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U. S. History II, 2nd Quarter

00.0 Start Here - Introduction to this Class (U.S. History)

Course Description

Understanding United States history is essential for the continuation of our democratic society. This course helps students make connections between their world and the rich heritage of United States history. The course is designed as a survey of American history with an emphasis on post-Reconstruction American (1876- Present), but also includes a review of the earlier period.

Class Overview 

The US History II course is a full 1.0 credit but is broken into four quarter classes. You may enroll for one, two, three or all four quarters, BUT you can enroll in only one quarter at a time!

Each quarter of World Civilizations generates a .25 credit. If you do not turn in any work within the first week after you register, you may be dropped from this course.

You have up to 10 weeks to finish each quarter after you are enrolled. Please following the pacing recommendations for each assignment. Once you have completed a quarter (including all work and tests), you can request to be enrolled in the next quarter.

*****Course Requirements*****

To take this class, you MUST have:

1.  A computer with internet access.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

How to Begin the Class

If you are reading this description you have begun the class.  Be sure you have read through all the information in Module 1 before moving on to Module 2. Complete the following in order to unlock the course content, found in Module 3.

1. Read the Start Here information thoroughly. 

2. Click the link for the About Me assignment. Then click the "submit assignment" button and enter the required information.  When you are happy with your assignment, click the save button and it will submit the assignment to your instructor. Completing this and earning at least 3/5 points will unlock the course material(Module 3).

3. The course material found in Module 3 consists of the subject material and the corresponding assignments. You should work through the material by clicking each link, reading through the material and viewing the URLs. 

4. Completing assignments: The assignment instructions are found in the Lessons.  Some assignments need to be copied and pasted into a word document from astericks to astericks and then the questions answered. I suggest then saving the word document and be sure that your answers are bolded or italicized. 

5. Submitting assignments: To submit assignments go to the class homepage and click on the link with the A-page next to it that corresponds with the Lesson number where you found the assignment. You should then copy your saved assignment and paste it in the answer box.  Your answers should be bolded or italicized.  If you prefer you may upload the file with your answers. Then save your work and it will be submitted for grading.

6. Submitting Quizzes: The quiz link matches the lesson where the instructions for the quiz are found. Follow the instructions and answer the quiz questions. Then be sure to save the quiz for grading.  Quizzes may be re-taken.

7. You must follow the EHS HONOR CODE: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

8. You have ten weeks to complete the course.

Prerequisites:

There are no prerequisites for this course.

How Work is Graded:

Most assignments have a corresponding rubric and a minimum score requirement. A general rule to understanding the score received is to check the rubric to see where points were lost. Assignments may be resubmitted for more credit. Work should be checked for errors before it is submitted. All work is graded as in the order it is turned in and in a timely manner. 

Final Proctored Exam

The proctored exam must be monitored by a EHS proctor.  You must score 60% in order to pass the course. If you do not earn the required 60% inform your teacher immediately. After taking the test send your teacher a message stating your name and that you have completed the proctored exam for the quarter of the course in which you are enrolled.

You may use 2 pages, handwritten, single-sided notes during the exam.

There are 100 questions on the exam consisting of multiple choice, true false, and four essay questions. 

Final Grade

The grade for the course is based on nine or ten quizzes (worth 10 or 15 points each), video questions, written essay and the final exam (worth 100 points). The results for each quiz and a portion of the final exam will be available as soon they are completed. If you have questions or concerns about your score on any of the work for the course, please contact the teacher and we will decide how to proceed. Students must score at least 60% overall and 60% on the final exam in order to earn credit in this class. 

Grading Scale

A: 93-100%

A-: 90-92

B+:87-89

B: 83-86

B-: 80-82

C+: 77-79

C: 73-76

C-: 70-72

D+: 67-69

D: 63-66

D-: 60-62

 

00.00 *Student supplies for U.S. History II

Requirements: 

1.  A computer with internet access.  This course does not have a specific textbook, but uses many Internet links to help you learn about American history.

2.  Word processing software.  You MUST be able to submit documents in one of the following file formats: .doc/.docx (Microsoft Word), .ppt/.pptx (PowerPoint), or .pdf.   If you use another program such as Pages or Open Office, make sure that you save your documents in one of the above formats before you upload them.  If your word processing software doesn't allow you to save in one of the above fiile formats, you will need a .pdf converter. Several are available free online from sources such as adobe, nemopdf, cutepdf, etc. 

3.   Quicktime Reader, Acrobat Reader,and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online)

 

00.00 About Me (US HistoryII)

teacher-scored 5 points possible 15 minutes

With an online class it is more challenging to get to know our students. We want you to be a person and not just a name on an email. Although this introduction will never take the place of being in class with you every day or two, it helps you tell your teacher what's important to you.

1.  Write a paragraph (at least 5 sentences) to your teacher introducing yourself. Tell about your interests, family, school goals, or anything else that describes you.  Include any information that you think it might be important for me to know.

2.  Following the paragraph, include your personal information in any format.  Include:

  • The school you attend
  • Your counselor's name and email address
  • What grade you are in
  • contact information for you (please include at least an email address, but a phone would be great)
  • contact information for your parent/guardian
  • A statement letting me know that you have viewed the short clip "How to review your assignments" found at the link below
  • A statement letting me know you understand the 10-week time limit and that you agree to abide by the EHS honor code:

"As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect."

Make sure you've carefully reviewed all information in the "Start Here" section--especially the Course Requirements--and let's get to work.

This is a graded assignment, so use proper sentence structure including capitalization, punctuation and spelling. For details on the grading of this assignment please refer to the rubric below. 

ABOUT ME Rubric

                                                Indicators Points
Prompt: Prompt is complete with mention of goals, interests and other introductory information. 1
Sentence: A well written assignment will include; complete sentences using correct grammar and punctuation. Must be at least 5 sentences in length.  1
Contact: Contact information for parent & student are included.  1
School: Current school and grade included as well as counselor's email address. 1
Acknowledge: Includes the student's acknowledgement of the EHS Honor Code, the 10-week time frame for the class, and viewing video clip. 1

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.01

00.01 - Assignment Expectations (US Hsitory II)

To get you started, I want to review what I will expect as you begin your assignments for this class.  For the first assignment and several that follow, you will be required to access source information on-line, and then articulate what you learn in a brief summary.  This sounds straightforward, but there are two pitfalls I want you to avoid: 1)  including irrelevant information, and 2) plagiarizing.

1.  Including irrelevant information

Remember that this is U.S. history, so I'm looking for a response that includes how this person, event, or idea was important to U. S. history. 

For example, you'll be asked to investigate John Locke.  While multiple sources will explain his job as a physician or his theories on human development, those things, while interesting, aren't relevant to our topic of study here.  What I want to know is what did he say that shaped American thinking, inspired Thomas Jefferson to pen the Declaration of Independence, and influenced early colonists to resist British rule.

When formulating your responses, make sure you can sift through the information, evaluate what is relevant or valuable to the question you are asked, and include only those details in your summary.

2. Plagiarizing - taking wording directly from the source material.

We all know that copying an entire essay from 123help me.com and putting your name on it is plagiarizing—straight-up cheating, but can you copy just a sentence from a source?  What if you change or leave out some of the words?  Plagiarizing?  Yep. 

What if you copy the phrase “The Declaration of Independence was written in 1776” from a source?  Is that plagiarizing?  Probably not; you've stepped into the common knowledge arena here.  But if you take this phrase from a source--"The signing of the Declaration of Independence was the most important event in 1776”--that's definite plagiarism.  Kind of tricky, right? 

teacher-scored 10 points possible 10 minutes

You've just read and agreed to the EHS honor code, but many students do not fully understand plagiarism and how to avoid it in their writing.   To help you see how to use source material and avoid plagiarism, I'd like you to access the plagiarism tutorial found at the link below.  Complete steps 2-7.  If you don't at least score 8/10 or higher on the quiz, reivew the material and re-take the quiz.  Then copy and paste your quiz to the assignment submission box.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.01.01

00.01.01 Student Software Needs

 

Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.

$0.00

03.00 Social Reform Movements (US History)

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, 1911: The New York World newspaper of March 26, 1911; public domainTriangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, 1911: The New York World newspaper of March 26, 1911; public domain

"What is the chief end of man?--to get rich. In what way?--dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must."  Mark Twain

Twain called the period of time from about 1870 to 1900 the “Gilded Age.”  When you gild something you cover something unattractive with gold to make it shine.  The “shine” in America of this time period included booming industries, cities springing up all over the country, unprecedented economic opportunity, a boom in innovation and technology, and a fivefold increase in our national wealth.  What lay below the shine, however, was a growing underclass, an increasing gap between rich and poor, urban squalor, appalling factory conditions, child labor, ruthless competition between industrial magnates, political corruption, and questionable business practices.

In this unit you learn how social reform occurred at the turn of the century. Social reform movements were based in the belief that people can and should try to make the world a better place. Events like the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, in which 146 workers died (mostly because managers had locked doors to the stairwells and exits), roused public indignation and interest in reforms.

05.10 US History.Q1.Reading Log (US History) This assignment is to be completed during your study of U.S. History from the Industrial Revolution through the “Roaring Twenties.” Select and answer any 25 of the questions or statements below. I suggest you work on this assignment as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class.

 

 

03.00 Social Reform Movements links (US History)

Bookmark this website, and you can use it to find information for many assignments and quizzes throughout this class.  You'll find sections 36-47 useful for this quarter.

03.01 Social Reform Movements - vocabulary to study before quizzes (US History)

Study these terms before you take each quiz:

Quiz 1 - Populists to Progressives vocabulary
Morrill Act, Homestead Act, farm problems, greenback debate, Grange movement,
Oliver Hudson Kelley, Farmer's Alliance, Greenback party, initiative, referendum, recall,
direct election of US Senators, graduated income tax, eight hour work day,
James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley,
William Jennings Bryant, Wizard of Oz, gold standard, patronage, Gilded Age, Progressive Era,
spoils system, Boss Tweed, Tammany Hall, graft, kickbacks, civil service, Pendleton Act,
muckrakers, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Jacob Riis, John Spargo,
Florence Kelley, Frederick Taylor, scientific management, Robert M. LaFollette, Thomas Nast,
S.S. McClure, Meat Inspection Act, The Jungle, Pure Food and Drug Act, Hepburn Act,
16th, 17th & 18th Amendments, conservation, prohibition, Temperance Movement,
populism, yellow journalism, industrialization, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, trust busting

Quiz 2 - Labor unions vocabulary
poor working conditions, child labor, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, National Labor Union,
Knights of Labor, William H. Sylvis, Uriah Stevens, collective bargaining, Samuel Gompers,
American Federation of Labor, craft unions, Industrial Workers of the World,
Mary Harris Jones, children's crusade, strike, yellow-dog contracts, Great Strike of 1877,
Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, Pullman Company Strike, socialism, Eugene V. Debs,
wobblies

03.02 Examine the problems faced by American farmers created by the new market economy and the rise of the Populist Party. (US History)

Analyze unique problems farmers faced a living on the Great Plains in the late 1800s.

Lesson Notes:

In the late 1800s, many farmers were trapped in a vicious economic cycle. Prices for crops were falling and many farmers went into debt by mortgaging their farms. Banks were foreclosing on these mortgages in increasing numbers. Additionally, the railroads were taking advantage of farmers by charging excessive prices for shipping and storing crops to eastern markets. Consequently, farmers united to address their common economic problems. This led to the Populist movement (or People's Party) which focused on political power to bring about reforms such as electing Senators by popular vote (17th Amendment) and a graduated income tax. These types of reforms were so popular in the West that the People's Party elected five senators, three governors, and scores of state legislators.

Populists' programs eventually became the political platform of the Democratic Party. The idea was that the government is responsible for solving social injustices. Then in 1893, there was a stock market crash which impacted both rural and urban areas. Both national and States governments were focused on overcoming this financial crisis. This crisis became so great that Populist reforms were relegated to lower priorities.

03.02. Examine the problems faced by American farmers created by the new market economy and the rise of the Populist Party. (US History)

Prompts for each website: James A. Garfield's Presidency This site has information on our 20th president, James A. Garfield. How long did he serve? Chester Arthur's Presidency Go to this site to find information on Chester Arthur and his term as president. Grover Cleveland's Presidency Please look through this biography to find out what was unique about Grover Cleveland's presidency. Benjamin Harrison's Presidency This site has information on Benjamin Harrison's presidency. What was his nickname and campaign slogan? Morrill Act Look through this site to find information on the Morrill Act and what it did for the farming communities of the United States. The Greenback Debate This site explains what the greenbacks after the Civil War were and why their retirement caused problems for many Americans, and farmers inparticular. This site also reviews information about the Panic of 1873. Grange Movement Read this brief description of the Grange Movement to find out who started this farmer's movement and what they wanted. Also, what parties grew out of this political movement? Populist Party This site has a brief description of why the Populist Party was formed and the Populist Party platform from the 1892 convention. Please concentrate on what they wanted changed and why they considered themselves different from the existing Democrats and Republicans. Gold Standard Debate This site has a history of the gold standard that backs our paper money, and why this debate is still going today. Concentrate on the "Establishment of the International Gold Standard," because it explains why farmers (and other people who owed money) did not want this economic condition. William Jennings Bryan In the 1896 campaign, William McKinley faced off with William Jennings Bryan. Find out about this legendary political figure and about his famous speech during this campaign. Wizard of Oz This link goes to an essay that explains the symbolism of the Wizard of Oz, and how it relates to the politics of farmers during this time period. Among other things, focus on what the silver shoes, the tin man, and the cowardly lion represent. William McKinley's Presidency This site has information on William McKinley's life and presidency. Also, check out the excellent article on the right hand side of the page that has great quotes from this president.

03.03 Investigate reform movements and their prominent leaders (US History)

Investigate reform movements at the turn of the 20th century and identify the leaders of these movements.

Lesson Notes:

Progressive era leaders and their movements include Florence Kelley, a social reformer whose sympathies lay with the powerless, especially working women and children, Frances Willard (who led the Women's Christian Temperance Union), and Carry Nation, who worked for the prohibition of alcohol, which they felt undermined American morals. Another Progressive reformer was labor leader Eugene Debs who helped organize the American Socialist Party in 1901 to counter the uneven balance among big business, government and ordinary people under the free-market system. Two leading proponents for women's suffrage were Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Finally, W.E.B. DuBois, one of the original founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (or the NAACP), led the effort for racial equality.

03.03 Investigate reform movements and their prominent leaders Quiz 1 (US History)

computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

After you have reviewed the course materials for these two sections (Farmers, Populists, Progressives, Reformers), please check the vocabulary list to make sure you understand all of the topics and people that were covered. When you have reviewed the material, go to the front page of this class and take the quiz. All the quizzes are timed, so make sure you're ready. Good luck!

You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.03.01

03.04 A Nation of Immigrants (US History)

Using the link below, watch the A Nation of Immigrants video , then answer the following questions.

You will need to use the Pioneer Library password to log in and view the video. The Pioneer username and password are available from your EHS teacher or your local school librarian.

If you have trouble accessing the video, email me for help.

Copy the questions between the rows of asterisks below, paste them into a word processing document and answer the questions. Please bold your answers so they stand out from the question. Once you have answered the questions, copy them from your word-processing document, paste them into the box or attach the file.

03.04 A Nation of Immigrants (US History)

03.04. A Nation of Immigrants (US History)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 45 minutes

*************************************************************************
1. Most Americans’ ancestors came to this continent within the last ___________ years.
2. Name two general reasons why people immigrate to America.
3. What happened in 1848 that encouraged Chinese workers to immigrate to America?
4. What massive construction project used thousands of Chinese workers?
5. What was the main port of entry for the Chinese?
6. Between 1820 and 1930, how many Chinese came to the United States?
7. Name two 'handicaps' faced by Chinese immigrants who came to America.
8. What is “nativism?”
9. Name three discriminatory actions against the Chinese by the state of California.
10. What anti-Chinese law was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1882 and what did it do?
11. What was the name of the processing center located in New York harbor where millions of immigrants entered the U.S.?
12. What island in San Francisco Bay became like a prison to the Chinese and other Asian immigrants?
13. Why did new immigration laws in the 1920’s have a “disastrous effect on the Chinese”?
14. Why were the Chinese allowed to enter the U.S. after World War II?
15. Where did the Chan family immigrate from and in what year?
16. What were the Chan’s professions in China?
17. Where did the Chan family first live following their arrival in the U.S.?
18. According to Grace Chan, what was “expected” of Asian children in the U.S.?
19. What was the “culture gap” spoken of by Mr. Chan?
20. Since Colonial times, how many immigrants are estimated to have come to the U.S. from around the world?
*************************************************************************

When you click on the Nation of Immigrants link below, it will require you to log into the Pioneer Library. Ask your EHS teacher or your local school librarian for the Pioneer username and password. Once you are logged in, a web page will open up and you will need to click on the picture to start the video.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.05 Analyze the growth and influence of political machines, the muckrakers, and Progressives.

Analyze the growth and influence of political machines, the Muckrakers, and Progressives.

"Women's Holy War" poster, 1874, from the temperance movement (working to ban alcohol): from Wikimedia Commons, public domain"Women's Holy War" poster, 1874, from the temperance movement (working to ban alcohol): from Wikimedia Commons, public domain Lesson Notes

Graft and Political Machines During the "Gilded Age," corruption was rampant in big cities where corrupt politicians manipulated everything from elections to the prices charged for toilets.  Political machines gained power by getting more of their members into elected positions. But how did they get money? Graft, or the illegal use of political influence for personal gain, became the way that political machines gained funds from the cities. For example, by helping a person find work on a construction project for the city, a political machine could ask the worker to bill the city for more than the actual cost of materials and labor. The worker then "kicked back" a portion of the earnings to these corrupt politicians. Taking these kickbacks, or illegal payments, for their services, enriched the political organization and the individual politicians they had gotten into office. Powerful political machines also created problems for cities by accepting bribes to allow illegal activities, such as gambling, to continue. If a bribe was paid, a political machine would ensure that the police (who often were also under the political boss' control) would not interfere with the activity.  The most infamous of these political machines or organizations was in New York City. William "Boss" Tweed ran his political machine from a building called Tammany Hall. Using bribes, threats, and kick-backs to suppliers, Boss Tweed and his cronies made themselves rich at the expense of the public. As is often the case, it was the poor and working classes who suffered.

Muckrakers There were, however, men and women of principle who exposed this political corruption. To help expose these illegal and immoral activities, a loosely knit group of crusaders arose. President Teddy Roosevelt nicknamed them "muckrakers" (Taken from John Bunyan's 17th century book, "Pilgrim's Progress," muckraker was one character who was always looking down raking refuge and failed to look up to see heaven above him.) Originally a negative term, muckrakers came to stand for these crusaders. Writers and journalists such as Thomas Nast, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Lewis Hine, and Upton Sinclair publicized the actions of politicians and industrialists. As they brought these illegal and/or immoral actions to light, changes began to take place.   

Progressive Era At the dawn of the new century, middle-class reformers addressed many of the problems that had contributed to the social upheavals of the 1890s. Journalists and writers exposed the unsafe conditions often faced by factory workers, including women and children. Intellectuals questioned the dominant role of large corporations in American society. Political reformers struggled to make government more responsive to the people. Although Progressives never saw their candidates elected to a major political office, many of their programs were coopted by the major political parties and enacted into law.   Together, these reform efforts formed the progressive movement, which aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life.

Progressive Goals Even though reformers never completely agreed on the problems or the solutions, each of their progressive efforts shared at least one of the following goals:

  • protecting social welfare - in an attempt to soften some of the harsh conditions of industrialization
  • promoting moral improvement - an effort to help immigrants and city dwellers to uplift themselves by improving their personal behavior, e.g. prohibition
  • creating economic reform - as many at this time began to question the capitalist economic system and support socialism.
  • fostering efficiency - using scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient.

Quiz 1 instructions After you have reviewed the course materials for these two sections, please check the vocabulary list for Quiz 1 (located in paragraph 03.01 above) to make sure you understand all of the topics and people that were covered. When you have reviewed the material. Take Quiz 1. All the quizzes are timed, so make sure you're ready to take them. Good luck!

03.05. Analyze the growth and influence of political machines, the muckrakers, and Progressives.

Gilded Age This site offers an overview of the period in American history called the Gilded Age. Find out about this time period and how it got its name.

Political Machines in the Gilded Age This site has a brief description of what political machines were in the Gilded Age and why they gained power during this period. Find out what the "spoils system" was and who ran one of the most notable machines.

Graft and Political Machines Political machines gained power by getting more of their members into elected positions. But how did they get money? Graft, or the illegal use of political influence for personal gain, became the way that political machines gained funds from the cities. For example, by helping a person find work on a construction project for the city, a political machine could ask the worker to bill the city for more than the actual cost of materials and labor. The worker then 'kicked back' a portion of the earnings to the machine. Taking these kickbacks, or illegal payments for their services, enriched the political machines and the individual politicians they had gotten into office. Powerful political machines also created problems for cities by accepting bribes to allow illegal activities, such as gambling, to continue. If a bribe was paid, a political machine would ensure that the police (who often were also under the political boss' control) would not interfere with the activity.

Patronage Find out what patronage is in politics and why this practice flourished during the Gilded Age.

"Boss" Tweed This site has a short history of Boss Tweed and his influence in New York City. How did he gain power and money?

Civil Service This site explains about the reforms that led to the Civil Service, the federal system of employment. Find out what Act began the system and what it changed in American government jobs.

Civil Service This site explains about the reforms that led to the Civil Service, the federal system of employment. Find out what Act began the system and what it changed in American government jobs.

Progressive Era This is an excellent compilation of major reforms and changes that were made during this period. Please make sure to check out the links to the muckrakers and find out about their causes and the changes that were made because of their work.

Muckrakers Go to this site to find information on some of the prominent Muckrakers, or reformers, of the Progressive Movement. Find out which cause is associated with each person. Theodore Roosevelt originally used the term Muckraker to describe those that were uncovering the scandals of this period. Originally a negative term, Muckraker referred to a character in the novel Pilgrim's Progress, who was too busy raking muck to notice the heavenly crown over his head.

Florence Kelley Go to this site to find out what reformer Florence Kelley tried to change in the Progressive Era.

Frederick Taylor Find out what Taylor studied and how this related to industry. What was this type of employee management called?

Robert M. La Follette Find out about this progressive politician and what he worked on changing through the government.

Changes to City Life Go to this site to find an outline of some of the changes that occurred in cities during the progressive era that generally improved the quality of life for Americans.

Legal changes during the Progressive Era Please go to this site to find out some of the legal changes that occurred during this period. Find out about the notable laws that were passed (constitutional amendments, Pure Food and Drug Act, etc.).

Prohibition Find out about prohibition, one of the major changes in society that was brought about by the progressive movement. What was it and how long was it in effect?

Conservation Another major development of the progressive era was the conservation movement to protect the certain areas of the country from development. Go to this site to find out some of the major leaders of this cause, and what it resulted in for our nation.

03.06 Assess the growth and development of labor unions and their key leaders. (US History)

Objectives:

Trace the development of national labor unions.
Determine the impact of collective bargaining.
Analyze the development of socialism in the United States.

Lesson Notes

As you go through this section, think about why people join unions. Think about the options of workers during this period, and the difficulties they faced in getting fair and safe working conditions. In mines, factories and slaughter houses, it was common for workers (including young children) to work six days a week and ten or more hours a day under dangerous conditions. Did unions reach their goals, and is there still a need for unions today?

Child labor:  little boys operating machines at a textile factory, 1912: Wikimedia Commons, Lawrence textile strike, public domainChild labor: little boys operating machines at a textile factory, 1912: Wikimedia Commons, Lawrence textile strike, public domain

Working Conditions
In the full swing of the industrial revolution the main goal was money. The owners of the factories went to extreme lengths to get money. The work hours were long, the wages were low, and the factories were unsafe. There was a slight difference in the way people were treated in the North v. the South, for instance wages were higher in the North. Across the board working conditions were bad; in many steel mills they had seven day work, many workers in other factories worked 12 hour days and 6 days a week, and they didn't get vacations, sick pay, workers compensation, or any kind of pay for injuries. In many cases if you were hurt there were lines of people waiting for a job and as soon as you left they would take the next person in line.

There were many justifications for the way workers were treated, one such idea was Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism was adapted from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. It was also justification for 'laissez faire' economic policies. What all of this basically means is that big business wanted to be left alone, they didn't want any government regulation. The funny thing is that this theory appealed to many because of the idea that you get what you work for, and that riches were a sign of God's favor and that if you were poor you must be lazy.

Forming Labor Unions

    The first labor unions were organized in the late 1700s they were small and didn't rally much support. However in 1866, right after the Civil War, the first big labor union, the National Labor Union, was formed. In response to their refusal to allow African Americans spurred the creation of Colored National Labor Union. The numbers grew and within a couple of years they successfully lobbied congress to legalize the eight hour work day. Once that big step was out of the way they began to link with other unions to grow their membership.
  • The Noble Order of the Knights of Labor:
    • Formed in 1869, by Uriah Stephens. The Knights of Labor was open to everyone, literally everyone. They also only used strikes and the refusal to work as a last resort, they advocated arbitration.
  • The American Federation of Labor:
    • Led by Samuel Grompers, who took the Cigar Makers' Union to join with other craft unions, and form one large union. The AFL focused on bargaining and negotiation but they did use strikes as the main tactic, they were able to make gains in wages and shorter work weeks.
  • American Railway Union:
    • The brain child of Eugene V. Debs. Debs felt unions should include both skilled and unskilled laborers. Union members included both groups as well as engineers and firemen. After a successful strike in 1894 the union's membership reached 150,000 (this was much larger than the other railroad unions.) But like the AFL they fizzled after a failed strike.
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW):
    • Woblies as they were a radical socialist union. The group, led by William "Big Bill" Haywood, included miners, lumbers, and cannery and dock workers, they also welcomed African Americans. This union was the first group to turn to socialism as an answer to their working problems. Socialism is an economic and political idea based on the idea that there should be an equal distribution of property and wealth. Most people are more familiar with the extreme form of it, communism. The author of communism in theory is Karl Marx and he predicted that communism would overthrow the capitalist system. It wasn't a very successful union and it only had one successful strike.
  • Migrant Workers:
    • Japanese and Mexican workers organized in California and in Wyoming, they were looking for the same wages and treatment as other unions.

    Violence

  • The Great Strike of 1877
    • In July of 1877 workers for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad went on strike to protest a second payroll cut in two months. The strike spread to other railroad lines causing freight and passenger traffic to stop for over a week. Federal troops ended the strike after President Hayes stepped in.
  • The Haymarket Affair
    • With the success of the Great Strike of 1877, more labor unions pushed for change. After a striker at the McCormick Harvester plant had been killed and others were wounded a group gathered Haymarket Square in Chicago to protest the brutality that led to the death and injuries of the strikers. Because of rain the protesters had begun to leave when police showed, this is when the violence began. An unknown protestor threw a bomb into the line of police officers; officers responded by shooting into the crowd, seven police officers and several workers were killed in the violence. As a result of the riot that ensued eight people involved in the protest, including the three speakers and five other radicals were charged with inciting a riot, all were convicted. Instead of getting the change they were hoping for the affair caused people to be wary of unions and the public began to turn on the labor movement.
  • The Homestead Strike
    • Although public support for strikes was low the unions themselves weren't done. Conditions at the Carnegie Steel Company's Homestead plan were dismal and in June 1892 after the an announced plan to cut wages, the steelworkers went on strike. In an unwise decision Henry Frick hired guards from the Pinkerton Detective Agency to protect the plant so that he could hire scabs. Three detectives and nine workers died, the steelworkers forced the Pinkertons out and closed the plant until the National Gurad and broke it up on July 12. The strike actually continued until November and the workers gave in to the company.
  • The Pullman Strike
    • During the panic of 1893 the Pullman company laid off almost 52% of its staff and cut wages by 25 to 50 percent for the workers who were kept on. They also didn't lower housing costs and after they paid rent their take home was less than $6 per week. So they called the strike in the spring of 1894. They tried for arbitration but Pullman wouldn't negotiate. When strikebreakers were hired the strike became violent and President Grover Cleveland was forced to send in troops. Pullman ended up firing most of the striker, many of whom were blacklisted in the railroad industry.
  • Women's Union Movements
    • Most unions didn't allow women to join, that did not stop them from working to improve working conditions and push for the end of child labor. A prominent figure in the women's labor movement was Mary Harris Jones. She supported big strikes and organized for the United Mine Workers of America. One of her greatest moves was to lead 80 million children with horrible injuries resulting from work injuries, to the home of President Roosevelt. A reporter who followed her career said, "She fights their battles with a Mother's Love." She endured many things including death threats and jail time, her efforts earned her the name Mother Jones. She fought for them until her death, she was 100 years old.
      Pauline Newman another woman organizer; organized the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, at the age of 16.
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
        In March of 1911 a fire spread through the machines at the garment factory. The machines were covered in oil and the factory contained piles of cloth. The fire covered the 8-10th floors. As they attempted to flee from the fire workers found locked doors and no way to escape. One unlocked door was blocked by fire and the only fire escape collapsed. 146 women died. Public outrage worsened after the owners were acquitted of manslaughter. New York was forced to take a look into working conditions.

        Despite the attempts of business owners to stop all unions, union member ship continued to grow. The growth was slow at first, but by the end of WWI membership in the AFL had grown to over 2 million.

    03.06 Assess the growth and development of labor unions and their key leaders. Quiz 2 (US History)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

    Coal miner, 1946: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domainCoal miner, 1946: Wikimedia Commons, NARA, public domain
    After you have reviewed the course materials covering unions and socialism and reviewed the terms in the vocabulary folder, you are ready to take the quiz for this section.

    You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test, and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent, you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


    03.07 Trace the development of national labor unions.

    Trace the development of national labor unions.

    Lesson Notes:

    At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fueled an industrial boom. Technological developments, such as the Bessemer process in the steel industry, paved the way for the continued growth of American industry. The growth of railroads benefited the nation but also led to corruption and required government regulation.

    The expansion and consolidation of industry resulted in the growth of big businesses like railroads (Vanderbilt), oil (Rockefeller), and steel (Carnegie). The power wielded by these owners prompted laborers to form unions to negotiate with the owners from a position of strength. Many of the strategies used today in industry and in the labor movement, such as strikes or boycotts, have their origins in the labor unions of the late-1800s.

    As business leaders merged and consolidated their forces, it became necessary for workers to do the same. Exploitation, long hours, and unsafe working conditions forced workers to unite across regions in a nationwide labor movement. Skilled workers had formed small, local unions as early as the late 1700s, but the first large-scale national organization of laborers, the National Labor Union, was formed in 1866 by iron workers. As labor activism spread, it diversified. Two major types of unions made great gains under forceful leaders.

    One approach was craft unionism, which included only skilled workers from one or more trades. Samuel Gompers, who championed this type of union became the American Federation of Labor president. Some labor leaders felt that unions should include all laborers--skilled and unskilled--in a specific industry. Eugene Debs was a prominent leader of this type of labor organization. Either way, laborers began to gain leverage with management in areas such as safety, wages and the length of a workday.

    Industry and government, however, responded forcefully to union activity, which they saw as a threat to capitalism. You will read about the Haymarket Affair, the Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Company Strike. Often these strikes turned violent and had mixed results. Sometimes the owners won, other times the unions were victorious. The more powerful unions became, the more employers came to fear them. Management refused to recognize unions, forbade union meetings, fired union members, and forced new employees to sign "yellow-dog contracts," where the new employees would swear they would not join a union.

    Finally, industrial leaders turned to the courts. Using the Sherman Antitrust Act (a law passed in 1890 that prohibited any type of monopoly that hindered trade) against labor unions, the company only had to say that a strike, picket-line, or boycott would hurt interstate trade and state or federal courts would issue an injunction against the labor action. Despite these pressures, however, workers continued to use unions as a powerful tool.

    03.07. Trace the development of national labor unions.

    Industrialization produces unsafe working conditions This site has an excellent summary about the horrible working conditions that existed at the turn of the century (focus on the "Factory Conditions" section). Please review what common problems workers faced (hours, conditions, etc.). These problems are what fueled the organization of labor unions so that employees could protect themselves. Triangular Shirtwaist Factory Fire Please look through this site to find the story of the Triangular Shirtwaist Factory Fire. Find out why this fire occurred and what happened because of poor conditions. Could this tragedy have been prevented? National Labor Union Skilled workers had formed small, local unions since the late 1700's. However, the first large-scale national organization of laborers was the National Labor Union, formed in 1866 by William H. Sylvis. Go to this link to find out what they lobbied Congress to do. In 1869, the Knights of Labor was formed by Uriah Stephens to be more inclusive regardless of race, gender, or degree of skill. Samuel Gompers Go to this site to find out about Samuel Gompers and the union over which he presided. American Federation of Labor Organization of laborers began making a difference in many industries. Between 1890 and 1915, the average weekly wages in unionized industries rose from $17.50 to $24.00, and the average workweek fell from almost 54.5 hours to just under 49 hours. Please go to this site to find out about the American Federation of Labor and how it was organized. What are craft unions? American Federation of Labor Organization of laborers began making a difference in many industries. Between 1890 and 1915, the average weekly wages in unionized industries rose from $17.50 to $24.00, and the average workweek fell from almost 54.5 hours to just under 49 hours. Please go to this site to find out about the American Federation of Labor and how it was organized. What are craft unions? Industrial Workers of the World This site explains about another prominent union, the Industrial Workers of the World. Find out why this union was formed and their nickname. American Federation of Labor Organization of laborers began making a difference in many industries. Between 1890 and 1915, the average weekly wages in unionized industries rose from $17.50 to $24.00, and the average workweek fell from almost 54.5 hours to just under 49 hours. Please go to this site to find out about the American Federation of Labor and how it was organized. What are craft unions? Industrial Workers of the World This site explains about another prominent union, the Industrial Workers of the World. Find out why this union was formed and their nickname. Mary Harris Jones Find out who Mother Jones was and her impact in the labor movement. What did she do to bring child labor problems to the government's attention?

    03.08 Determine the impact of collective bargaining.

    Determine the impact of collective bargaining.

    Lesson Notes:

    Strikes often forced management to negotiate with workers. The workers were represented by their union leadership who would sit down with management and bargain in behalf of all the members of that union. Agreements were reached for higher wages, shorter working hours, and safer working conditions by the union negotiators. An agreement reached using a tactic called "collective bargaining," meant that ALL union members would benefit. As collective bargaining became successful, more and more unions began to adopt this negotiating technique.

    03.08. Determine the impact of collective bargaining.

    Lecture Notes
    As you go through this section, think about why people join unions. Think about the options of workers during this period and the
    difficulties they faced in getting fair and safe working conditions. Did unions reach their goals and is there still a need for unions
    today?

    Collective Bargaining
    Go to this site to find out information on collective bargaining. What is it and why would people want to be a member of a union?
    What can a union do to get better arrangements for their members if management won't negotiate?

    The Great Strike of 1877
    This site explains about this first major national strike. Even though this description has some local information about East St.
    Louis, it is relevant to all areas that were involved in this labor movement.

    The Haymarket Affair
    Go to this site to find out about the Haymarket Affair. This incident negatively turned the public's perception of labor unions.

    The Homestead Strike
    Find out what this strike was about and what the outcome was for workers and the company.

    The Pullman Company Strike
    This site has a brief description of why laborers went on strike during the Pullman Company Strike. There are also many pictures
    of the event. Find out what the reasons for this strike were and how it was ended.

    Management and Government Pressures on Unions
    The more powerful the unions became the more employees came to fear them. Management refused to recognize unions as
    representatives of the workers. Many employers forbade union meetings, fired union members, and forced new employees to
    sign "yellow-dog contracts," swearing that they would not join a union.

    Using the Sherman Antitrust Act, industrial leaders used the power of government to weaken union's bargaining ability. All a
    company had to do was say that a strike, picket line, or boycott would hurt interstate trade, and the state or federal government
    could issue an injunction against the labor action. Despite these pressures, workers--especially those in skilled jobs--continued
    to view unions as a powerful tool. By 1904, the AFL had about 1,700,000 members in its unions, and by World War I,
    membership would be over 2 million.

    03.09 Analyze the development of socialism in the United States.

    Analyze the development of socialism in the United States

    Lesson Notes:

    In an attempt to solve the problems faced by workers, Eugene Debs and other labor activists eventually turned to socialism, an economic system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth. Socialism eliminates private ownership of the means of production by giving this control to government entities. Socialism, carried to its extreme form--communism, as advocated by Karl Marx--would result in the overthrow of the entire capitalist system.

    In 1905, a group of radical unionists and socialists organized the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) or the Wobblies. Most socialists in late-19th century America never embraced Marx's call for a revolution of workers against capitalism. Rather, they worked within the labor movement and capitalist system to achieve better conditions for workers. It was the radical nature of the IWW that kept it from achieving the popularity and success of other, less radical unions.

    03.09. Analyze the development of socialism in the United States.

    Socialism
    This site defines socialism and explains why it appealed to many people, especially workers, at the turn of the 20th century.
    What do socialist believe in?

    Eugene V. Debs
    This site has a timeline of the life of the prominent union and socialist leader, Eugene V. Debs, as well as speeches and pictures.
    What was he trying to attain for workers and Americans? What did he support and oppose?

    Review Quiz
    Here is a fun review quiz about business and strikes in this period of time. This is totally optional, but will help you review for the
    real one.

    Quiz 2 instructions
    After you have reviewed the course materials covering unions and socialism (and reviewed the terms in the vocabulary folder
    located on the information page), you are ready to take Quiz 2. Remember, the quiz can only be attempted once and has a time
    limit of 30 minutes. Good luck!

    04.00 Imperialism, World War I, and the League of Nations (US History)

    Poppy blooming near World War I graves in France: Wikimedia Commons, Tinelot Wittermans, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedPoppy blooming near World War I graves in France: Wikimedia Commons, Tinelot Wittermans, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported In the early 1900's, nationalism was on the rise. The powerful countries in Europe still had many colonies around the world, and Americans were beginning to look at expanding their own influence. This unit deals with American imperialism, World War I and the League of Nations in the aftermath of the war.

     

    Readings:  You'll find the information you need on lesson pages & the specific links given in each lesson.  UShistory.org - sections 44-45 cover this time period. 

    04.01 Unit 4 vocabulary to study before quizzes (U.S. History)

    Be sure to review all these vocabulary words and terms before you take the quiz for each unit.

    Quiz 3: Imperialism vocabulary list
    Theodore Roosevelt, Square Deal, conservation, Rough Riders, Battle of San Juan Hill, imperialism,
    yellow journalism, USS Maine, Spanish-American War, dollar diplomacy, Roosevelt Corollary,
    Boxer Rebellion, John Hay, Open Door Policy, Panama Canal, Alfred T. Mahan, Treaty of Paris,
    Platt Amendment, Hawaii, Alaska, William Seward, Sanford Dole, Queen Liliuokalani, Jose Marti,
    Foraker Act, protectorate, Emilio Zapata, John Pershing, Francisco "Pancho" VillaTheodore Roosevelt and John Muir in Yosemite National Park, 1906: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainTheodore Roosevelt and John Muir in Yosemite National Park, 1906: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domain

    Quiz 4: World War I vocabulary list
    nationalism, imperialism, militarism, alliance system, Central Powers, Allies,
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, no man's land, trench warfare, Lusitania, Zimmerman note,
    Selective Service Act, convoy system, poison gas, machine gun, tanks,
    American Expeditionary Force, Doughboys, John Pershing, Alvin York,
    conscientious objector, armistice

    Quiz 5: League of Nations and America at war vocabulary list
    armistice, Fourteen Points, League of Nations, war reparations, war-guilt clause,
    Big Three, George Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, Henry Cabot Lodge, War Industries Board,
    Barnard Baruch, mass production, food rationing, victory gardens, George Creel,
    Committee on Public Information, Four Minute Men, Espionage and Sedition Acts,
    flu epidemic, Treaty of Versailles

    04.02 Assess how America's imperialism altered relationships with the Far East and Latin America. (U.S. History)

    Assess how America's imperialism altered relationships with the Far East and Latin America.

    Lesson Notes:

    Beginning in 1867, following the end of the American Civil War, and continuing through the end of the century, global competition caused the United States to seek new markets and raw materials. During this time, America acquired the territories of Hawaii and Alaska. By the 1880s, American leaders had become convinced that the United States should join the imperialist powers of Europe and establish colonies overseas. Imperialism, or the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories, was already a trend around the world.

    European nations had been establishing colonies for centuries. In the late 19th century Africa had emerged as a prime target of European expansionism. Imperialists also competed for territory in Asia, especially in China. In the late 1800s, Japan joined European nations in competition for China.

    Most Americans accepted the idea of expansion overseas as an extension of manifest destiny. There was a feeling in America of a desire for military strength, a thirst for new markets and raw materials and a belief in the superiority of the American Way. Advances in technology enabled American farms and factories to produce far more than American citizens could consume and with the world's third largest navy the U.S. felt ready to compete with other powerful European nations. Finally, some Americans combined the philosophy of Social Darwinism, a belief in the racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons, with free-market competition to argue that America had a responsibility to spread its culture (along with Christianity) to the world's 'inferior peoples.' In other words, Americans were defining "civilization" based on their own culture.

    With this in mind, in 1898, the U.S. went to war, ostensibly to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. America had long had an interest in Cuba where American capitalists had invested millions of dollars in large sugar cane plantations. Spain's international power was in decline as was its control over its colonies in the Caribbean and in Asia. Fighting took place in both areas with Spain soundly defeated in only 16 weeks of fighting.

    In the peace treaty that followed, Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam in the Pacific and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean to the United States. Spain also sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million. America now had an empire that included Alaska, Hawaii, Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands. Thus began increased U.S. involvement in Latin America and Asia as a result of the Spanish-American War. Rather than grant independence to any of these territories, the United States began to govern these areas as if America owned them--and without consideration for the feelings of the indigenous peoples.

    04.02. Assess how America's imperialism altered relationships with the Far East and Latin America. (U.S. History)

    Emilio Aguinaldo This site contains a short biographical sketch of this Filipino leader. Find out what his goals were for the Philippines. US infantry wading ashore on Marinduque 25 April 1900: Public domainUS infantry wading ashore on Marinduque 25 April 1900: Public domain The Philippine-American War The Philippine-American War followed shortly after peace with Spain. During the occupation, white American soldiers looked on the Filipinos as inferiors. However, many of the 70,000 U.S. troops sent to the Philippines were African Americans. When African-American newspapers pointed out the irony of blacks serving for an army that practiced racial prejudice against Filipinos, some African-American soldiers deserted to the Filipino side and developed bonds of friendship with the Filipinos. This site has descriptions and images about the Philippine-American War. Find out the costs (both in lives and finances) of this war and how the conflict began. Foreign Relations with China Please review this site to find out about the Boxer Rebellion and the John Hay's Open Door notes. Open Door Policy This policy reflected three deeply held American beliefs about the United States industrial capitalist economy. First, Americans believed that the growth of the U.S. economy depended on exports. Second, they felt the Untied States had a right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open. Third, they feared that the closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival. These beliefs became the bedrock of American foreign policy. Do you think they are still followed today? Quiz 3 instructions After you have reviewed the course materials and vocabulary list relating to the Spanish-American War and imperialism, you are ready to take Quiz 3. Good luck!

    04.02. Assess how America's imperialism altered relationships with the Far East and Latin America. Quiz 3 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Quiz 3 - Imperialism
    This quiz should be taken after the corresponding course materials and vocabulary list have been studied. As with all course quizzes, there is a 30-minute time limit and it can only be attempted one time. Good luck!

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


    04.03 Identify major causes of World War I and the United States' involvement and influence in the war. (U.S. History)

    Identify major causes of World War I and the United States' involvement and influence in the war.

    Lesson Notes:

    Causes of the First World War

    Background - By 1890, Germany was the strongest nation on the European continent. Britain, an island nation, was not initially worried about Germany's growing ground forces because its navy was the strongest in the world. However, in 1897, Germany began to increase its sea power in order to compete against the British. This alarmed the English and other continental nations. This increasing competition between European nations for power and resources led to the First World War. Historians generally agree that there were four long-term causes of World War I. They were: nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and Europe's system of alliances.

    Nationalism - Throughout the 19th century, politics in the Western world were influenced by nationalism--the pride in or devotion to one's country. Often, nationalism led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations. In this atmosphere of competition, many countries, proud of their own nation's history and accomplishments, feared Germany's growing power.

    Imperialism - For many centuries, European nations had been building empires, slowly extending their economic and political control over various peoples around the world. Colonies supplied the European imperialistic powers with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goods. As Germany industrialized, it began to compete with France and Britain in the contest for colonies.

    Militarism - Empires, however, were expensive to build and difficult to defend. The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending. With the development of their armed forces, European nations began to use these armed forces as a tool of foreign policy.

    Alliance System - Weaker nations began to join together in alliances as a way of protecting themselves against threats by stronger nations. By 1907, there were two major defense alliances in Europe: the Triple Entente, or the Allies, and the Triple Alliance, or the Central Powers. The Allies included France, Britain, and Russia while the Central Powers consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy along with the Ottoman Empire, controlled by the Muslim Turks in mostly Middle Eastern lands. These alliances provided a measure of international security because nations were reluctant to upset the delicate balance of power on the continent. However, the opposite occurred when a single spark set in motion a series of events that began the largest war the earth had ever seen.

    That spark was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne. This assassination touched of a diplomatic crisis that would result in the deaths of over 22 million people. The assassin was a nationalist from Serbia, a small nation bordering Austria-Hungary to the south. Less than a month later, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict until the entire continent was at war.

    American Involvement and Influence

    In 1914 most Americans saw no reason to get involved in what they called "Europe's war." After all, the war was 3,000 miles away and didn't threaten American lives or property. Still there were millions of naturalized U.S. citizens who still had ties to the nations from which they had emigrated. There were German, Italian, and Austrian Americans who were sympathetic with the Central Powers. Still, a majority of Americans felt closer to Britain because of a common ancestry and language as well as similar democratic institutions and legal systems.

    More important, America's economic ties with the Allies were far stronger than were its ties with the Central Powers. The Allies flooded American manufactures with orders for all sorts of war supplies, including dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, and armored cars. The United States shipped millions of dollars of war supplies to the Allies, but requests from the Central Powers were minimal.

    Although the majority of Americans favored an Allied victory, they did not want to join the Allies' fight. By 1917, however, Americans became galvanized for war against the Central Powers. There were two reasons for this. The first was to ensure Allied repayments of all Allied war debts to the U.S. and the second was to prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping.

    Early in the war, Britain began blockading the German coast. While Americans did not like this tactic, they were outraged by Germany's response. Germany began countering the British blockade with the use of unrestricted submarine warfare. The sinking of the British liner Lusitania, for example, resulted in the loss of some 1,200 men, women, and children--128 of them American. Other provocations included an intercepted German telegram proposing an alliance between Mexico and Germany. Mexico would recover its "lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona" if they supported Germany. Next came the sinking of four unarmed American merchant ships.

    Finally, on April 2, 1917 President Wilson, who had campaigned for reelection in 1916 with the slogan "He kept us out of war" asked Congress for a declaration of war on Germany. Congress passed the resolution a few days later and a stream of American soldiers, money, and munitions soon followed. After two and a half years of fighting, the Allied forces were exhausted and demoralized. The Americans, in addition to their numbers, also brought new energy and enthusiasm with them. By 1918 the Americans had helped turn the tide against the Central Powers.

    On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies. Germany would soon follow. Although there were no Allied soldiers on German soil, and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war. [NOTE: This day, November 11, was celebrated for over 30 years as Armistice Day. The name was changed in 1954 to Veterans Day to honor all of America's veterans.]

    For the Allies, news of the armistice brought great relief. Across the Atlantic, Americans also rejoiced at the news. Many now expected life to return to normal. However, people found their lives at home changed almost as much as the lives of those who had fought in Europe. Wars often unleash powerful forces the outcome of which are unexpected. The period of The Great War, as this war was originally called, was no exception. In Europe the destruction and massive loss of life severely damaged social and political systems. It created political instability and violence that persisted for decades.

    World War I was the bloodiest war in history up to that time. Deaths numbered about 22 million, more than half of them civilians. In addition, some 10 million became refugees. The U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, with another 62,000 dying of disease.

    The Treaty of Versailles, that formally ended The Great War, was a harsh peace and settled nothing. The ominous shape of things to come emerged in the writings of an angry Austrian veteran, one Adolf Hitler, whose desire for vengeance would plunge the world into an even more destructive war only 20 years later; a war in which the United States would play a leading role.

    04.03. Identify major causes of World War I and the United States' involvement and influence in the war. (U.S. History)

    Woodrow Wilson's Presidency
    Find out about our 28th president through this site. How was his leadership different than Roosevelt and Taft?

    Lesson Notes

    Causes of World War I

    Although many Americans wanted to stay out of the war, several factors made American neutrality difficult to maintain. There were four long-term causes of the First World War: nationalism, imperialism, militarism and the formation of alliances.

    Nationalism - Nationalism is a devotion to the interests and culture of one nation. Often, nationalism led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations.

    Imperialism - For many centuries, European nations had been building empires and slowly extending their economic and political control over various peoples of the world. As studied in the last section, American interests were also extending beyond the mainland of the United States during this period.

    Militarism - The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending. Militarism is the development of armed forces as a tool of diplomacy and intimidation.

    Alliance System - By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe. The Triple Entente, later know as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia. The Triple Alliance, later the Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

    Sinking of the Lusitania by a German u-boat, 1915: Wikimedia Commons, Bundesarchiv, DVM 10 Bild-23-61-17 / CC-BY-SASinking of the Lusitania by a German u-boat, 1915: Wikimedia Commons, Bundesarchiv, DVM 10 Bild-23-61-17 / CC-BY-SA

    Causes of World War I
    This site has an in-depth description of the causes of the War. It explains how events and alliances led to the first global war. Find out what event triggered this conflict and get a general understanding of the primary events of the war.

    Lusitania
    The sinking of the Lusitania became one of the major turning points for Americans considering going to war. Of the 1,198 people that were killed, 128 of them were American, and many in the United States wanted revenge for the military action. Find out about this ship and where it was sunk.

    Zimmerman note and other German provocations
    Even though President Wilson continued to want peace for the United States after the sinking of the two ships, the Lusitania and the Arabic, many German actions continued to push the United States into war. Go to the provided link to read excerpts from the Zimmerman note, an intercepted telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico. What was Germany proposing to Mexico if the United States entered the war?

    Trench Warfare
    Find out about trench warfare and 'no man's land.' How did new technology (like the machine gun) change warfare in this war?

    WWI Culture
    Go to this site to find many images, letters, movie links, and much more about WWI. Even if you don't look through all of it, check out a couple of links to get an idea of the life of soldiers and civilians during this conflict.

    America enters the War

    On April 2, 1917, President Wilson delivered an address explaining why the United States should enter the war. A few days later, Congress passed a resolution officially entering the United States into World War I. In his speech, President Wilson said,
    "Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind... We are glad...to fight...for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples... The world must be made safe for democracy... We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities... It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war... But the right is more precious than peace."

    Selective Service Act
    When America entered the war, they needed to raise an army quickly. Find out about the Selective Service Act, and if it's still in effect today.

    Convoy System
    To protect merchant ships from more German U-boat attacks, American Vice Admiral William S. Sims proposed a convoy system. In this system, a heavy guard of destroyers escorted ships in the Atlantic Ocean. By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half. Go to this site to find routes, pictures, and stories about this system.
    Soldiers wearing gas masks in the trenches in Belgium, 1917: Frank Hurley/Australian War Records Section, public domainSoldiers wearing gas masks in the trenches in Belgium, 1917: Frank Hurley/Australian War Records Section, public domain
    Poison Gas
    Along with the machine gun, tanks, and use of airplanes, poison gas was first used in war during World War I. Find out why and how it was used through this site.

    Doughboys and the American Expeditionary Force
    Find out about General Pershing's Doughboys through this site.

    World War I timeline
    Please go through this timeline (through 1919) to get an understanding of the sequence of events of WWI.

    Alvin York
    Find out about one of the heroes of the war, Alvin York. Even though York was extremely successful during his time in combat, he sought exemption from fighting because he was a "conscientious objector," or a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds.

    World War I Summary

    With the addition of fresh American forces and the prospect of a lengthy war, the German forces were too exhausted to continue fighting and an armistice (truce) was called at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918.
    World War I was the bloodiest war in history up to that time. Deaths numbered about 22 million, more than half of them civilians. In addition, 20 million people were wounded, and 10 million more became refugees. The United States lost 48,000 men in battle, with another 62,000 dying of disease. More than 200,000 Americans were wounded.

    Quiz 4 instructions
    Once you have studied the course materials and vocabulary list for this section on World War I, you are ready to take Quiz 4. You'll find the quiz in the assignment folder. Good luck!

    04.03. Identify major causes of World War I and the United States' involvement and influence in the war. Quiz 4 - World War I (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 15 points possible 40 minutes

    Soldiers living in trenches in World War I: Wikimedia Commons, Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I, public domainSoldiers living in trenches in World War I: Wikimedia Commons, Bishop Museum archive photos of World War I, public domainQuiz 4 - World War I
    Take this quiz after you have studied the course materials and vocabulary list for World War I.

    You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


    04.04 Determine the reasons the United States Senate refused to join the League of Nations. (U.S. History)

    Determine the reasons the United States Senate refused to join the League of Nations.

    Lesson Notes

    According to Article 2, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution, the President has the "power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, . . ." President Wilson went to Paris and signed the Treaty of Versailles which set the conditions for peace. It was a harsh treaty that humilitated the proud Germans. Although President Wilson was more conciliatory than his European allies, but he acquiesced to their demand to make Germany pay. And pay she did.

    The treaty contained a "war guilt clause" forcing Germany to admit sole resonsibility for starting The Great War. German militarism had played a role in igniting the war, but other European nations, specifically Serbia, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were guilty of provoking diplomatic crises before the war.The treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army of over 100,000 men. Furthermore, the treaty required Germany to pay the huge financial reparations, or war damages amounting to $33 billion, to the Allies.

    When Wilson returned to the United States, he faced strong opposition to the treaty. Many felt it was too harsh. Former President Hoover noted, "The economic consequences alone will pull down all Europe and thus injure the United States." There were also American ethnic concerns over the new borders that had been drawn and the nine new nations it created.

    But the main domestic opposition centered on the issue of the League of Nations, a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grevances without going to war. This was part of President Wilson's plan for world peace. Some believed that the League threatened U.S. foreign policy by subjugating America to other nations.

    Conservative senators were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression. They wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war included in the treaty. Wilson refused to compromise and ignored the Republican majority in the Senate. When the treaty came up for a vote in the Senate in November 1919 and again in 1920, the Republicans introduced a number of amendments aimed at protecting American sovereignty. The amendments were defeated, President Wilson would not compromise, and the Senate failed to ratify the treaty. The United States never joined the League of Nations.

    04.04. Determine the reasons the United States Senate refused to join the League of Nations. (U.S. History)

    President Woodrow Wilson: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainPresident Woodrow Wilson: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainFourteen Points

    Find out about President Wilson's Fourteen Points and why this plan was so crucial in the treaty ending the war and planning for peace. What did he suggest needed to happen to maintain peace?

    Treaty of Versailles

    Even though Wilson had certain ideas to maintain lasting peace, the Allies wanted to make Germany pay for beginning the war. Go to this site to find out about the treaty that ended WWI. Learn about war reparations, the war-guilt clause, and the "Big Three's" drafting of this treaty.

    Henry Cabot Lodge

    Find out about this congressmen who was deemed Wilson's "nemesis." How did he oppose the treaty and how did he succeed in limiting American involvement in post-war activities?

    League of Nations debate

    This site explains how the League of Nations became a political battleground in America. Find out what happened to the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations through this site.

    Legacy of World War I

    Shortly after WWI, Americans began referring to the war as "the war to end all wars." This was with the hope that humanity would never again be willing to fight such a war. However, unresolved issues in Europe would eventually drag American into an even wider war. The Treaty of Versailles had settled nothing. In fact, some Europeans longed to resume the fight. The ominous shape of things to come emerged in the writings of an Austrian named Adolf Hitler, an angry veteran of WWI: "It cannot be that two million [Germans] should have fallen in vain... No, we do not pardon, we demand--vengeance!" Two decades after the end of the Great War, Adolf Hitler's desire for vengeance would plunge the world into an even greater war in which the United States would play a leading role.

    04.05 Examine the impact World War I had on the United States. (U.S. History)

    <strong>Examine the impact World War I had on the United States.</strong>

    Lesson Notes

    Summary

    In the United States, the war spurred social, political, and economic change. These changes increased government powers and expanded economic opportunities for minorities. The war accelerated America's emergence as the world's greatest industrial power; contributed to the movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities seeking jobs; intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments (socialists, anarchists, and communists) among mainstream Americans; and, brought over one million women into the work force.

    The Economy During the War

    Winning the war was not a job for American soldiers along. Because World War I was such an immense conflict, the entire economy had to be refocused on the war effort. The shift from producing consumer goods to producing war supplies was too complicated and important a job for private industry to handle on its own, so business and government joined together in the effort--with the government taking the lead. As a result, the power of national government was greatly expanded. Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy. [NOTE: This happened some twenty years later on an even greater scale with World War II.]

    Wages in most industries rose during the war years. The income of individuals actually went down due to rising food prices and housing costs. By contrast, stockholders in large corporations saw enormous profits. As a result of the uneven pay between labor and management, increasing work hours, child labor, and unsafe conditions, union membership almost doubled.

    To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson established the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft exemptions. The board did push for an eight-hour day, promoted safety inspections, and enforced the child labor ban, all earlier goals of the Progressives.

    To help produce and conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover. Instead of rationing food, Hoover declared one day a week, "meatless," another, "sweetless," two days, "wheatless," and two other days, "porkless." Homeowners planted "victory gardens" in their yards and schoolchildren spent their after-school hours growing tomatoes and cucumbers in public parks. As a result, American food shipments to the Allies tripled. Hoover also set a high government price on wheat and other farm products. Farmers responded by putting millions of additional acres into production.

    Selling the War

    Once the government extended control over the economy, it had to raise money to pay for the war AND convince the public to support the war. The governmemt raised about one-third of the $35 billion it eventually needed through taxes; graduated income taxes, war-profits taxes and higher excise taxes. The rest was raised through public borrowing by selling "Liberty" and "Victory" bonds.

    To popularize the war, the government set up the nation's first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public Information (CPI). Propaganda is a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions. President Wilson, however, feared the consequences of war hysteria. As soon as war was declared, conformity became the order of the day. If you didn't agree with the war, you often were considered a enemy sympathizer. Attacks on civil liberties, both unofficial and official, erupted. The main targets of these attacks were Americans who had emigrated from other nations, especially those from Germany and Austria-Hungary. Many Americans with German names lost their jobs. Schools stopped teaching the German language. People even resorted to violence against German Americans, beating or tar-and-feathering them.

    Civil Liberties Attacked

    In June, 1917 and May 1918, Congress passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts where a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal or abusive about the government or the war effort. Like the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 under President John Adams, these laws clearly violated the spirit of freedom of speech in the First Amendment. These World War I acts targeted socialist, anarchists, and labor leaders.

    Social Changes

    Important changes transformed the lives of African American and women. The greatest effect of the First World War on African-Americans what that it accelerated the Great Migration, the large-scale movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks to cities in the North. This population shift had begun before the war when African-Americans trickled northward to escape discrimination, but after the beginning of the 1900s, the trickle became a tidal wave. The outbreak of World War I and the drop in European immigration, where most of the unskilled labor force came, increased job opportunities for African Americans in steel mills, munitions plants, and stockyards. Northern manufactures even recruited Southern blacks by providing railroad passes if they would come North. In addition, the black-owned newspaper Chicago Defender bombarded Southern blacks with articles touting the prosperity for blacks in the North.

    While African Americans began new lives, women moved into jobs that had been held exclusively by men. They became railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, and bricklayers. They mined coal and took part in shipbuilding. At the same time, women continued to fill more traditional jobs like nurses, clerks, and teachers. Women, however, were not paid at the same rate as men for doing the same work, but it did help strengthen public support for woman's suffrage so that in 1920, the 19th Amendment was ratified by the States.

    Conclusion

    As mentioned in an earlier lesson, wars often unleash unintended and powerful social forces. This was certainly true of World War I. Important changes unified the nation politically, industrially and agriculturally, often at the expense of civil liberties. But it transformed the lives of millions of African Americans and women.

    04.05. Examine the impact World War I had on the United States . (U.S. History)

    Expanded governmental power during WWI

    Because the United States had the unprecedented task of shifting the economy from one which produced consumer goods to one that produced war supplies, the power of government was greatly expanded during this period. Business and government collaborated to steer the production in the needed directions. Also, Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy, including the power to fix prices and to regulate--even to nationalize--certain war-related industries.

    War Industries Board

    To regulate the new goals of the American economy, the War Industries Board was created and led by Bernard M. Baruch. Please go to this short description to find out how they increased production in America. Also, find out about Baruch and his background before heading the Board.

    WWI poster urging Americans to save food: Wikimedia Commons, USFA, public domainWWI poster urging Americans to save food: Wikimedia Commons, USFA, public domain
    Food Administration

    On the homefront, Americans were encouraged to save food and plant "victory gardens" to feed their families and thereby save food for soldiers. The Food Administration was headed by Herbert Hoover to encourage people to live the "gospel of the clean plate." He declared one day a week, "meatless," another, "sweetless," two days, "wheatless," and two other days, "porkless." Restaurants removed sugar bowls from the table and served bread only after the main course.

    Poster encouraging Americans to grow and can food: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericPoster encouraging Americans to grow and can food: Wikimedia Commons, USDA, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic
    George Creel
    Find out how George Creel convinced Americans to follow President Wilson into WWI. Do you think some of his ideas would work today?

    Anit-Immigrant sentiments during WWI
    Please read this short explanation of American life during WWI and concentrate on how immigrants were treated. Do you think that this was justified, and would something like this happen today?

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    Learn about these laws that were passed during the war. How did they limit American's speech?

    The flu epidemic of 1918
    Find out about this worldwide illness that killed more people that WWI.

    Quiz 5 instructions
    After you have reviewed the course materials and vocabulary list for the sections covering the League of Nations and the impact of WWI in the United States, you are ready to take Quiz 5. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

    04.05. Examine the impact World War I had on the United States. Quiz 5 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes
    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.0 American in the 1920s (US History)

    America in the 1920s - Lecture Notes Flapper on magazine cover, February 1922: Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle in the 1922 Saturday Evening Post, public domainFlapper on magazine cover, February 1922: Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle in the 1922 Saturday Evening Post, public domain Through this unit you will learn how Americans reacted to the rapid social change of the 1920s. Following the end of World War One, American service men and women came back changed by their experiences in the "war to end all wars." But they were also changed by their experiences in European thinking and the more liberal European society. A famous song of the times asked: "How ya gonna keep 'um down on the farm, after they've seen Paree (Paris)?" What followed in the 1920s were many changes in America. Women rebelled against the old Victorian Code that relegated women to subservent roles. Dress hems began to rise from the ankle to the knee. Hair styles changed as well as women began to "bob" their hair. In 1920, women received the vote with the ratification of the 19th Amendment. Women also began to smoke and drink in public. In 1920, however, America also ratified the 18th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and consumption of all alcoholic beaverages. The idea was to improve family life and the problems caused by "demon rum." The 'cure,' however, was worst than the 'disease' as organized crime began to control the illegal production and importation of liquor. This led to many more problems than the moral crusaders or lawmakers ever imagined. Inventions, such as vaccums, washing machines, and automobiles made life more enjoyable. And, easy credit made them affordable. It seemed like soon there would be no poor in America. The stage was set for a disaster of epic proportions beginning with the stock market crash of 1929, extending to an American AND a European depression, and leading to the rise of dictators in Europe resulting in World War Two.

    Readings:  You'll find the information you need on lesson pages & the specific links given in each lesson.  UShistory.org (http://www.ushistory.org/us/) sections 46-47 cover this time period. 

    05.01 Unit 5 vocabulary to study for quizzes (U.S. History)

    Be sure to study these vocabulary words and terms before you take each quiz.
    KKK (Ku Klux Klan) members in Virginia parade, 1922: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainKKK (Ku Klux Klan) members in Virginia parade, 1922: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domain
    Quiz 6 - Problems after WW I vocabulary list

    Red scare, nativism, isolationism, communism, Palmer raids, A. Mitchell Palmer,
    anarchists, Warren G. Harding, J. Calvin Coolidge, Sacco and Vanzetti, Ku Klux Klan,
    racism, Emergency Quota Act of 1921, Immigration Act of 1924, quota system,
    Boston Police strike, John L. Lewis, Coal Miner's strike, Kellogg-Briand Pact,
    Charles Evans Hughes, Ohio Gang, Teapot Dome Scandal, Albert B. Fall.

    Quiz 7 - Mass Culture vocabulary list

    public education, Coney Island, bicycling, tennis, Hershey, Coca-Cola, baseball,
    newspapers, Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Hearst, flapper, installment plan,
    Prohibition, 18th Amendment, speakeasies, bootleggers, organized crime, Al Capone,
    John Scopes, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, radio, Jack Dempsey,
    Suzanne Lenglen, Babe Ruth, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Edna St. Vincent Millay,
    George Gershwin, Ira Gershwin, Georgia O'Keefe, Charles Lindbergh, Model T, Henry Ford,
    Route 66, urban sprawl, credit, buying on margin, advertising.

    Quiz 8 - Changing roles for women and African Americans vocabulary list
    Kentucky Governor Morrow signs the bill ratifying 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, 1920: Wikimedia Commons, LC, Gretter Studio, Frankfort, KY, public domainKentucky Governor Morrow signs the bill ratifying 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, 1920: Wikimedia Commons, LC, Gretter Studio, Frankfort, KY, public domain
    Mother Jones, women's labor unions, Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee Institute,
    Atlanta Compromise, W.E.B Dubois, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    (NAACP), Niagra movement, "Talented Tenth," Seven Sisters colleges,
    National Association of Colored Women (NACW), suffrage, Seneca Falls convention,
    Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, NAWSA, 19th amendment,
    Great Migration, Harlem Renaissance, "the new Negro," James Weldon Johnson, Marcus Garvey,
    Back-to-Africa movement, Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA),
    Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington,
    Bessie Smith, 15th amendment, women's changing roles in 1920s and WW I,
    changing women's fashions in 1920s.

    05.02 Postwar Trends (U.S. History)

    Lesson Notes:

    Post-war Trends

    After WWI, Americans were forced to rapidly adjust to a changing nation. Soldiers were returning home to take back jobs from women and minorities, the cost of living had doubled, and farmers and factory workers suffered as wartime orders diminished. Many Americans responded to the stressful conditions by becoming fearful of outsiders. A wave of nativism, or prejudice against foreign-born people, swept the nation. So, too, did a belief in isolationism, a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs.

    Many Americans also feared the spread of communism, an economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship. In order to equalize wealth and power, Communists would put an end to private property, substituting government ownership of factories, railroads, and other businesses. This went against the American capitalist system and the possibility of change frightened many people. It led to a "Red Scare" in America as those who expressed sympathy for communism or socialism were, at best, looked at as unAmerican and, at worst, as traitors where were physically and psychologically mistreated.

    One other result of the Great War was a world-wide flu (influenza) pandemic. It began in Europe and in the fall of 1918 U.S. civilians and soldiers brought it home with them. About 25 percent of the U.S. population was affected. Mines shut down, telephone service was cut in half, and factories and offices staggered working hours to avoid contagion. People in the U.S. and abroad died by the thousands. Some cities ran out of coffins to bury the dead and doctors didn't know what to do. In army camps, where hundreds of soldiers lived close together the disease spread rapidly. This epidemic killed about 1/2 a million Americans. As a pandemic, historians estimate it may have killed as many as 30 million people.

    After all the troubles of the past decade, America was ready to 'let down its hair' as the country approached the 1920s. The times were like the end of a long, hard week. The Twenties were like the weekend--and Americans were ready to Party!

    05.02. Postwar Trends (U.S. History)

    The Red Scare
    This site contains an image history of the Red Scare, a panic that began in 1919 after revolutionaries in Russia overthrew their czarist regime. Get an idea of what Americans were afraid of during this period.

    The Palmer Raids
    Find out about these raids and why they targeted suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists (people who oppose any kind of government).
    Sacco and Vanzetti, handcuffed together, 1927: Wikimedia Commons, public domainSacco and Vanzetti, handcuffed together, 1927: Wikimedia Commons, public domain
    Sacco and Vanzetti
    Find out about these two people and their famous trial which divided the nation. Make sure to check out the chronology link to learn about the importance of this trial during the Red Scare.

    Limiting Immigration
    This is a great summary of the politics of the 1920's, but especially concentrate on what happened to limit immigration during this period. Also, read the short section on the rise of KKK activity.

    Boston Police Strike
    During WWI, workers were not allowed to strike because it would hurt the war effort. But in 1919, directly after the war, there were more than 3,000 strikes in which over 4 million workers walked off the job. Find out about one of the most famous strikes, the Boston Police Strike.

    John L. Lewis and the Coal Miners' Strike
    In 1919, another major strike was that of the coal miners. In protest of low wages and long workdays, John L. Lewis called members of the United Mine Workers to strike. Despite a court order from President Wilson, the mines remained closed for over a month. The coal miners received a 27 percent wage increase and John Lewis became a national hero. Please go to this link to read this short biography of Lewis.

    Labor Movement losses
    Despite the success of some strikes during this period, during the 1920's the labor movement lost power in America. Four reasons have been cited as leading to this decline:

    -Much of the workforce consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions.
    -Because immigrants spoke many different languages, it was harder to organize into one group.
    -Farmers migrating to cities were used to relying on themselves and not a union.
    -Most unions excluded African Americans.

    Warren G. Harding
    Find out about our 29th President, Warren G. Harding. Find out about his election. Did he have a large victory? Why or why not? Also, his friends were referred to as the "Ohio gang." Did they help or hurt his presidency?

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    In 1921 President Harding invited the major world powers to the Washington Naval Conference (Russia was not invited because of communist ties). During this conference, Secretary of States Charles Evans Hughes urged leaders to destroy many of their largest warships and pledge to build no more for ten years. This led to peace negotiations and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Please find out about this Pace through this link. Was it able to be enforced?

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    Find out about this scandal in President Harding's administration. Who was Albert B. Fall?

    J. Calvin Coolidge's Presidency
    This site gives a brief description about our 30th president, Calvin Coolidge.

    Quiz 6 instructions
    Once you have studied this section on the problems after WWI, please review the vocabulary list, and then take Quiz 6. As always, please let me know if you have any questions. Good luck!

    05.03 Investigate how mass media affected American society and how new inventions and consumerism influenced daily life. (U.S. History)

    Investigate how mass media affected American society and how new inventions and consumerism influenced daily life.

    Lesson Notes

    Following the challenges of 1910-1919, America emerged virtually unscathed from the devastation Europeans experienced as a result of the Great War. Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920s as America's standard of living soared. Business, technological, and social developments during this decade launched the era of modern consumerism.

    The years from 1920 through 1929 were prosperous ones for America. Americans controlled about 40 percent of the world's wealth. The mass media, especially newspapers and the radio, advertised the wonderful time- and labor-saving conveniences. Henry Ford's development of the assembly line revolutionized transportation. Now, the average American could buy a Ford, especially with the advent of the 'installment plan.' Consumers could purchase a vast array of electric appliances such as washing machines, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and sewing machines as well as Henry Ford's 'tin lizzie' for as little as a dollar down and a dollar a week.

    But, of all these marvels, it was the automobile that transformed America. Now that the average American could own a car, he wanted to travel. Good-bye to the sink holes and dusty furrows of earlier days. Returning soldiers told tales of the wonderful "autobahns" in Germany. Americans, too, wanted roads and they wanted them now. Two-lane highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66, allowed people to travel for business and pleasure. Unlike a train, you could go when and where you wanted. The automobile encouraged the road construction industry, as well as such spin-offs as gas stations (which sent oil stocks soaring) and motor hotels, soon shortened to "motels." The automobile liberated the isolated rural family, who could now travel to the city for shopping and entertainment. Women and young people became more independent and liberated, much to the consternation of their elders. Goods, ordered from a Sears Roebuck or Montgomery Ward mail-order catalog, could be delivered directly to the farm instead of a railway station.

    With all these new goods flooding the market, advertising agencies not only informed the public about the products and prices. Now, advertising began appealing to people's desire for youthfulness, beauty, health, and wealth. Brand names became familiar from coast to coast and, through advertising, luxuries became necessities. Chain stores like JC Penney, five-and-dime stores like Woolworth, and food markets like Safeway began springing up all across the nation. It seemed like this prosperity would go on forever. Banks provided the money at low interest rates. Advertisers pushed the "installment plan" as a way to have it all,and without waiting.

    Some business leaders and economists worried that this prosperity was superficial, but most Americans focused on the present. After all, what could go wrong? The decade of the 1920s brought about many technological and economic changes. Life definitely seemed easier and more enjoyable for hundreds of thousands of Americans. From the look of things, there was little to worry about. Even President Herbert Hoover predicted that the time would soon come when there would be no poor in America.

    05.03. Investigate how mass media affected American society and how new inventions and consumerism influenced daily life. (U.S. History)

    Public Education
    Go through this site to find out how public education has changed throughout our history. Concentrate on the Progressive and Modern Periods, because it was during these times that most qualities of our modern school system arose. Think about how schools shape our culture.

    Coney Island

    As mass leisure opportunities came into existence at the turn of the century, amusement parks like Coney Island grew in popularity. Learn about this park through this website.

    Woman with bicycle, circa 1900Woman with bicycle, circa 1900
    Bicycling and Other American Leisure Activities

    In the late 1800s, American leisure also expanded to bicycling and tennis. The first bicycles had been very dangerous and difficult to ride, but with the new 'safety bicycle,' cycling became an activity all could enjoy. Women began cycling in large numbers, and this gave them the new opportunity of being able to socialize without a chaperone present. Their clothing changed from a corset and full skirt to fitted blouses and "split" skirts. Susan B. Anthony said, "I think [bicycling] has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world--it gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance."
    Tennis also became a popular activity during this time, being invented in the year 1873 in North Wales.
    Also, during this period Hershey, with the first chocolate bar in 1900, and Coca-Cola, the first Coke in 1886 (originally invented for headaches and contained cocaine).

    Baseball

    Americans also began being spectators at sporting events (particularly boxing and baseball) during this period. Find out about the origins of baseball through this site.

    William Randolph Hearst

    Find out how Hearst became famous and how he spread mass culture through the media.

    Joseph Pulitzer
    Learn about Joseph Pulitzer through this link.

    The Superficial Prosperity of the 1920s

    During the 1920s productivity increased by an average of 50%. Businesses were producing many more goods and the stock market reached new heights. To purchase all of these new products, consumers began buying things by installment plans, or on credit. This created a superficial wealth during this decade, where people were living above their means with the thought that the economy could only keep improving. As you go through the information listed below on the 1920s, think about how many of the practices that began during this period are still with us today.

    The Roaring Twenties

    Please look through this site to get a feel for the 1920s. Learn about how styles and attitudes changed in America after WWI. Please learn about some of the great writers of this period--specifically F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, and Edna St. Vincent Millay. What were flappers, bootleggers, and speakeasies?

    Prohibition

    Find out about Prohibition, the great social experiment of the 1920s. Was this movement successful?

    Organized Crime in 1920s

    Find out about the increase in organized crime during this period. Who was Al Capone and the other main gangsters during this time?

    "The Monkey Trial"

    This site explains all about the John Scopes Trial, what some consider the trial of the century. It was a courtroom confrontation of two different viewpoints--science and religion. Who were the main people involved in this trial and what was the main problem that was debated?

    The Radio and Jazz

    The 1920s were also nicknamed the "Jazz Age." Please go to this short description of the importance of music and the radio in the 1920s.
    Charles Lindbergh in front of his plane, "The Spirit of St. Louis," 1927: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainCharles Lindbergh in front of his plane, "The Spirit of St. Louis," 1927: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domain

    Sports Stars
    Find out about three of the sports stars of the 1920s. Other notable athletes were Andrew "Rube" Foster (pitcher), Gertrude Ederle (swimmer), and Helen Wills (tennis).

    George and Ira Gershwin

    Find out about these two brothers and how they changed music in the Twenties. What was different about their style? This site not only has historical information, but you can also listen to some of their songs.

    Charles Lindbergh

    Learn all about Charles Lindbergh, and what he became famous for, through this site.

    05.04 Determine how Americans reacted to problems after WW I. (U.S. History)

    To determine a student's understanding of how Americans reacted to problems after WW I in a quiz.

    Lesson Notes:

    You will be tested on your knowledge on what Americans did after World War I to solve the problems they faced.

    05.04. Determine how Americans reacted to problems after WWI. Quiz 6 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

    Quiz 6 - Problems after WWI
    This quiz should be taken after the course materials and vocabulary list has been studied for the section on the Problems Americans faced after WWI.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.05 Explain how the automobile affected the business and landscape of America. (U.S. History)

    Explain how the automobile affected the business and landscape of America.

    Lesson Notes

    Of all these marvels discussed in Lesson 05.03, it was the automobile that transformed America. Now that the average American family could own a car, they wanted to travel. Good-bye to the sink holes and dusty furrows of earlier days. Returning soldiers told tales of the wonderful "autobahns" in Germany. Americans, too, wanted roads and they wanted them now.

    Two-lane highways (one each way) like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66 were built across the U.S. These new highways allowed people to travel for business and pleasure. Unlike a train, you could go when and where you wanted. The automobile brought about a new industry: road construction. There were other spin-offs associated with travel by automobile such as gas stations (which sent oil stocks soaring), tire manufacturers and motor hotels, soon shortened to simply "motels."

    The automobile liberated the isolated rural family, which could now travel to the city for shopping and entertainment. Women and young people became more independent and liberated, much to the consternation of their elders. Goods, ordered from a Sears Roebuck or Montgomery Ward mail-order catalog, could be delivered directly to the farm instead of a railway station.

    As Americans became more mobile, they flocked to national and state parks where they could personally enjoy the beauties of this vast country. Tent camping became popular as more and more families were able to enjoy the outdoors.

    05.05. Explain how the automobile affected the business and landscape of America. (U.S. History)

    1908 Ford Model T ad from Oct. 1, 1908 Life magazine: Wikimedia Commons, public domain1908 Ford Model T ad from Oct. 1, 1908 Life magazine: Wikimedia Commons, public domainThe Impact of the Automobile

    Can you imagine your life without any cars? How would you go shopping, to the movies or travel? As you go through these sites, think about the incredible changes that cars have had on the American lifestyle. Cars made isolated rural families able to go into cities to do shopping and enjoy entertainment. They also gave increased freedom to young people, especially women. Workers no longer had to live close to their jobs, but could commute to work. This resulted in what we now call urban sprawl. By the late 1920's, around 80% of the cars in the world were owned by Americans and one in five Americans owned one. Model T Road Trip This site has a virtual road trip across the country with a family and their Model T automobile. As you go through this trip, think about how mass production of cars changed American society. Cars This site has many pictures of historic cars and also talks about the impact that cars has had on our society. These aren't just cars of the 1920's, but the ideas about how cars form our lifestyles are still applicable. 1925 Nash (photo taken 2010 at antique car show): Wikimedia Commons, Christopher Ziemnowicz, public domain1925 Nash (photo taken 2010 at antique car show): Wikimedia Commons, Christopher Ziemnowicz, public domain Route 66 Cars changed not only the American way of life, but the American landscape as well. Architecture changed to make way for cars--with garages, gas stations, and parking lots. Paved roads were constructed throughout the country so that cars were able to travel in all weather. The most famous road, Route 66 was constructed during the 1920's. Find out about this road through this link (make sure to check out the "facts" link to get quick information about this road).

    Quiz 7 instructions After you have studied the sections on mass media and automobile, you are ready to take Quiz 7. Please remember to review the corresponding vocabulary list before starting the quiz. Good luck!

    05.05. Explain how the automobile affected the business and landscape of America. Quiz 7 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

    Ad for Hearst newspapers (early &quot;mass media&quot;), 1920&#39;s: Wikiimedia Commons, Hearst publishing, public domainAd for Hearst newspapers (early "mass media"), 1920's: Wikiimedia Commons, Hearst publishing, public domainQuiz 7 - Mass Culture
    Please take this quiz after the course materials and vocabulary lists for mass culture and automobiles have been studied.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.06 Investigate the emerging civil rights movements for women and African-Americans in the early 20th century. (U.S. History)

    Investigate the emerging civil rights movements for women and African-Americans in the early 20th century.

    Lesson Notes:

    Women

    Ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920 giving women the right to vote in national elections was only the opening of a door dealing with women's rights. American women pursued new lifestyles and assumed new jobs and different roles in society during the 1920s. Workplace opportunities and trends in family life are still major issues for women today.

    By the 1920s, the experiences of World War I, the draw of cities and changing attitudes had opened up a new world for many young Americans. In the rebellious, pleasure-loving atmosphere of the Twenties, many women began to assert their independence, reject the values of their parents, and demand the same freedoms as men. During the 1920s, a new ideal emerged for some women: the flapper. She was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day. Close-fitting felt hats, bright waistless dresses an inch above the knees, silk stockings and strings of beads replaced the dark and prim ankle-length dresses, corsets, and petticoats of the late-19th century Victorian days. Many young women cut their long hair into boyish bobs.

    Many young women became more assertive. In their bid for equal status with men, some began smoking cigarettes, drinking in public, and talking openly about sex--actions that would have ruined their reputations not too many years before. They danced to new, suggestive dances like the tango, Charleston, the fox trot and the shimmy. Along with these changes, the attitudes toward marriage changed as well. Many middle-class men and women began to view marriage as more of an equal partnership, although housework and child-rearing remained a woman's job.

    The fast-changing world of the "Roaring Twenties" produced new roles for women in the workplace and new trends in family life. The booming economy opened new work opportunities for women in offices, factories, stores, and professions. That same economy produced time-saving appliances and products also reshaped the roles of housewives and mothers.

    Although women had worked successfully during the war, afterwards employers turned to the returning soldiers to fill positions in industry. Children, who had been thrown in with adults in factory work, farm labor, and apprenticeships, spent most of their days at school and in organized activities with others their own age. Factory owners supported the education of children because an educated child became a more versatile and productive adult.

    African-American Voices

    During the 1920s, African Americans set new goals for themselves as they moved north to the nation's largest cities. Between 1910 and 1920, in a movement known as the Great Migration, hundreds of thousands of African Americans had uprooted themselves from their homes in the South and moved north and to California in search of jobs. Tensions between the races escalated in the years prior to 1920, culminating, in the summer of 1919, in some 25 urban race riots. Leading the way was James Weldon Johnson, executive secretary of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), an organization founded in 1909 to protest racial violence and fight for legislation to protect African-American rights. The NAACP made antilynching laws one of its main priorities.

    Another approach was taken by Marcus Garvey, an immigrant from Jamaica, who believed that African Americans should build a separate society. His more radical message of black pride aroused the hopes of many. Garvey lured followers with programs to promote African-American businesses. He also encouraged his followers to "return to Africa" and help build a mighty nation. Despite the appeal of Garvey's movement, support for it declined in the mid-1920s when he was convicted of mail fraud and jailed.

    But the most powerful and long-lasting movement of black pride is known as the Harlem Renaissance. It was a creative literary and musical movement that spoke for all African-Americans throughout America. Many Southern blacks who migrated north moved to Harlem, a neighborhood on the northern end of Manhattan Island. In the 1920s Harlem became the world's largest black urban community with residents from the South, the West Indies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Haiti.

    Conclusion

    The liberated women and Harlem Renaissance represented two parts of the great social and cultural changes that swept America in the 1920s. The period was characterized by economic prosperity, new ideas, changing values, and personal freedom. The Twenties also brought the nation important new developments in art, literature, and music. Most of these changes were lasting. The economic boom, however, was not.

    05.06. Investigate the emerging civil rights movements for women and African-Americans in the early 20th century. (U.S. History)

    Labor activist Mother Jones, early 1900&#39;s: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainLabor activist Mother Jones, early 1900's: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainWomen Organize in Labor Unions

    Although women were barred from many unions, they united behind powerful leaders to demand better working conditions, equal pay for equal work and an end to child labor. The most prominent leader in the women's labor movement was Mother Jones. Please review the information that we have seen about her to find out what she was fighting for in this movement. Higher Education for Women Please go to this short report to find out why opportunities in higher education for women were increasing in the late 1800's. What did receiving more education mean for women? Women's Suffrage Find out about the movement that gained women the right to vote, or the women's suffrage movement. Why was voting important to these women, and who were their major leaders? NAWSA and Women's Suffrage Find out much more about the women's suffrage movement and their main organization, the NAWSA. How did the suffrage movement end--did they meet with success? NACW Find out about the women who started this organization and what their goals were for their sex and race.

    Booker T. Washington Find out about this prominent African American leader and the Tuskegee Institute. Also, read about his famous speech, the Atlanta Compromise. What did he use as a symbol of how Americans of different races could successfully work together? W.E.B. Du Bois W.E.B. Du Bois publicly fought for the rights of African Americans throughout his life. Find out what he believed and wanted for his people. Was it the same as Booker T. Washington's vision? Also, learn about the founding of the NAACP and what Du Bois called the "Talented Tenth."

    05.07 Explain the sudden growth of black consciousness in the 1920s. (U.S. History)

    Explain the sudden growth of black consciousness in the 1920s

    Lesson Notes:

    The Harlem Renaissance was a literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture. It was led by well-educated, middle-class blacks who expressed a new pride in the African-American experience. In effect, they spoke for their race in word and music. They wrote about the trials of being black in a white world and they did it with educated minds. Writers included Claude McKay, a novelist, poet, and Jamaican immigrant, who urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination. His poems also expressed the pain of life in the black ghettos. Missouri-born Langston Hughes was the movement's best-know poet. His poems described the difficult lives of working-class African Americans. Zora Neale Hurston portrayed the lives of poor, unschooled Southern blacks.

    The spirit and talent of the Harlem Renaissance reached far beyond the world of African-American writers and intellectuals. During the Twenties African-Americans in the performing arts, Broadway plays and concert halls, won large followings of blacks and whites. Although Jazz was born in the early 20th century in New Orleans, where musicians blended ragtime and the blues into a new sound. The sound travelled north, up the Mississippi, with the Great Migration to Chicago, then east to New York City and flourished in Harlem. Entertainers like Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, and Louis Armstrong popularized jazz in the clubs of Harlem, which lured throngs of whites as well as blacks to enjoy the music. Bessie Smith, a female blues singer, was perhaps the outstanding vocalist of the decade. She achieved enormous popularity among white and black audiences.

    The spread and acceptance of African-American literature and music throughout the nation and especially in the North and West, paved the way for more acceptance of African-Americans as people. This outpouring of intellectual creativity gave blacks a new sense of self. The black writers of this age put in words and music the feelings, aspirations, and hopes of African-Americans everywhere. Concurrently, this literary and artistic movement called the Harlem Renaissance confirmed to whites, especially white intellectuals, what African-Americans were capable of if just given an opportunity.

    05.07. Account for the sudden growth of black consciousness in the 1920's. (U.S. History)

    WWI and Post-War African-American Movement
    Find out why WWI and the post-war period continued to fuel the African-American Movement. Learn about major obstacles and successes during this period.

    The Great Migration
    This site has a brief description of the Great Migration. How did conditions of the times encourage people to move and where were they moving to?

    The Harlem Renaissance
    Find out about this important social movement. Who were the prominent writers of this renaissance?

    Zora Neale Hurston
    Please go through this description of writer and sociologist, Zora Neal Hurston. Find out what was unique about her writing and what is considered her most famous work.

    Langston Hughes
    Find out about one of the most notable of the Harlem Renaissance writers, Langston Hughes.

    James Weldon Johnson
    James Weldon Johnson was the executive secretary to the NAACP as it fought for African-American rights. During his service in the organization, it was especially focused on antilynching legislation. Find out about his career as a poet and what he did for American literature.

    Marcus Garvey
    This site has a brief biography of the leader Marcus Garvey. Find out about his organization, the U.N.I.A. and about its goals. This site also has many links to other prominent African-Americans of this time period.

    Paul Robeson
    This site explains about the importance of Paul Robeson and his career as a dramatic actor.
    Jazz legend Louis Armstrong: Wikimedia Commons, donated to the Library of Congress by New York World-Telegram & Sun; public domainJazz legend Louis Armstrong: Wikimedia Commons, donated to the Library of Congress by New York World-Telegram & Sun; public domain
    Jazz
    This is an incredible site that has the biographies of 100 of the great jazz artists, in addition to pictures and audio clips of their work. Please learn about many of these musicians, and make sure to read about Duke Ellington and Bessie Smith.

    Louis Armstrong
    Find out about Louis Armstrong's contributions to jazz and society through this link.

    05.08 Describe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society and the roles of African Americans. (U.S. History)

    Describe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society and the roles of African Americans.

    Lesson Notes

    The changes in women's attitudes and roles in society as well as the roles of African-Americans in the 1920s have been covered in Lessons 05.06 and 05.07.

    05.08. Describe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society and the roles of African Americans. (U.S. History)

    Fashion illustration of woman smoking, 1920&#39;s: Wikimedia Commons, LC, Russell Patterson, public domainFashion illustration of woman smoking, 1920's: Wikimedia Commons, LC, Russell Patterson, public domainDescribe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society. Women and WWI This site explains how women's roles changed because of WWI. Changing Ideas for Women

    During the 1920's young women began to shed the old standards that their mothers lived with. Many young women became more assertive and to show that they were equal with men, they began drinking and smoking in public, a practice that just a few years later would have ruined a woman's reputation. Attitudes towards marriage also changed. During this time many young couples began viewing this relationship as a partnership, rather than a husband ruling everything. However, it was still typically believed that housework and child-rearing was women's work, but the 1920's also revolutionized the work of a household. During this time, mass production provided ready-made clothes in the stores and much more pre-made food than had previously been available (like sliced bread and canned foods). Fashion and changing women's attitudes in 1920's Find out how changing women's fashion reflected the increased freedoms they were enjoying during this period.

    Young women in swimsuits on the beach, 1920: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domainYoung women in swimsuits on the beach, 1920: Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, public domain Quiz 8 instructions After you have studied the course material and vocabulary list for the sections on the changing roles of African Americans and women, you are ready to take Quiz 8. Final Exam Instructions Once you have completed all of the quizzes for the course and have reviewed the materials and vocabulary list, you are ready to take the Final Exam. This test can only be attempted one time and has a time limit of 1 hour and 30 minutes. Thank you for taking this class and good luck on the test.

    05.08. Describe the changes in women's attitudes and roles in society and the roles of African Americans. Quiz 8 (U.S. History)

    computer-scored 15 points possible 20 minutes

    Quiz 8 - Changing Roles of African Americans and Women
    This quiz should be taken after studying the course materials and vocabulary list for the changing roles of African American and women.

    You must complete the quiz once you have started. You must score 80 percent on the test and you will have 40 minutes to complete it. If you score below 80 percent you will need to wait 24 hours before you can take the test again.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.09 Written Essay Assignment (US History)

    Written Essay

    You will be writing an argumentative/persuasive essay IN YOUR OWN WORDS from one of three choices provided. You will research the subject and use citations. This will be your major writing assignment for this class.

    Use the links listed to learn how to cite your sources of information. Also, be very careful to read and follow all the instructions and requirements of this 500+ word essay.

    05.09. Written Essay Assignment

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

    Listed below are three essay questions, (found after the ***) one of which must be answered at any time during the course. You select which one of the three questions you want to answer.

    Please answer the question thoughtfully in a argumentative or persuasive 500-word essay (double-spaced with 12 point font). This essay will be graded based on the completeness of the answer and the writing style used in the composition. Include an introduction, body, and conclusion in your essay along with a bibliography or citation of your sources. You must have a minimum of three sources and you cannot use Wikipedia, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves or similiar sites. Your essay is worth a maximum of 30 points.

    Essays are a mysterious beast. I am going to try to give you a view into what you need to do in order to do well, and to let you what I expect.

    HOW TO DO AN US HISTORY ESSAY

    The first thing I want you to do is look at the stick man. There are five parts to a stick man. Each part of this stick man will represent a part of the essay.

     

    • Introduction: The head.
        • The head tells everything else what to do. So it thinks briefly(in the opening paragraph) about what it is going to tell the body what to do. For example; if I am writing an essay about the Civil War then I might say; The Civil War has many causes and in essence a powder keg, it just needed the right spark to set it off. Three 'sparks' were the election of President Lincoln, tensions between North and South, and slavery. (Now this wouldn't be the entire opening paragraph but there is a glimpse of part of it.) So if you'll notice the head just outlined three things that are going to be discussed in more detail in each body paragraph.
    • Arms: Body paragraph 1. The arms make the body able to get things done.
        • If we are sticking with the Civil War example this paragraph I would discuss President Lincoln's election and then I would tell three reasons why this caused the Civil War. After each reason I would discuss why that reason led to the Civil War. For example: President Lincoln's election was one cause of the Civil War, he was an abolitionist and after his election the South worried that he might push to outlaw slavery. So his election ended up being the catalist for the South succeeding from the Union. So I mentioned that he was an abolitionist (fact) and that because of the souths concerns they succeeded (analysis, or the why that supports my thesis.)Then you do this at least two more times in this paragraph.
        • Leg I: Body Paragraph 2. (See instructions in Body Paragraph 1) These hold the body up and take it places.
        • Leg II: Body Paragraph 3. (See instruction in Body Paragraph 1) These hold the body up and take it places.
        • Body: Conclusion-holds it all together
      • The conclusion represented by the body is what holds everything together and provides a last bit of energy (via food digestion).
          • The conclusion wraps everything up and holds it together but it doesn't make sweeping generalizations like, "and that is why we are the country we are today." So the things you would want to include are; a re-state of the thesis, you can re-word it, any kind of wrap-up, and you might even, using the example of the Civil War, talk about the devastating effects of the war. This is kind of your last chance to make your point and finish your essay strong.

         

        Now this may be a silly or stupid analysis, but, I hope it helps you as you write your essay. I am of the opinion that next to reading, writing is the most important skill you, as a student, can develop. Be sure to read through the instructions carefully and focus your entire efforts on answering the questions, everything you do needs to support the thesis or your answer.

         

        • Rubric
          • Introduction: 8 points
            ___/2 Thesis answers the question.
            ___/2 All parts of the question have been addressed.
            ___/1 Alludes to why. . . (this is different with each question.)
            ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 1)
            ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 2)
            ___/1 Contains a point to be covered in one of the body paragraphs. (Body 3)

           

          • Body Paragraph 1: 8 points
            ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
            ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          • Body Paragraph 2: 8 points
            ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
            ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          • Body Paragraph 3: 8 points
            ___/2 Subject sentence clearly introduces the subject to be discussed in the paragraph.
            ___/1 Factual evidence #1.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #2.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
            ___/1 Factual evidence #3.
            ___/1 Analytical tie evidence to the thesis, this is the WHY. (Why. . . does this fact support the thesis.)
          • Conclusion: 4 points
            ___/2 Some kind of wrap-up of the material is evident without the use of the phrase, "we wouldn't be here today if. . ." or any variation of that phrase.
            ___/2 Thesis is re-stated is some form. (The thesis is the answer to the question.)
          • Sources: 3 points
            ___/1 First source is cited.
            ___/1 Second source is cited.
            ___/1 Third source is cited.
          • Format:
            ___/1 Essay is written in 2 pages and is double spaced.

           

          ***************************************************************************************************************************************
          Writing Assignment Option 1
          In the first section of the course, you studied political patronage and the spoils system. Is this system a good or bad one for the American people. Why or why not?

          Writing Assignment Option 2
          You have studied the growth of labor unions in America. Is there still a need for unions today? Why or why not?

          Writing Assignment Option 3
          Compare and contrast the home-front changes of World War I to what we are experiencing in America today with the War on Terror. How are they the same and how are they different? Are changes in civilians' lives justified during wartime Why or why not?

           

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.10 US History.Q2.Reading Log

    This assignment is to be completed during your study of U.S. History from the Industrial Revolution through the “Roaring Twenties.” Select and answer any 25 of the questions or statements below. I suggest you write your answers as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class.

    05.10. US History.Q2.Reading Log

    teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

    This assignment is to be completed during your study of U.S. History from the Industrial Revolution through the “Roaring Twenties.” Select and answer any 25 of the questions or statements below. I suggest you write your answers as you progress through your readings rather than wait till the end of the class.

    Each question/statement is Pass/Fail and must be answered in your OWN words and in a complete paragraph of five sentences or more. Either you follow directions and give a complete answer to each question/statement or you lose the point. They are to be compiled into a “Reading Log” and submitted in Topic 3 area. Each is worth one point. These can also be used as a Study Guide for the Final.

    Keep in mind that your 5 sentences need to be meaningful, information-packed sentences.  Empty sentences such as "And that's why this was important" don't count.

    1. During the Gilded Age, how did the 'Robber Barons' control industry?
    2 Discuss Social Darwinism and its opposite philosophy, Social Gospel. How were they different?
    3. Where did the immigrants from 1870 through 1920 come from and what difficulties did they face in coming to America?
    4. Explain the anti-immigration movement and the discrimination many immigrants faced because of racial, religious, and ethnic differences.
    5. What were problems city dwellers faced?
    6. What were 'political machines' and how did they control the cities?
    7. What is the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 and why was it important in reducing the effect of political machines?
    8. How did technology change transportation and communication during the late 1800s and early 1900s?
    9. What changes in education made schooling available to all?
    10. Discuss how African Americans were kept from voting.
    11. Compare/contrast how Americans spent their leisure time around the turn of the century with how you spend your free time?
    12. What roll did newspapers play in forming American culture?
    13. Explain four goals of Progressivism and why reformers felt they were necessary.
    14. What type of work was available to women around the turn of the century?
    15. What did President Theodore Roosevelt do regarding African American, public health, the environment, and monopolies?
    16. Discuss teh process the women's sufrrage movement had to go through to get the vote?
    17. How did the Hawaiian Islands become a U.S. territory?
    18. Explain the causes and effects of the Spanish-American War.
    19. What were some of the causes of World War One?
    20. What were some effects of World War One?
    21. Why did the U.S. join in World War One?
    22. What new weapons led to the massive casualties during World War One?
    23. What was the impact of World War One on Americans’ civil liberties?
    24. What were the main points of President Woodrow Wilson’s peace plan?
    25. What was the Treaty of Versailles and why did the U.S. Senate reject it?
    26. Why did Americans fear communism back in the 1920s?
    27. What was Prohibition and how effective was it?
    28. How did popular culture, manners and morals change in the 1920s?
    29. What was a flapper & what brought about new freedoms for women?
    30. Who were the individuals leading the push for more rights for African Americans and what did they do to expand opportunities for black citizens?
    31. What was the Harlem Renaissance and what was its impact on the thinking of whites and blacks in America?
    32. What caused the Great Migration and how did it change American demographics?
    33. What was the significance of the Scopes Trial?
    34. Why was the nation’s economy 'sick' in the late 1920s?
    35. How did the stock market crash affect American businesses and the workforce?

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


    05.11 Proctored Final Test Instructions (U.S. History)

    Final Exam

    This is your final step after you've reviewed the course material, taken all of the quizzes for the class, and completed all the other assignments.

    THE EXAM:

    • Comprehensive final exam for this quarter of U.S. History only. Please make sure before you begin that you have reviewed the material thoroughly.
    • There is an hour-and-a-half time limit and this test consists of objective questions and essays that will test your knowledge of the themes in this class. Because this is a final test and I want to see what you have learned in this course.
    • This test consists of over thirty questions which are a combination of multiple choice and true/false. These will be machine-graded automatically by the computer.
    • There are also four essay questions covering general themes from this quarter and will be submitted to me for grading. These essay questions are worth ten points apiece and will require a comprehensive answer of, at least, five sentences including an Introduction where you state your position (thesis statement) on the question. In your essay you will need to give specifics to support your position. If, for example, you are asked to explain the causes of World War Two, you would need to discuss (not simply list) causes like nationalism, militarism, economic instability, rise of totalitarian governments, appeasement, or discontent with the Treaty of Versailles. To earn all points you must have a minimum of three main points to support your position. Your score will also depend on how well you explain your three main points. Fewer than three main points or little or no support for your main points will result in a lower score. I will return your grade for the final after I have graded your essays.
    • You are NOT expected to memorize all you have learned, but you must be able to demonstrate mastery of the material. Consequently, you are allowed to use two (2) pages of handwritten notes - one-side only. You may NOT use any xeroxed copies or typed pages on the Final. You may NOT use the typed Reading Log assignment, although you are free to handwrite any of those items you submitted for the Reading Log assignment.
    • Set up an appointment to take the Proctored Test once you have fulfilled all of the requirements to do so and feel confident that you can pass.
    • You must pass the final test at 60 percent to earn credit in this class.