WWI.

Homelife during WWII1942 poster: actress Rita Hayworth donates her car bumpers to the war effort: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain1942 poster: actress Rita Hayworth donates her car bumpers to the war effort: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain

This site provides an example of what life was like for American civilians during WWII. It is talking about Milwaukee, but many comparisons could be made to how life was like around the nation.

Increasing Production during wartime

Not only did Americans sacrifice soldiers to combat during the war, but their way of life was altered dramatically during these years to increase production to the needed levels to gain victory. In early February 1942, the automobile industry shut down their plants for making cars for private use and converted their facilities to make tanks, airplanes, boats, and command cars. Other factories were also converting their facilities to make goods for the war effort. Industrialist Henry Kaiser built many ships and his workers became so efficient they built an entire battleship in only four days. This is only one example of the many production miracles that occurred during WWII so that the United States could be victorious.

Metal (needed to manufacture everything from ammunition to war planes and battle ships) was in short supply. People were asked to donate not only true "scrap" metal, but any non-essential metal (like car bumpers) to the war effort.

Office of Price Administration

Find out about the Office of Price Administration and what they did during the war.

War Production Board

Find out about this agency and their purpose during the war.

Rationing

Rationing was another major change for Americans on the
home front. If you went to buy groceries, you had to
present not only money, but also your ration card. Please
go to this link to find out what kind of items were
restricted and how it changed daily lives.

Close-up of stamps from a ration book (the image is an aircraft carrier), circa 1943: Wikimedia Commons, US government, public domainClose-up of stamps from a ration book (the image is an aircraft carrier), circa 1943: Wikimedia Commons, US government, public domain

07.11. American mobilization for war (U.S. History)

The Andrews Sisters singing in the 1942 film Private Buckaroo: Wikimedia Commons, Universal Pictures Company, public domainThe Andrews Sisters singing in the 1942 film Private Buckaroo: Wikimedia Commons, Universal Pictures Company, public domain

07.11. American mobilization for war. Quiz 6 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

THE FOUR FREEDOMS, by Norman Rockwell, World War II Posters, compiled 1942 - 1945: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainTHE FOUR FREEDOMS, by Norman Rockwell, World War II Posters, compiled 1942 - 1945: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainYou have three attempts at this quiz and will need to wait three hours between each attempt. This will give you the opportunity to review the materials to improve your score.

You only need to take this test once but have the option of taking it again to improve your score. The system will take the average of your attempts.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.12 World War II terms, people, battles (US History)

Understand the important concepts, battles and people of the US involvement in World War II.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

General Eisenhower once again served his country in WWII and made major headway against the Axis Powers in the North African front. Find out about his WWII campaigns under the section entitled the "Supreme Commander."

General Omar Bradley

First Iwo Jima Flag Raising. Small flag carried ashore by the 2d Battalion, 28th Marines is planted atop Mount Suribachi at 1020, 23 February 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Staff Sergeant Louis R. Lowery, public domainFirst Iwo Jima Flag Raising. Small flag carried ashore by the 2d Battalion, 28th Marines is planted atop Mount Suribachi at 1020, 23 February 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Staff Sergeant Louis R. Lowery, public domain
General Omar Bradley was another famous American general during WWII. Learn about his WWII service through the provided site.

General George S. Patton

General Patton led the Americans into France to free Paris. He announced this victory to his commander by sending the message, "Dear Ike: Today I spat in the Seine (a river in Paris)." Find out more about this famous general through this link.

General Douglas MacArthur

General MacArthur fought in the Pacific front and specifically, the Phillipines. His important contributions foreshadowed a time that he would return to battle in that area. Find out about this general through this site.

07.12 World War II terms, people, battles (US History)

07.12. World War II terms, people, battles. Quiz 7 (US History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

LCVP landing craft put troops ashore on &quot;Omaha&quot; Beach on &quot;D-Day&quot;, 6 June 1944: WIkimedia Commons, public domainLCVP landing craft put troops ashore on "Omaha" Beach on "D-Day", 6 June 1944: WIkimedia Commons, public domainThis quiz covers battles, generals, other people important in the war and terms from the unit on World War II.

You will have 40 minutes to take this quiz and and you must pass it at 80% or higher. You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 80%. You must wait 24 hours between attempts.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.13 How the rules and weapons of war changed during World War II (U.S. History)

Evaluate how the rules and weapons of war changed during World War II.

Cavalry in 1939, Battle of the Bzura: Wikimedia Commons, public domainCavalry in 1939, Battle of the Bzura: Wikimedia Commons, public domain

Lesson Notes:

Introduction

The experiences of World War One significantly influenced weapons and tactics development prior to and during World War Two. Both sides' experience with trench warfare emphasized the need to carry the war to the enemy rather than settle for the static lines of a defensive strategy used twenty years earlier. New developments in weapons technology supported a rapid deployment of forces to surround and overwhelm the enemy before he could counter attack. Weapons such as aircraft, tanks, aircraft carriers increased the mobility and lethality of offensive weapons which, in turn, supported an offensive strategy, i.e., an early version of Shock and Awe used by the U.S. in Operation Iraqi Freedom in this century.

Blitzkrieg

Hitler recognized the need for rapid movement and mobility of forces as demonstrated by the use of the blitzkrieg. Using stuka dive-bombers from the air and heavily armored tanks as lead elements in an attack, the German Army was able to overwhelm its opponents. Hitler first tested this strategy in the Spanish Civil War. Although ostensibly a war between two opposing Spanish factions for control of the government, rebel leader Francisco Franco was a fascist. Hitler supported Franco with weapons AND men all the while testing both his weapons and tactics.

After the end of World War One, most European nations did not significantly modernize their armed forces. Consequently, when Hitler invaded Poland, and later Russia, German forces were often using tanks to fight horse-drawn artillery and mounted cavalry. While England and France had more modern weapons, their strategy called for static defence. This is best illustrated by the Maginot Line, a series of large forts with long-range artillery spaced along the border between France and Germany. Although formidable against a frontal attack, they were useless if the Germans went around them through Belgium as they had done in WW I. Early in 1940, Hitler followed the same strategy with the invasion of France in WW II.

Aerial Bombardment

Another change in how war was fought using this new technology was the German effort at defeating England using aerial bombardment. In the summer of 1940, the Germans began to assemble and invasion fleet along the French coast. Because Hitler' navy could not compete with the British navy, Germany also launched an air war at the same time. The Luftwaffe, or German Air Force, began making bombing runs over Britain. Its goal was to gain total air superiority by destroying Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF). Every night for two solid months, bombers pounded London. In attacking civilian targets, Hitler was determined to destroy Great Britain's capacity to wage war and also its will to fight. Called the Battle of Britain, it raged on through the summer and fall. Night after night, German planes pounded British targets. At first the Luftwaffe concentrated on airfields and aircraft. Next it targeted cities. The RAF fought back brilliantly. With the help of a new technological device called radar, British pilots accurately plotted the flight paths of German bombers, even in darkness. When the Germans neared their targets, the RAF was waiting for them. One day in September, the RAF shot down over 185 German planes while losing only 26 aircraft. Six weeks later, Hitler called off the invasion of Britain indefinitely. Nevertheless, aerial bombardment of heavy industry in civilian centers had begun. Once the Allies gained a foothold on the Continent (D-Day), they too began bombing German production facilities most of which were located in or near civilian centers.

Aircraft Carriers

Aircraft carriers, developed by the Americans and copied by the Japanese, were able to project power far beyond land. They were a perfect technological solution to the vastness of the Pacific Ocean. Both American and Japanese navies were able to reach out to attack island bases and naval fleets hundreds of miles from their nearest land base. It was from the decks of six Japanese carriers that the Japanese launched over 180 planes in their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and other military facilities on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. Although over 2,000 were killed in this attack and many naval vessels and aircraft were damaged or destroyed, the American aircraft carriers were at sea during the attack. Their survival allowed the U.S. to project power into the Pacific to first slow the Japanese rate of advance and then reverse it. As the U.S. began its advance across the Pacific, its momentum began to increase as the Japanese lost carrier after carrier along with their complement of planes and, more importantly, pilots. In a desperate attempt to slow the Ameerican advance, the Japanese began to send aircraft loaded with explosives against U.S. naval vessels in September 11-type suicide attacks. These kamikaze, or "divine wind" were a last gasp attempt to stop the American advance toward the Japanese main islands.

WWII planes and tanks, circa 1944: Wikimedia Commons, cc-by-sa-3.0 GermanyWWII planes and tanks, circa 1944: Wikimedia Commons, cc-by-sa-3.0 Germany

07.13 How the rules and weapons of war changed during World War II. Quiz 8 (U.S. History)

computer-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

Hiroshima Station in October 1945, showing the damage caused by the atomic bomb: Wikimedia Commons, public domainHiroshima Station in October 1945, showing the damage caused by the atomic bomb: Wikimedia Commons, public domainQuiz 8 - Rules and Weapons Changes of WWII
This quiz should be taken after you have studied the course materials and vocabulary list for the changes that happened to the rules and weapons of war during WWII. Mushroom cloud after the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Enola Gay Tail Gunner S/Sgt. George R. (Bob) Caron, public domainMushroom cloud after the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Enola Gay Tail Gunner S/Sgt. George R. (Bob) Caron, public domain

You have three attempts at this quiz and will need to wait three hours between each attempt. This will give you the opportunity to review the materials to improve your score.

You only need to take this test once but have the option of taking it again to improve your score. The system will take the average of your attempts.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


07.14 Assess how the war expanded beyond military targets to civilian centers. (U.S. History)

Assess how the war expanded beyond military targets to civilian centers.

Lesson Notes:

Eastern Europe

The Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe were considered by the Nazis as non-Aryan and thus, inferior. Consequently, there was little or no consideration given to sparing civilians as the Nazis moved into Czechoslovakia, through Poland and later into Russia. This indifference to these nationalities and ethnic groups left a deep hatred by Eastern Europeans toward all Germans. Thus, when the Soviets began their advance across Poland and into eastern Germany, they were enthusiastic about targeting German civilian centers. Of course, military targets were given priority, but there was little or no consideration given to collateral damage to civilians on both sides along the way.

Western Europe

Likewise, indiscriminate aerial bombing of London and other British cities in 1940 (Battle of Britain) left the British more concerned with the military value of targets in/near German cities than the danger to civilians. Aerial bombardment was highly inaccurate so Allied bombers flew in large groups and dropped their bombs when the group leader dropped his. This became known as "carpet bombing" for obvious reasons. If the lead aircraft was off-target or the target was obscured by smoke or haze, the entire group's bombs would be off-target. This was considered an acceptable risk by Bomber Command.

Aerial Bombardment

Another change in how war was fought using this new technology was the German effort at defeating England using aerial bombardment. In the summer of 1940, the Germans began to assemble an invasion fleet along the French coast. Because Hitler's navy could not compete with the British navy, Germany also launched an air war at the same time. The Luftwaffe, or German Air Force, began making bombing runs over Britain. Its goal was to gain total air superiority by destroying Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF). Every night for two solid months, bombers pounded London. In attacking civilian targets, Hitler was determined to destroy Great Britain's capacity to wage war and also its will to fight. Called the Battle of Britain, it raged on through the summer and fall. Night after night, German planes pounded British targets. At first the Luftwaffe concentrated on airfields and aircraft. Next it targeted cities. The RAF fought back brilliantly. With the help of a new technological device called radar, British pilots accurately plotted the flight paths of German bombers, even in darkness. When the Germans neared their targets, the RAF was waiting for them. One day in September, the RAF shot down over 185 German planes while losing only 26 aircraft. Six weeks later, Hitler called off the invasion of Britain indefinitely. Nevertheless, aerial bombardment of heavy industry in civilian centers had begun. Once the Allies gained a foothold on the Continent (D-Day), they too began bombing German production facilities most of which were located in or near civilian centers.

Fire Bombing

The fire bombing of Dresden in Europe and Tokyo in Japan illustrates the change in warfare against civilian targets. Jellied gasoline (today called "napalm") was dropped against large cities to insure targets were destroyed. Nevertheless, the collateral damage to civilians in these populated areas was enormous. Although not widely known, there were actually more casualties from fire bombing in Japan than from the two atomic bombs that were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Holocaust

Yet another change in the conduct of war was the Holocaust--the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews. Although Jews were not the only victims of the Holocaust, they were the center of the Nazis' efforts at 'purifying' Germany for the Aryan race. Looking for a scapegoat to blame for all their failures, Hitler found that a majority of Germans were willing to support his belief that Jews were responsible for both Germany's economic problems and Germany's defeat in WW I. At first, German Jews were stripped of their citizenship. To make it easier to identify Jews, they were forced to wear a yellow Star of David (six-pointed star) on their clothing and to paint it on their shops. The fear of worse things to come created a flood of refugees leaving Germany. The problem was that the Jews leaving Germany had trouble finding nations that would accept them. By 1939 only about a quarter of a million Jews remained in Germany, but other nations Hitler occupied had millions more.

Obsessed with a desire to rid Europe of it Jewish population, Hitler established concentration camps where Jews (and other so-called "undesirables") were sent to separate them from Hitler's "master race." At these camps, detainees were under-fed and over-worked. Then, Hitler imposed what he called the "Final Solution"--a policy of genocide (the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire group of people). Hitler's plan rested on the belief that Aryans were superior people and that the strength and purity of this "master race" must be preserved. The Nazis condemned to slavery and death not only the Jews but other groups that they viewed as inferior or unworthy. These groups included Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and even Germans whom they found unfit to be part of the "master race," such as homosexuals, the mentally ill, the physically disabled and the incurably ill. The Final Solution reached its final stage in early 1942 when Hitler's top officials agreed to begin a new phase of mass murder of the Jews. To mass slaughter and starvation, they added a third method--murder by poison gas.

An estimated six million Jews died in the death camps and in the Nazi massacres. Astonishingly, some even survived the death camps. When one survivor, Elie Wiesel, entered Auschwitz in 1944 at the age of 14, he thought the sun had set forever. Wiesel writes, in his famous book, "Night": "Never shall I forget that night, the first night in the camp, which has turned my life into one long night. . . . Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never."

07.14. Assess how the war expanded beyond military targets to civilian centers. (U.S. History)

Bodies of victims piled behind the crematorium in Buchenwald, Germany concentration camp, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domainBodies of victims piled behind the crematorium in Buchenwald, Germany concentration camp, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US government image, public domain
The Holocaust

The Holocaust was the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews. Other groups that were targeted were gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, the mentally handicapped, and homosexuals, blaming all of Germany's problems on these groups of people. This policy was known as genocide, or the deliberate killing of an entire population. Hitler's Nazi government was based on hate and persecution. They attempted to eliminate all people who were different than what they believed were pure Germans ("Aryans"). Please go to this website and learn about the Holocaust. Make sure to read the introduction and think about how this changed even the survivors' lives forever. How we can be sure that something this horrific never happens again in human history?

Life after the Holocaust

Even for those who survived the horrible atrocities of the Holocaust, their lives were forever altered by what they witnessed. Elie Wiesel, a survivor of Auschwitz who entered the camp at 14 years of age, wrote,

"Never shall I forget that night, the first night in the camp, which has turned my life into one long night...Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never."

Civilian Casualties

World War II, unlike any previous war in history, reached many civilians. Instead of battles solely being fought on the battlefields, civilians in war zones became caught in the middle of horrific fighting. Please go to this link to look at the statistics of soldier and civilian deaths from WWII.

Bombing of Dresden

This link explores the different points of view about bombing civilian centers (in this case a city) to gain war advances. During WWII many civilian centers were targeted on both sides in attempts to decrease morale and hurt production. Do you think that bombing civilians is justified? Please go to this link to read about different opinions on this matter.

Bomb damage in London during the Blitz (German bombing campaign), 1940: Wikimedia Commons, City of Westminster Archives, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedBomb damage in London during the Blitz (German bombing campaign), 1940: Wikimedia Commons, City of Westminster Archives, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Victim of the Allied fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Deutsche Fotothek‎, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 GermanyVictim of the Allied fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany, 1945: Wikimedia Commons, Deutsche Fotothek‎, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany

07.15 Evaluate how technology changed the weapons used in World War II and introduced the atomic age. (U.S. History)

Evaluate how technology changed the weapons used in World War II and introduced the atomic age

Lesson Notes:

A-bomb

The final technological advance that changed the world was the development and use of the atomic bomb. Developed in total secrecy, the A-bomb harnessed the energy of the atom and released it in a sudden violent blast. Tested in the New Mexico desert in July 1945, President Harry Truman (who had become president following the death of FDR that spring) felt compelled to use it in an effort to force the Japanese high command to surrender. The Japanese refused to capitulate vowing to fight from city-to-city and from street-to-street. Faced with estimated American losses of between one and two million men, Truman chose to use the atomic bomb to save American lives and to bring a rapid end to the war. Dropped from a B-29 bomber on August 6, 1945 on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, the world entered the atomic age. Incredibly, the Japanese were still unwilling to surrender, so the Americans dropped a second A-bomb on August 9th on the city of Nagasaki. While both cities contained military installations, civilian losses--both immediate and long term--were like nothing in the history of mankind.

07.15. Evaluate how technology changed the weapons used in World War II and introduced the atomic age. (U.S. History)

USS Columbia (right) attacked by kamikaze (left), 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy image, public domainUSS Columbia (right) attacked by kamikaze (left), 1945: Wikimedia Commons, US Navy image, public domain Kamikaze attacks

Find out about this type of attack that the Japanese used in WWII. Does this resemble any tactics now being used in international warfare?

The Manhattan Project Timeline

Please refer to this site for a timeline and information links about the Manhattan Project.

The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Please go to this site to learn about the bombing of the two Japanese cities Hirshima and Nagasaki. What do you think about America using the atomic bomb? Was it justified, and if so, should we ever use one again?

Aerial view of Nagasake before (top) and after 1945 atomic bomb: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainAerial view of Nagasake before (top) and after 1945 atomic bomb: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain Quiz 6 instructions Once you have studied the two sections on how the rules and weapons changed during WWII, you are ready to take Quiz 6. Please review the vocabulary list to make sure you covered the material completely.

08.00 - United States Domestic and International Position in the Cold War Era(U.S. History)

Soviet nuclear missile in parade, circa 1960: Wikimedia Commons, CIA photo, public domainSoviet nuclear missile in parade, circa 1960: Wikimedia Commons, CIA photo, public domainInvestigate how the postwar goals and actions of the United States and the Soviet Union were manifested throughout the world.

Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations.

Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy.

Examine the world's reaction to nuclear weapons.

08.01 - Cold War vocabulary to study. (U.S. History)

Berliners watching a C-54 carrying food and supplies land during the Berlin airlift, 1948.: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domainBerliners watching a C-54 carrying food and supplies land during the Berlin airlift, 1948.: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domainStudy these vocabulary and terms before you take the quiz 9:

Beginning of the Cold War era vocabulary list

United Nations, Yalta Conference, Harry Truman, Nuremberg Trials,
occupation of Japan, Potsdam Conference, satellite nations, Iron Curtain,
containment, Truman doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin airlift,
North Atlantic Treat Organization (NATO)

08.02 Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations (U.S. History)

08.02. Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations (U.S. History)

The founding of the United Nations
Hopes for world peace were high at the end of WWII. This was most visibly symbolized in the founding of the United Nations. On April 25, 1945, the representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish this new peacekeeping body. After two months of debate, on June 26, 1945, the delegates signed the charter establishing the United Nations.

United Nations' organization and operations
Please read this summary to learn about how the United Nations is organized and what type of operations it does.

United Nations
This is the current United Nations' website. Explore what this organization does today in the world and how it tries to maintain peace for the global community. Do you think that there is still a need for such an organization today?

08.03 Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy in Europe and the Soviet Union's reaction. (U.S. History)

08.03. Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy in Europe and the Soviet Union's reaction. (U.S. History)

Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy. Yalta Conference Learn about this pivital conference that occurred near WWII's end. Who was involved and what did they decide? Did these decisions help prevent another world war? Nuremberg Trials After the war and the Allies' discovery of the Nazi concentration camps, Nazi officials were charged with their war crimes against humanity. During the trials many of the Nazi officers said that they could not be held accountable for their actions because they were only following orders. Think about the pressures that were on these people and if you would have disobeyed orders in their situation. Please go to this site to learn about these men and the trials they underwent. What were the sentences for the defendants? Harry S. Truman's Presidency Learn about FDR's successor, Harry S. Truman. Please use the contents list on the right side of this link to find out about his presidential years, specifically about his decision to drop the bomb and the Cold War tensions. Occupation of Japan After the war, the United States occupied Japan in an attempt to establish a new Japanese government and to protect themselves from further militarism. Learn about this occupation and who led it through the above link. Suspicions rise between the United States and Soviet Union The United States and Soviet Union had very different ambitions for the future. These differences created a climate of icy tension that plunged the two countries into a bitter rivalry known as the Cold War. Under Soviet communism, the state controlled all property and economic activity, while in the capitalistic American system, private citizens controlled almost all economic activity. In the American system, voting by the people elected a president and congress from competing political parties; in the Soviet Union, the Communist Party established a totalitarian government with no opposing viewpoints. The United States was well aware that Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, had been an ally of Hitler for a time. Stalin had supported the Allies only after Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. In some ways, the Americans and Soviets became more suspicious of each other during the war. Stalin resented the Western Allies' delay in attacking the Germans in Europe. Such an attack, he thought, would draw part of the German army away from the Soviet Union. Relations worsened after Stalin learned that the United States had tried to keep its development of the atomic bomb secret. Potsdam Conference Learn about Truman's first test as a diplomat through this short summary. Who was athttp://history.acusd.edu/gen/ww2Timeline/potsdam.html this conference and why was it significant? The Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain became the phrase to describe the Soviet Unions' buffering from the West by using 'satellite' nations as protection. The 'satellite' countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland became communist under the Soviet Union's influence. Learn about the Iron Curtain and post-WWII Soviet Union through this site. Containment Containment became the new policy of the Truman administration in dealing with the Soviet Union. Find out about this policy and what it meant for foreign relations. Truman Doctrine Please go to this short summary and Truman's speech outlining his proposal for containing totalitarianism governments. What did he suggest to do? Marshall Plan Learn about the Marshall Plan through this site (make sure to read the introduction section). What did Secretary of State George Marshall want to combat? How did his plan do this? Berlin Airlift As German rebuilding began after WWII, the four military zones that Berlin had been divided into became a major point of contention in the growing confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union. Instead of unifying the zone that the Soviet Union had power over with the other three of the Allied forces, Stalin isolated this zone and blocked entry of outside forces. The Berlin airlift was an American effort to break this blockade and bring needed supplies to its residents. Read about this event through the following site. North Atlantic Treaty Organization To provide safety against the growing Soviet Union threat, nations banded together in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Find answers to some frequently asked questions about this organization through the provided link.

08.04 Examine the world's reaction to nuclear weapons. (U.S. History)

08.04. Examine the world's reaction to nuclear weapons. (U.S. History)

Conflict over the use of the atomic bomb
After WWII was over, the debate about the use of the atomic bomb continues to be had today. This site explains what some of the other warfare options were that were available to Truman's use. Why did he choose to use the bomb and do you think that it was justified considering the horrible destruction that both explosions made?

Atomic Bomb Debate
This site is has a sample of the debate that continues over the use of atomic weapons. What do you think about this issue? How does the possession of atomic weapons by many countries change the nature of war and civilian safety today?

Quiz 9 instructions
After you have studied the sections on the beginnings of the Cold War era (and reviewed the vocabulary list), you are ready to take Quiz 9.

08.05 Beginning of the Cold War (US History)

Causes of the Cold War

United States was not willing to share information about their nuclear weapons which made Russia afraid of being attacked.
There was a fear in America of being attacked by communists.
President Truman did not like Stalin.
The atomic bomb that the United States had created a fear in Russia.

Yalta Conference
Learn about this pivital conference that occurred near WWII's end. Who was involved and what did they decide? Did these decisions help prevent another world war?

Harry S. Truman's Presidency
Learn about FDR's successor, Harry S. Truman. Please use the contents list on the right side of this link to find out about his presidential years, specifically about his decision to drop the bomb and the Cold War tensions.

Marshall Plan
Learn about the Marshall Plan through this site (make sure to read the introduction section). What did Secretary of State George Marshall want to combat? How did his plan do this?

The Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain became the phrase to describe the Soviet Unions' buffering from the West by using 'satellite' nations as protection. The 'satellite' countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland became communist under the Soviet Union's influence. Learn about the Iron Curtain and post-WWII Soviet Union through this site.

You will need to log into the Pioneer Library using the login information provided by your EHS teacher or your local school librarian before clicking on the World Book link.

08.05 Beginning of the Cold War - Quiz 9 (US History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

Nuclear weapon test, Nevada Test Site, 1953: Wikimedia Commons, US govt. image, public domainNuclear weapon test, Nevada Test Site, 1953: Wikimedia Commons, US govt. image, public domain
You will have 40 minutes to take this quiz, and you must pass it at 80 percent or higher. If you score below 80 percent, you will have to wait 24 hours before you can take this test again.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.06 Written Essay (U.S. History)

You will be writing an essay where you choose one of three subjects to write about by researching the subject and using citations.

Using the links listed to learn how to cite your sources of information.

08.06. Written Essay (U.S. History)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

Alabama school, 1935 (the large barrel is a stove supplying heat): Wikimedia Commons, FSA, public domainAlabama school, 1935 (the large barrel is a stove supplying heat): Wikimedia Commons, FSA, public domainWritten Essay Assignments

Listed below are three essay questions, one of which must be answered at any time during the course. You select which one of the three questions you want to answer.

Please answer the question thoughtfully and in your own words in an original argumentative essay that is 2-4 pages in length (500 to 1000 words). This essay will be graded based on the completeness of the answer and the writing style used in the composition. Include an introduction, body, and conclusion in your essay along with a bibliography or citation of your sources. You must have a minimum of three sources and you cannot use Wikipedia, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves or similiar sites.  Include a works cited page with complete citations for your 3 sources.  You may use a citation-creation website to help you with those.

Essays are a mysterious beast. I am going to try to give you a view into what you need to do in order to do well, and to let you what I expect.

HOW TO DO AN US HISTORY ESSAY

The first thing I want you to do is think of a stick man. There are five parts to a stick man. Each part of this stick man will represent a part of the essay.

 

  • Introduction: The head.
      • The head tells everything else what to do. So it thinks briefly(in the opening paragraph) about what it is going to tell the body what to do. For example; if I am writing an essay about the Civil War then I might say; The Civil War has many causes and in essence a powder keg, it just needed the right spark to set it off. Three 'sparks' were the election of President Lincoln, tensions between North and South, and slavery. (Now this wouldn't be the entire opening paragraph but there is a glimpse of part of it.) So if you'll notice the head just outlined three things that are going to be discussed in more detail in each body paragraph.
  • Arms: Body paragraph 1. The arms make the body able to get things done.
      • If we are sticking with the Civil War example this paragraph I would discuss President Lincoln's election and then I would tell three reasons why this caused the Civil War. After each reason I would discuss why that reason led to the Civil War. For example: President Lincoln's election was one cause of the Civil War, he was an abolitionist and after his election the South worried that he might push to outlaw slavery. So his election ended up being the catalist for the South succeeding from the Union. So I mentioned that he was an abolitionist (fact) and that because of the souths concerns they succeeded (analysis, or the why that supports my thesis.)Then you do this at least two more times in this paragraph.
      • Leg I: Body Paragraph 2. (See instructions in Body Paragraph 1) These hold the body up and take it places.
      • Leg II: Body Paragraph 3. (See instruction in Body Paragraph 1) These hold the body up and take it places.
      • Body: Conclusion-holds it all together
    • The conclusion represented by the body is what holds everything together and provides a last bit of energy (via food digestion).
        • The conclusion wraps everything up and holds it together but it doesn't make sweeping generalizations like, "and that is why we are the country we are today." So the things you would want to include are; a re-state of the thesis, you can re-word it, any kind of wrap-up, and you might even, using the example of the Civil War, talk about the devastating effects of the war. This is kind of your last chance to make your point and finish your essay strong.

       

      Now this may be a silly or stupid analysis, but, I hope it helps you as you write your essay. I am of the opinion that next to reading, writing is the most important skill you, as a student, can develop. Be sure to read through the instructions carefully and focus your entire efforts on answering the questions, everything you do needs to support the thesis or your answer.

       

      • Rubric
        • Introduction: 8 points
          ___/2 Thesis answers the question.
          ___/2 All parts of the question have been addressed.
          ___/1 Alludes to why. . . (this is different with each question.)
          ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 1)
          ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 2)
          ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 3)

         

        • Body Paragraph 1: 8 points
          ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
          ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        • Body Paragraph 2: 8 points
          ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
          ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        • Body Paragraph 3: 8 points
          ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
          ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
          ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
        • Conclusion: 4 points
          ___/2 Some kind of wrap-up of the material is evident without the use of the phrase, "we wouldn't be here today if. . ." or any variation of that phrase.
          ___/2 Thesis is re-stated is some form. (The thesis is the answer to the question.)
        • Sources: 3 points
          ___/1 First source is cited.
          ___/1 Second source is cited.
          ___/1 Third source is cited.
        • Format:
          ___/1 Essay is written in 2 pages and is double spaced.

         

         

        Writing Assignment Option 1

        Please read two oral histories on the Great Depression (links to oral histories can be found in the course materials) or interview someone who lived through this event. Based on what you learn through this process and what we have learned in this class, please write an essay about how life has changed from this period of time. (What do we take for granted that they did not have, etc.?) If you choose to do this assignment, please provide the reference for the histories you read, or the name of the person you interviewed.

        Writing Assignment Option 2

        How did President Roosevelt change the role of the federal government in relation to the power of the state? Analyze whether this was a good or bad way for the country (under a federal system) to operate?

         

        Writing Assignment Option 3

        Please summarize why dictators rose to power in pre-WWII Europe and Asia. Do you think that leaders with such radical viewpoints could again gain this kind of power? Why or why not? What can countries do to protect themselves from extremely far-left or far-right leaders?

         

         

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.06.01

Some sources for Oral Histories

08.07 US History.Q3.Reading Log

During your study of U.S. History from the start of the Great Depression through the end of World War Two answer these reading log questions. I suggest you write your answers as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class.

08.07. US History.Q3.Reading Log

teacher-scored 35 points possible 60 minutes

Each question/statement is Pass/Fail and must be answered in your OWN words and in a complete paragraph of five sentences or more. Either you follow directions and give a complete answer to each question/statement, or you lose the point. They are to be compiled into a “Reading Log” and submitted in Topic 3 area. Each is worth one point. These can also be used as a study guide for the final.
An Oklahoma farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936: Wikimedia Commons, Rothstein, Arthur, Library of Congress, public domainAn Oklahoma farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936: Wikimedia Commons, Rothstein, Arthur, Library of Congress, public domain

Keep in mind that your 5 sentences need to be meaningful, information-packed sentences.  Empty sentences such as "And that's why this was important" don't count.

1. What was “Black Tuesday?”
2. How did the Great Depression affect people in cities and on farms?
3. How did the Great Depression affect families?
4. Explain the terms “hoovervilles,” hoover flags,” and “hoover blankets” in the context of the Great Depression.
5. Explain the causes and effects of the Dust Bowl.
6. What was the “Bonus Army” and what did President Herbert Hoover do about it?
7. How did the Great Depression created shantytowns, soup kitchens, and bread lines?
8. What were the goals of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt?
9. What happened in the 1930s during the “first 100 days” of the New Deal?
10. How did the New Deal affect women and minorities?
11. How did the New Deal make changes in the shared power between the national government and the States?
12. What is “escapism” and what did Americans do during the Depression to have fun?
13. In what ways was the New Deal a benefit to the country and how did it hurt America?
14. Discuss three New Deal programs that still exist today.
15. What is “deficit spending” and why did the government use it during (and after) World War Two?
16. What allowed dictators like Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo to take power in Europe and Asia in the 1930s?
17. What did England and France do about Nazi aggression?
18. Why was the German offensive tactic of the blitzkrieg so effective?
19. Explain how did the persecution of the Jews began in Europe and what Hitler’s “final solution” was.
20. What it the background behind America’s declaring war on the Axis Powers in 1941?
21. Why was the Battle of Britain so important?
22. Why did the Allies invade Normandy?
23. What was the Battle of the Bulge?
24. What was so important about the Battle of Midway?
25. Why did the Japanese resort to kamikaze attacks?
26. What was the purpose of the Yalta Conference and who attended?
27. What was the “Manhattan Project?”
28. Why did President Harry Truman authorize the use of the Atomic Bomb in 1945? What other options did he have?
29. How (and for whom) did World War Two create opportunities at home?
30. What were the importance of “rationing,” “victory gardens,” and “war bonds” during World War Two?
31. Discuss how the G.I. Bill of Rights helped returning servicemen readjust to civilian life after World War Two.
32. What was the “bracero” program during World War Two and did it help (or hinder) Mexican Americans?
33. How did World War Two affect African Americans?
34. Who were the “Code Talkers” and how did they contribute to America’s winning the war in the Pacific?
35. What happened to Japanese Americans living on the west coast during World War Two?

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.08 Proctored Final Test Instructions (U.S. History)

Final Exam

This is your final step after you've reviewed the course material, taken all of the quizzes for the class, and completed all the other assignments.

THE EXAM:

  • Comprehensive final exam for this quarter of U.S. History only. Please make sure before you begin that you have reviewed the material thoroughly.
  • There is an hour-and-a-half time limit and this test consists of objective questions and essays that will test your knowledge of the themes in this class. Because this is a final test and I want to see what you have learned in this course.
  • This test consists of over thirty questions which are a combination of multiple choice and true/false. These will be machine-graded automatically by the computer.
  • There are also four essay questions covering general themes from this quarter and will be submitted to me for grading. These essay questions are worth ten points apiece and will require a comprehensive answer of, at least, five sentences including an Introduction where you state your position (thesis statement) on the question. In your essay you will need to give specifics to support your position. If, for example, you are asked to explain the causes of World War Two, you would need to discuss (not simply list) causes like nationalism, militarism, economic instability, rise of totalitarian governments, appeasement, or discontent with the Treaty of Versailles. To earn all points you must have a minimum of three main points to support your position. Your score will also depend on how well you explain your three main points. Fewer than three main points or little or no support for your main points will result in a lower score. I will return your grade for the final after I have graded your essays.
  • You are NOT expected to memorize all you have learned, but you must be able to demonstrate mastery of the material. Consequently, you are allowed to use two (2) pages of handwritten notes - one-side only. You may NOT use any xeroxed copies or typed pages on the Final. You may NOT use the typed Reading Log assignment, although you are free to handwrite any of those items you submitted for the Reading Log assignment.
  • Set up an appointment to take the Proctored Test once you have fulfilled all of the requirements to do so and feel confident that you can pass.  If you need help locating a proctor, refer to the "proctors" tab on the main EHS web page.
  • You must pass the final test at 60 percent to earn credit in this class.