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Biology, 2nd Quarter

00.0 Start Here (Biology)

Course Description

The Biology Core Curriculum has two primary goals: (1) students will value and use science as a process of obtaining knowledge based on observable evidence, and (2) students' curiosity will be sustained as they develop and refine the abilities associated with scientific inquiry.

The Biology Core has three major concepts:

  1. The structures in all living things occur as a result of necessary functions.
  2. Interactions of organisms in an environment are determined by the biotic and abiotic components of the environment.
  3. Evolution of species occurs over time and is related to the environment in which the species live.

Class Overview

Each quarter of Biology is worth .25 credit. Assignments should be sent via the text box in Module three (3) Lessons, Activities, Quizzes & Tests. 

Once you enroll in the class, you need to send your first assignment within one week. You do not have to do the assignments in order, but it may be helpful as they will give you knowledge about the basics in that unit.

At times if you are waiting for a reply to a question, it is fine to work ahead on the next assignment. You can send one assignment to me, or many at a time. Either way is fine. You need to MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON EVERY ASSIGNMENT.  ALWAYS KEEP A COPY OF ALL ASSIGNMENTS SENT.

Make a folder on your desktop (or a Flash Drive, if you are working on a school computer), and save all your assignments there. 

As you work on your assignments, realize that the links you may need are in the course material in Topic Two in the units. I am continuously working on updating them. Please just use search engines if you find that a link is broken on an assignment you are working on. The links change so often it is very hard to keep up with them. I personally like the search engine, dogpile.com, as it includes quite a few of the other existing search engines.

You need to finish this course within nine weeks of your start date.  If you've passed the class your grade will be sent to the EHS office on the tenth week.  Please message me if you feel you need an extension to your completion date.  I am on-line each day. If you run into problems, just hold that assignment and send me a message through your class INBOX. You may go on to the next assignment or the next question in the assignment if you would like.

Grading

Each assignment within the course is worth 10 points, with the exception of a few large projects.

GRADING SCALE
A 93 - 100%
A- 90 - 92%
B+ 87 - 89%
B 83 - 86%
B- 80 - 82%
C+ 77 - 79%
C 73 - 76%
C- 70 - 72%
D+ 67 - 69%
D 63 - 66%
D- 60 - 62%
F 0 - 59%

In-class quizzes are counted as assignment grades, and the final test is worth 50% of your grade.

 

 

00.00 Orientation (Biology)

self-scored (no gradebook points) 0 points possible 8 minutes

Click here to watch the 6 minute orientation video.

Click here to download and save the pacing guide.  There are not any due dates listed in the course.  The pacing guide will tell you what you need to do each week, so you will complete the course in nine weeks.  Your grade will be sent to the EHS office on week ten.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.00 About Me (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 90 minutes

This is your first assignment. Copy everything between the asterisks, paste the assignment in a word document, complete the assignment, save the file.  Once you've saved your work copy and paste the assignment under "About Me".  Once you submit the "About Me" assignment, the other assignments will be made available.

 

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ASSIGNMENT About Me - REVISION DATE: 5/30/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

Instructional Procedures:

Fill out the assignment and submit it to your teacher.

 

STUDENT INFORMATION

Name

E-mail

Phone Number (Don't add hyphens.  Give the phone number in numerical digits only)                                                           

Can I text this number?

Which “brick and mortar” school do you attend?

What year do you graduate?

Counselor’s Name

Counselor’s E-mail

Counselor’s Phone Number (Don't add hyphens.  Give the phone number in numerical digits only) 

As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers and staff with respect. (Type Yes or No).

 

PARENT INFORMATION

Name

E-mail

Phone Number (Don't add hyphens.  Give the phone number in numerical digits only) 

Can I text this number?

 

EXPLORE THE COURSE

After watching the orientation video. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the icon next to the folder where you find your assignments?

A. a chain link

B. a piece of paper with an A+ on it

C. a circle with the letter Q

2. What is the icon next to the folder where you submit your assignments?

A. a chain link

B. a piece of paper with an A+ on it

C. a circle with the letter Q

3. What is the icon next to the folder where you take a quiz or exam?

A. a chain link

B. a piece of paper with an A+ on it

C. a circle with the letter Q

4.  What is your completion date?

The text book is found in Module 1 under the “Required Resources” section.

5. Did you download the biology book? 

6. Do you know where you saved the book on your computer?

A printable pacing guide is found in Module 2 under the "Start Here" section.

7.  Have you downloaded the pacing guide?

8. Do you know where you saved the pacing guide on your computer?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


00.01.01 Student Software Needs

 

Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.

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02.00 Ecology and Evolution (Biology)

Term 2: Ecology and Evolution includes eight assignments.
The information necessary for you to complete each assignment is included with the assignment itself. As you investigate many locations on the web, you will come to a better understanding of how organisms interact and have changed through time. If you deem it necessary, you may also borrow a biology book from your local school to help you through the assignments.

02.01 Nature's Interactions (Biology)

Investigate an ecosystem using methods of science to gather quantitative and qualitative data that describe the ecosystem in detail.

TO DO

Choose your path between text book or Khan Academy. You do not need to to both.

 

Text Book: Chapter 1 Nature's Interactions in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book. After you have completed all the chapter, move onto the Module Activities.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video and Reading): Click on the URL listed below titled "Intro to ecosystems - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activities. 

  1. Ecosystems and biomes (Video)

  2. What is an ecosystem? (Reading)

  3. Flow of energy and matter through ecosystems (Video)

  4. Bozeman science: Ecosystems (Video)

  5. Food chains & food webs (Reading)

  6. Energy flow & primary productivity (Reading)

After you have completed all the curriculum listed for KHAN Academy, move onto the Module Activities.

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter or completed Khan Academy complete all of the following activities:

  • 02.01.01 Nature's Interactions - Project
  • 02.01.02 Nature's Interactions Continued - Project
  • 02.01.03 Nature's Interactions - Quiz 

 

02.01.01 Nature's Interactions (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

 

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITY:

NOTE: You need to do this lab if you are applying for the Regents Scholarship. If you are not applying for the Regents Scholarship you can do the alternative assignment listed below.

 

This assignment is a two part project that will take you 4 WEEKS to complete. You should start this and be prepared to keep notes and pictures for at least one month. The goal is for you to gain an understanding of the relationships and interactions within an ecosystem.

Scenario: Imagine you are an ecologist studying an ecosystem. Because you live far from the ecosystem you are studying, you decide to simulate the natural ecosystem by setting up a mini-ecosystem. You may use an aquarium, a large tupperware container, 2 litter pop bottle, or any container that you have available. 

Materials:

4 plants Large container
3 animals (ie. worms, insects) Camera – any camera will work, even your phone.
Soil Cheese cloth or other covering that will allow air

 

INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Choose an ecosystem, such as a pond, forest, or grass field that you would like to simulate. Design a mini-ecosystem that will support at least four types of plants and three types of animals from that ecosystem. 
  2. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.

  3. Answer the questions and submit it to be graded.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.01.01 - REVISION DATE: 1/4/17 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

  1. The ecosystem I am going to simulate is ____________________.
  2. The 4 plants I am going to use are:
  3. ​The 3 aminals I am going to use are: 
  4. My plan for the container is
  5. This project will take me 4 weeks.  If I start today, I will have it completed by (month/day/year) _________________.

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ALTERNATIVE ASSIGNMENT

This assignment is an alternative assignment for 02.01.01 and 02.01.02

A biome is a major biological community that occurs over a large area of land. Each biome is characterized by particular environmental and geographic conditions such as precipitation, temperature, wind, soil conditions, proximity to water, amount of sunlight and terrain. Tropical rain forests, for example, tend to be hot, humid, seasonless, and biologically diverse whether they are in South America or Central Africa. In addition, different regions in the same biome tend to support similar types of plant and animal life. There is some overlap between biomes, but scientists usually identify 8 major biomes on earth:

  • Polar (arctic, alpine)
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Temperate forest (deciduous forest)
  • Tropical forest (rain forest)
  • Desert
  • Savanna (prairie, pampas, steppe)
  • Chaparral (scrub, temperate grassland)
  • Freshwater
  • Marine

You will be responsible for researching one of these biomes and preparing a powerpoint presentation. In your presentation, you will describe your assigned biome in as much detail as

possible. Be sure to tell us:

  1. Where can we find your biome on earth? What are some specific examples?
  2. What is the climate like in your biome, and why?
  3. What sorts of animal and plant life can be found in your biome?
  4. What are some of the environmental challenges that organisms need to overcome to be successful in your biome?
  5. What are some adaptations that have evolved in your biome’s organisms?
  6. Any interesting facts and information you can include about your biome (the more the better!)

Make sure your presentation includes pictures of the animal and plant life found in your biome, a map showing where the biome is located, graphs of average monthly temperature and precipitation.

Researching Your Biome

During your research, you are required to use at least two print sources and two electronic (internet) sources, but the best presentations will probably have more than the minimum. The more information you have, the more detailed your presentation will be. Make sure you keep a list of all sources used during your research since you will be turning a bibliography in with your report!

Grading

Your grade for this project is based on 4 criteria:

  • Evaluation of your presentation (Is it well prepared and informative? Does it answer all of the above questions? Is it interesting?) 20 points
  • The quality of your visual aids: 10 points
  • The quality of your written presentation: 10 points
  • Bibliography: 10 points

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.01.02 Nature's Interactions Continued (Biology)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 150 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Put your plan from assignment 02.01.01 into action.
  2. Add soil characteristic of the ecosystem.
  3. Add plants and/or sow seeds and spores. Allow time for seeds and spores to germinate.
  4. Add several types of animals to the mini-ecosystem. Cover with screen or cheesecloth and place in a well-lit area.
  5. Observe the ecosystem daily for four weeks, adding water as it is required. Record the number of species of plants and animals, and note their behaior and growth. Look for interactions between organisms and for any changes that may occur. Remember to take weekly pictures and document daily observations.
  6. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.
  7. After the four week period, type your observations and answer the questions about your mini-ecosystem. Make sure you take weekly pictures of your project, and include them as part of your observations. To earn full credit you need at least 25 days of observation and 4 pictures.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.01.02 - REVISION DATE: 7/28/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.) 

OBSERVATION:

  1. What is the energy source in your ecosystem?
  2. How many different species did you observe in your ecosystem?
  3. Define limiting factor.
  4. Which organisms increased in number? Which decreased in number? What factors may have caused these changes?
  5. Describe the niche of any one of the organisms in the ecosystem you designed.
  6. Add weekly pictures and daily observations. You should have at least 4 pictures of your ecosystem and at least 25 daily observations.

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS:

  1. What are the general conditions necessary to maintain an ecosystem?
  2. Write out the food chain for your ecosystem. Identify producers, consumers, and decomposers.
  3. Diagram how carbon is recycled within your ecosystem. Make sure you use the organisms that are unique to your ecosystem.
  4. What evidence is there of competition among the organisms in your ecosystem?

THINKING FURTHER:

  1. What factors in your ecosystem would limit population growth?
  2. How do you think adding more plants would affect your ecosystem?
  3. How is the ecosystem you have designed different from an actual ecosystem found in nature? In what way is it similar?
  4. How can studying ecosystems be of benefit as humans begin to populate more and more space on earth?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.01.03 Nature's Interactions (Biology)

computer-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.02 Circle of Life (Biology)

Describe how interactions among organisms and their environment help shape ecosystems.

TO DO

Read: Chapter 2 Circle of Life in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video): Click on the URL listed below titled "Exploring ecosystems - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activities. 

  1. Coral reef symbiosis (Video)
  2. Coastal food webs (Video)
  3. Tropical rainforest diversity (Video)

After you have completed all the curriculum for KHAN Academy, move onto Explore and Module Activities.

Explore:  Click on the URL listed below titled "Utah's exotic species: the good, the bad and the ugly."  Expolore the article and learn about exotic species found in Utah.

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter (or watched the KHAN Academy Videos) and explored Utah's exotic species: the good, the bad and the ugly complete the following activities:

  • 02.02.01 Circle of Life 
  • 02.02.02 Circle of Life - Quiz 

 

02.02.01 Circle of Life (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 120 minutes

Summary:

A symbiotic relationship, is a relationship between two different species. Symbiotic relationships can be benifical to both species, benifical to one species and harmful to the other, or benifical to one and the other is neither benefited or harmed.  

Instructional Procedures:

This assignment has 2 parts. Your answers must be VERY DETAILED. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.02.01 - REVISION DATE: 7/10/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

PART 1:  Research one pair of organisms per relationship, that have co-evolved and are in a:

A. Predator/Prey relationship:

B. Mutualistic relationship:

C. Parasitic relationship:

D. Commensalitic relationship: 

Briefly (a sentence or two) describe the relationship of the two organisms in terms of beneficial, harmful, or neither.

PART 2: Research five organisms that were introduced to an environment (in Utah) and have caused major changes (negative or positive). Please read the article found at URL 02.02:  Utah's exotic species: the good, the bad and the ugly. Name the five organisms you chose from the article and explain the environmental problems/changes that have occurred, and describe the ways we are controlling them because of their arrival. Only use the organisms mentioned in the article.

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.02.02 Circle of Life (Biology)

computer-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.03 Recycling Life: Food Chains (Biology)

Use diagrams to trace the movement of matter through a cycle

TO DO

Choose your path between text book or Khan Academy. You do not need to to both.

 

Read: Chapter 3 Recycling Life: Food Chains in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video and Reading): Click on the URL listed below titled "Biogeochemical cycles - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activities.

  1. Intro to biogeochemical cycles (Reading)
  2. Biogeochemical cycles overview (Video)
  3. Bozeman science: Biogeochemical cycling (Video)
  4. The water cycle (Reading)
  5. The water cycle (Video)
  6. The carbon cycle (Reading)
  7. The carbon cycle (Video)
  8. The nitrogen cycle (Reading)
  9. The nitrogen cycle (Video)

After you have completed all the curriculum listed for KHAN Academy, move onto the Module Activities.

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter complete the following activities:

  • 02.03.01 Recycling Life: Food Chains - Assignment

 

02.03 Recycling Life: Food Chains (Biology)

02.03.01 Recycling Life: Food Chains (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 120 minutes

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ASSIGNMENT 02.03.01 - REVISION DATE: 7/9/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

1.  Pick an ecosystem  

2.  Outline by words or drawings three food chains within that system (Notice the direction of the arrows.  The arrows show you the direction of the energy flow - not who eats whom).

3.  Outline by words or drawings the food web in your ecosystem (Several food chains make a food web).

4.  Outline by words or drawings the ecological pyramid of your three food chains (label the levels--producers, consumers and decomposers). 

5.  Use at least two of your organisms from your ecosystem in a drawing depicting one of the biogeochemical cycles (oxygen and carbon cycle or nitrogen cycle).

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04 Human Influences on Ecosystems (Biology)

Research and evaluate local and global practices that affect ecosystems.

Choose your path between text book or Khan Academy. You do not need to to both.
 
 
TO DO

Read: Chapter 4 Human Influences on Ecosystems in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video): Click on the URL listed below titled "5 human impacts on the environment - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activity. 

  1. 5 human impacts on the environment (Video)

After you have completed all the curriculum for KHAN Academy, move onto Module Activities.

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter and explored the URL complete the following activities:

  • 02.04.01 Human Influences on Ecosystems - Pre Lab
  • 02.04.02 Human Influences on Ecosystems - Lab
  • 02.04.03 Human Influences on Ecosystems - Post Lab
  • Exam - Covers lessons 1 - 4

 

02.04 Human Influences on Ecosystems (Biology)

02.04.01 Human Influences on Ecosystems Pre Lab (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Your answers must be VERY DETAILED. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.

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Pre Lab 02.04.01 - REVISION DATE: 8/4/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

  1. Where in Utah do you live?
  2. Do you think there is air pollution in the area where you live? 
  3. Why do you think that? 
  4. What do you think air pollution looks, feels, and smells like? 
  5. What effects do you think air pollution has on the environment?

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Adapted from http://www.ck12.org/biology/Air-Pollution/preread/Air-Pollution-Pre-Read/

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04.02 Human Influences on Ecosystems Lab (Biology)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 120 minutes

Summary:

You will conduct an experiment to sample and measure the particulate matter in the air at various locations and/or elevations in your neighborhood. Cover index cards with VaselineTM and place them at various locations in your neighborhood, leaving them for a minimum of 24 hours.  

The following information will provide you with the steps for setting up your air quality test. It is important to hold all of the variables constant except for those that are being manipulated. 

  • Constant (or controlled variables) would be such things as: the size of the cardboard/collection space, the amount of time the experiment is conducted, the amount of VaselineTM on the card, etc.
  • Manipulated (or independent variables)  would be those things that we change to see if the response will be different, such as: location of the card, height of the card, weather on day of collection, etc.
  • The responding (or dependent variable)  for this experiment will be the number and variety of particulates you gather on your cardboard.

TIP:  Temperature is one variable that will be difficult to control or intentionally manipulate in this experiment. However, from your experiments, you may be able to infer as to whether temperature has any impact on the number and variety of particulates collected. The reporting form for this experiment is set up so that you can determine how many collecting boards you want to put out, where you want to place them, and what elevations you want to use.

TIP:  Be sure to leave your collection boards out for a 24-hour period so that all results are consistent.

Introduction:

Question/Problem:  How much air pollution is in my neighborhood?

Materials:

  • Large index cards (4 x 6 or larger recommended) or pieces of cardboard 
  • Something to attach the cards to various objects outside (tape, string, clothespins)
  • VaselineTM  or petroleum jelly
  • plastic serrated knife
  • ruler
     

Instructional Procedures:

  1. Decide how you will measure the particulates collected on your collection cards. It is recommended that you draw a grid, which contains 4 cm x 4 cm squares. Be sure to draw this grid using a pen or marker that won’t smear when VaselineTM is spread on it.
  2. Choose three different locations for your collection cards that will not get a lot of human interference for a minimum of a 24-hour period.
  3. Write the location where you will be placing the card on the back of the card.
  4. Once you have chosen the location to place the card, decide how you will attach your card to this location. Keeping this in mind, completely cover the collection card with VaselineTM to the depth of the serration on the knife. Note: it is recommended that you lay the card on a paper towel so that you keep your work area from getting messy.
  5. Attach the cards to the three locations you have chosen in your neighborhood.
  6. After a minimum of 24 hours, return to your cards and take them down.

  7. Document your observations.  How many particulates are in the grid?  What types of particulates are there (dust, leaves, bugs)? Compare the different cards.  Are there more particulates on any of the cards?  Do particulates differ from card to card?

  8. Fill out and submit the lab report between the asterisks.  Do not include the bulleted comments as part of your report.  The bullets are instructions to help you fill out the report.

Your answers must be VERY DETAILED. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all parts of the lab report into a word document.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.04.02 - REVISION DATE: 8/4/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

Title:   

  • a brief, concise, yet descriptive title

Introduction:

  • Statement of the Problem:
  • What question(s) are you trying to answer?  Include any preliminary observations or background information about the subject.
  • Example:  Is there air pollution is in my neighborhood?

Hypothesis:

  • Write a possible solution for the problem.  Make sure this possible solution is a complete sentence.  Make sure the statement is testable; an if-then statement is recommended to illustrate what criteria will support your hypothesis (and what data would not support the hypothesis).
  • Example:  If I see particles on the VasalineTM then there is air pollution in my neighborhood.

Materials and Methods:  

  • If you follow directions from a book or paper, just say so. You do not need to repeat them in your paper.   If, however, you change the procedure, you should explain why you did so and exactly what you did differently.
  • Materials:
  • Make a list of ALL items used in the lab. Alternatively, materials can be included as part of the procedure.

Procedure:

  • Write a paragraph (complete sentences) which explains what you did in the lab as a short summary.  Add details (step-by-step) of your procedure in such a way that anyone else could repeat the experiment.

Results (Data):

  • This section should include any data tables, observations, or additional notes you make during the lab.  You may attach a separate sheet(s) if necessary.  All tables, graphs and charts should be labeled appropriately.

Conclusions:

  • Accept or reject your hypothesis. EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.  Include a summary of the data - averages, highest, lowest, this will help the reader understand your results. Try not to copy your data here, you should summarize and reference KEY information.  List one thing you learned and describe how it applies to a real-life situation.   Discuss possible errors that could have occurred in the collection of the data (experimental errors).

 

 
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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04.03 Human Influences on Ecosystems Post Lab (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Instructional Procedures:

Your answers must be VERY DETAILED. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.04.03 - REVISION DATE: 8/4/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

  1. We are going to build a class data base on air conditions in Utah.  Click here and enter your data from 02.04.02 Lab.
  2. What could you infer based on your conclusions?
  3. What do you think caused the air pollution at the different sites?
  4. How would you design this experiment differently the next time?

 
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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04.04 Human Influences on Ecosystems (Biology)

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.05 Evidence of Evolution (Biology)

Cite evidence that supports biological evolution over time

TO DO

Read: Chapter 5 Evidence of Evolution in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video and Reading): Click on the URL listed below titled "Biodiversity patterns of speciation and extinction - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activity. 

  • New localities lead to new biodiversity (Video)
  • Biodiversity and extinction, then and now (Video)
  • Glossary: biodiversity patterns of speciation and extinction - use this resource as needed (Reading)

After you have completed all the curriculum for KHAN Academy, move onto Explore and Module Activities.

Explore:  The URL found under the heading 02.05 Evidence of Evolution (Biology).  

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter and explored the URL complete the following activities:

  • 02.05.01 Evidence of Evolution - Assignment
  • 02.05.02 Evidence of Evolution - Quiz

 

02.05 Evidence of Evolution (Biology)

02.05.01 Evidence of Evolution (Biology)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 180 minutes

Summary:
A giant tortoise labors along across the terrain to feed on the lush green vegetation in its path. Tortoises have labored along for millions of years now. How do we know that they have lived for millions of years? We have fossils from many paleontological digs that prove their and other reptiles' ancient existence. The evidence we can gather from the past not only tell us, they were alive millions of years ago, but it can also tell us if they are the same today as they were then. If we have extensive samples of organisms, we can also see evidence of evolution (change) within the organisms.

In order for fossils to form, special conditions have to be in place. Most animals die and decay without leaving a trace of their existence. The majority of fossils have been found in sedimentary rock. When animals died in shallow seas or bodies of water, over time sediments (fine particles of rock) form over the bodies and in time slowly harden to rock. There are some fossils in which most of the organisms (including the soft tissues) are preserved. A few examples are insects found in amber and organisms, such as the woolly mammoth, recently found preserved in ice. Other fossils go through a process called petrifaction in which the organism dies in a body of water with a high mineral content.  Over time, the original substances of the organism dissolve and are replaced by minerals from the water. Whole trees, estimated to be over 150 million years old, have been preserved in the Petrified Forest in Arizona.

Scientists use the fossil record to create a timeline called the Geologic Time Scale. It divides the earth's history into several major divisions called eras. Each era is further divided into periods and epochs. Evidence from the past.

There are three parts to this assignment. Part one and two will focus on past evidence of evolution by examining fossils and the geological time scale. Part three will focus on evolution by examining living organisms and their characteristics.

Instructional Procedures:

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ASSIGNMENT 02.05.01 - REVISION DATE: 7/21/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

 

PART 1: Evidence from the past

Create a geological time scale showing the main subdivisions, along with a brief summary of the various types of organisms that appeared, flourished, or disappeared during each time interval. Be as specific as you can with the types of organisms. For each era, also include the age in millions of years. Websites: (Use these key words to search for related information) Geological timeline, Evolutionary timeline, or Evidence from the past.   

PART 2: Evidence from the past – taking a closer look

Once you have finished your geological time scale, draw a 12-hour clock on a piece of paper (just the normal face of a household clock). Now, using a calculator and some math, figure out the relative times (times as in 2:00 o'clock) of the Cambrian, Devonian, Triassic, Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Keep these things in mind: the earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old, for most of the first several hundred million years our planet was a fiery ball of molten rock, the water vapor from the cooling earth probably condensed to form the oceans, the earliest traces of the simplest life was found in the seas 3.5 billion years ago, and modern humans are about 300,000 years old. I'll get you started by telling you that the formation of the earth occurred at midnight on the clock, while the oldest human fossils date from just before noon.

 

PART 3: Evidence from living organisms

The similarities between some species of animals, for example, a horse and zebra, have led scientists to believe that these animals many have a common ancestor (a single organism from which both new species evolved). In many cases, the fossil remains of these common ancestors have been found. Comparing these remains with living organisms has added to the evidence for organic evolution (the changing of species since they first appeared on the earth). We can compare structural similarities and differences among living things to look for evolutionary relationships between species. Commonly, scientists look for:

1. Anatomical Similarities (likenesses in body structure)

2. Embryological Similarities (likenesses in development of the embryo)

3. Biochemical Similarities (likenesses in the DNA and protein patterns of organisms).

Using the following topics in your search, study the three types of evidence that are used for making evolutionary connections between organisms. Then describe those similarities and differences in a 250 - 300 word paper.

·         Homologous Structures

·         Bat and Human Comparison

·         Embryonic Development

·         Similarity of embryos

·         Similarity between human and chicken embryo

·         Embryological Review

·         Embryological similarities

·         Biochemical Similarities Cats and Humans share Similar DNA

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.05.02 Evidence of Evolution (Biology)

computer-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.06 Natural Selection: Rat Island (Biology)

Cite evidence for changes in populations over time and use concepts of evolution to explain these changes.

TO DO

Read: Chapter 6 Natural Selection: Rat Island in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

OR

KHAN Academy (Video and Reading): Click on the URL listed below titled "Evolution and natural selection - Alternative to Reading Text Book." Once you are at the url complete the following activity. 

  • Ape clarification
  • Intelligent design and evolution
  • Evolution clarification
  • Natural selection and the owl butterfly
  • Darwin, evolution, & natural selection (Reading)
  • Variation in a species
  • Evidence for evolution
  • Bozeman science: evidence for evolution
  • Bozeman science: Evolution continues

After you have completed all the curriculum for KHAN Academy, move onto Module Activities.

Module Activities: Once you have read the chapter complete the following activities:

  • 02.06.01 Natural Selection: Rat Island - Assignment 
  • 02.06.02 Natural Selection: Rat Island - Quiz 

 

 

02.06 Natural Selection: Rat Island (Biology)

02.06.01 Natural Selection: Rat Island (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 120 minutes

Summary

After many years of studying nature and observing animals and their traits, Charles Darwin came up with his theory of evolution. In 1838, the idea came to him that organisms with favorable variations would be better able to survive and to reproduce than organisms with unfavorable variations. He called this process Natural Selection, because nature "selects" the survivors. The results of natural selection would be evolution.  Darwin published a book in 1859, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin's book was supported by many examples. The six main points of his theory are as follows:

  • Overproduction - Most species produce more offspring than needed to maintain a population, but only a small fraction of those offspring live.
  • Competition - Offspring must compete against one another for food and shelter, so only a small fraction will survive long enough to reproduce.
  • Variation - Some characteristics of species are different (variation). These characteristics are vital in the survival of the individual. Some may affect the ability to get food, run faster, escape enemies or find a mate.
  • Adaptations - Because of variations, some individuals may be better adapted to reproduce and survive than others. An adaptation is an inherited trait that improves the organism's chances of survival and reproduction.
  • Natural Selection - The environment selects plants and animals to be the parents of the upcoming generations. They must have favorable traits in order to survive. Those offspring better adapted to survive in their environment will pass those traits on to their offspring.
  • Speciation - Over many generations, favorable traits accumulate in species and form new species. The formation of a new species is called speciation.

RAT ISLANDS: An Exploration in Speciation - Adapted from Access Excellence activity by Leslie Tong

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ASSIGNMENT 02.06.01 - REVISION DATE: 7/21/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

This Assignment has three parts. Knowing what you do now about evolution and Darwin's theory of natural selection, you job is to create a rat for each of the island descriptions below. Think about the build and anatomy of a normal rat, and then give your rat the necessary variations and adaptions to survive the environment of each island.

PART 1

Make up a story for each of the four rats. They can be as elaborate as you want to explain how the rats ended up on each of their islands (A, B, C or D) and how long they have been on the island in order to change so much.

PART 2

Draw each of the islands and each of the rats with its adaptations.

TIP:  To submit this part of the assignment I suggest that you draw the picture on regular paper. Scan or take a picture of it, and upload the .jpeg as your assignment.
 

PART 3

Explain how each adaption allows the rat to survive.

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Examples:

ISLAND A The island is fairly flat, with an occasional hill. The ground is soft dirt, and several species of shrubs grow toward the center of the island. There is no animal life on land; but the water is teaming with fish. The island is surrounded by a coral reef which keeps the predators out. The shore is sandy with no algal growth. Fresh water is available.

ISLAND B The island has a rocky shoreline. Numerous tide pools dot the island along the shore where the wave action is somewhat sheltered by rock outcrops. The tide pools host barnacles, chitons, abalone, sea urchins and crabs. Algae grows all around the island; however, it is quite sparse in the tide pools where the various animals feed. The current is quite strong along the rocky outcrops where the algae grows best. Fresh water is available.

ISLAND C The island is somewhat barren. A few species of cactus thrive on the bare rocks. A large cactus-eating tortoise inhabits the island. A species of very large bird nest on the island annually. They build their nests on the rocks and protect their eggs from the sun by standing over the nests with outspread wings. The nests are always found on the windy side of the island which is cooled somewhat by offshore breezes.

ISLAND D The island is an extinct volcano. Vegetation on the island changes with the altitude moving up the volcano. Grasses grow at the base. Farther up the slope, the grasses give way to low shrubs. Halfway up, the island becomes quite lush; tropical plants and trees dominate the landscape. At this altitude, the island experiences frequent rain showers. There are two species of birds that inhabit the island. One is a raptor which preys upon the smaller birds. The other fishes the waters approximately one mile offshore. Both nest in trees.

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.06.02 Natural Selection: Rat Island (Biology)

computer-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.07 Evolutionary Biology (Biology)

Review a scientific article and identify the research methods used to gather evidence that documents the evolution of a species.

TO DO

Read: Chapter 7 Evolutionary Biology in the EHS Biology Quarter 2 - Ecology text book.

Explore:  The URL found under the heading 02.07 Evolutionary Biology  (Biology).  

Complete: Once you have read the chapter and explored the URL complete the following activities:

  • 02.07.01 Evidence of Evolution - Assignment
  • 02.07.02 Evidence of Evolution - Quiz
  • 02.07.03 Lesson Check
  • Exam - Covers lessons 5 - 7

 

02.07 Evolutionary Biology (Biology)

02.07.01 Evolutionary Biology (Biology)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 100 minutes

Summary:

Each person seems to have their own view of what evolution is or is not. Some people regard evolution as a false theory because they think that evolution simply means that humans have evolved from apes. To explore these different points of view, access the website TheTalk - Origins Archive (see URLs).

Instructional Procedures:

The paper you are about to read may help you understand what Evolutionary Biology is, or it may help you pose questions that you have about Evolution. In either case, your job here is to read each of the sections identified below, and write your feelings, statements or questions about the information. Please follow my outline closely, as I do not intend you to read the entire paper--it is very lengthy. You may copy this outline onto a wordprocessing document and fill it in with your feelings, statements and questions as you read. Evolutionary Biology Paper Responses Read the three introductory paragraphs to understand the intentions of the author of this paper. Read the sections identified and respond to each section with your feelings, statements and questions.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.07.01 - REVISION DATE: 7/21/14 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

1. What is Evolution (6 paragraphs)

2. Common Misconceptions about evolution (3 paragraphs)

3. Genetic Variation (7 paragraphs)

4. Natural Selection (paragraph 11 - 14 in that section)

5. Genetic Drift (all 6 paragraphs)

6. Mutation (this section is really long, browse through it and pick and choose 2-3 types of mutation to read about)

7. Recombination (all 3 paragraphs)

8. Overflow of evolution with a lineage (all paragraphs)

9. The pattern of macroevolution (all 3 paragraphs)

10. The importance of evolutionary biology (all 6 paragraphs)

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.07.02 Evolutionary Biology (Biology)

computer-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

You need to score at least 80% on this quiz before you can take the final.  You can take it as many times as you would like, in order to earn the score you desire.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.08 Unit Review (Biology)

This is a review for you to prepare for the final test.

TO DO

Complete: 

  • 02.08.01 Quarter Review

Proctored Final:  Once you earn at least 60% on each assignment and 80% on each quiz module 4 will open.  Once Module 4 is open you will need to:

  • Complete the Ready Assignment.
  • Right under the Ready Assignment, there is a link with a list of proctors. The proctors are listed by county. Select a proctor from the list.
  • Contact the proctor (via e-mail or phone) and make arrangements to take the final.
  • When you show up to take the final the proctor will type in the password and you will be ready to go.
  • In order to earn 0.25 biology credit, you need to get at least 60% on the final.
  • To prepare for the final I recommend you understand the concepts from assignment 02.08.01 and the quizzes.

 

 

02.08.01 Quarter Review (Biology)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 90 minutes

Your answers must be VERY DETAILED. Copy all information below between the lines of asterisks, including the lesson number, revision date and all questions into a word document.

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ASSIGNMENT 02.08.01 - REVISION DATE: 10/11/13 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

2nd quarter Biology final study guide

1. Explain in detail the differences between a decomposer, producer, level 1 consumer, level 2 consumer, and level 3 consumer. Give 3 examples of different organisms that would be found in each level.

2. What is the difference between a food web, food chain, and an energy pyramid?

3. Explain how scientists have been able to prove that there is evolution within a species. Is there any evidence that supports evolution between species?

4. Find 3 examples where people use “selective breeding”- to develop desired traits in plants and animals.

5. What is a scientific theory? What has to happen for an “idea” to become a “theory”? Give 5 examples of scientific theories.

6. Explain what takes place during photosynthesis.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


Biology Book and Pacing Guide

There are 3 options for the text book - .pdf, ipad/android, and kindle. Click one of the links below to download and save the EHS BIOLOGY - QUARTER 2 text book.

You will also want to save a copy of the pacing guide.  There are not any due dates listed in the course.  The pacing guide will tell you what you need to do each week, so you will complete the course in nine weeks.  


Please click here for instructions on how to download the ePub onto your device.

Please click here for instructions on how to download the Kindle Book onto your Kindle.


 

Extra Credit

teacher-scored 0 points possible 30 minutes

Use the URL listed below. Select and read an article. Answer the following questions:

 

1.            What is the purpose of this article?

2.            Why is it important to investigate or examine the subject of the article?

3.            Is there supporting evidence? Or is it just an opinion? State the evidence

4.            How does this advance knowledge in the field?

5.            What is your opinion?

 

You can earn up to 20 points in extra credit.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.