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1st Quarter, Language Arts 09

0.0 Start Here (LA 9)

Course Description

Course Skills

Students will:

Engage in attentive reading, writing, and listening through complex works of literature.

Perform critical reading of digital and printed material.

Build knowledge and demonstrate strong reasoning abilities.

These skills, in reading; writing; speaking; and listening, are the foundation for any purposeful expression in language

Class Overview

This is a one quarter (.25 credit) class in Utah State High School Language Arts. 

WHAT THIS CLASS IS: This class is an open-entry, open-exit class. You can enroll at any time of the year, and finish the class as fast as you can get all the work done. 

WHAT THIS CLASS IS NOT: This class is NOT an easy way to get your English credit without doing real work. You will be required to work and learn.

PREREQUISITES

At least 8th grade level reading and writing skills.

A computer with internet access.

A working e-mail address which you check regularly.

Word processing software to type your assignments. Microsoft Word is best.

Acrobat Reader, QuickTime reader, and a PowerPoint reader (all available free online).

How You Will Be Graded

You earn points for doing assignments in this class. Each assignment has a maximum number of points you can earn if you do an excellent job on that assignment. You must do all assignments. You can also submit a revised, improved version of an assignment to get more points for it. Your final grade is determined by your average on assignments, and how you do on the final test. The assignments and quizzes count 75%, and the final test counts 25%.

GRADING SCALE

A 90-100

B 80-89

C 70-79

D 60-69

No credit - below 60

As with all EHS classes, you must also pass a proctored final test at the end of the class. If you score below 60% on the final, you will fail the class and not earn credit.  If you score at least 60% on the final test, your score on the final will be averaged with your scores for class assignments and quizzes to determine your grade in the class. 
 

Final Test

When you have finished all the assignments you need for your credit, you will take the final test under the supervision of a proctor approved by the EHS. You must pass the final with at least 60% to pass the class. 

About Homework

Writing Assignments

Grading rubrics will specify how you will be graded on each assignment submission. 

Class plagiarism policy

Plagiarism is copying someone else's work, in any way, and failing to give credit to the original author. Plagiarism is unlawful and unethical, and against the EHS Honor Code. 

How to turn in homework

IMPORTANT: always save a copy of all your homework on your own computer. Send in each assignment when it is requested in the course module section. 

About Me assignment:

 

Getting to know you! Copy and paste the following questions between the rows of asterisks below into a word document and answer them accordingly.

*******************************************************************

In a numbered LIST, provide the following information:

1. What is your first and last name, parent(s) name(s), and contact information for both you and your parent(s)? 

2. Where do you go to school? 

3. What is your counselor's full name and email address/contact information? 

4. What year will you graduate and have you read the EHS Honor Code and understand that this class needs to be finished within the 10 week limit?

In a few sentences, tell me about yourself being sure to answer the following questions in the process:

          a. Tell me something about yourself. 

          b. Why are you taking this class and what do you expect to get out of it? 

          c. What is one word that best describes you?

By the way, here is the EHS honor code: "As a student of the Electronic High School, I agree to turn in my assignments in a timely manner, do my own work, not share my work with others, and treat all students, teachers, and staff with respect."

00.00 *Student-supplied Items for English 9 (LA 9)

Most readings and viewings for this class are available free online or at your school or public library. You can also find digital copies of these texts in the URLs found in this module section.

  • First quarter: The Odyssey
  • Second quarter: To Kill a Mockingbird
  • Third quarter: Romeo and Juliet, and one book chosen from the list in the class
  • Fourth quarter: one book chosen from the list in the class

00.00 Start Here (LA 9)

Helpful information: Avoiding plagiarism  

00.01.01 Student Software Needs

 

Students need access to a robust internet connection and a modern web browser.

This class may also require the Apple QuickTime plug-in to view media.

For students using a school-issued Chromebook, ask your technical support folks to download the QuickTime plug-in and enable the plug-in for your Chromebook.

$0.00

01.00 Unit 1: Good Writing Techniques (LA 9)

President Jimmy Carter and his daughter Amy working on a speed reading course.: NARA, Carter White House Photographs CollectionPresident Jimmy Carter and his daughter Amy working on a speed reading course.: NARA, Carter White House Photographs Collection

Unit 1: Getting Started

In this unit you will familiarize yourself with all of the course content. 

01.01 Getting started (LA 9)

The student will know the requirements and expectations in this class.

Wikimedia Commons, Tulane Public Relations, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericWikimedia Commons, Tulane Public Relations, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericTo get started on this class, you should have already completed the "About Me" assignment. Be sure to read carefully through the "Start Here" information, and take the quiz on class policies.

01.01 Getting started: class policies quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 12 points possible 5 minutes

computer-scored 12 points possible.

Read the information, in the course, up to this point. You will then be prepared to take the first quiz. You may take this quiz multiple time to earn the grade needed. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.02 How papers are scored, rubrics and the writing process (LA 9)

Student will understand how papers will be graded, and review terms used to discuss and evaluate writing and the writing process.

"Writing is thinking on paper.": by Filosofias filosoficas, CC Attribution 3.0 Unported via WIkimedia Commons"Writing is thinking on paper.": by Filosofias filosoficas, CC Attribution 3.0 Unported via WIkimedia Commons

This unit will explain how papers will be graded.

The WRITING PROCESS ...

Prewriting. This can include brainstorming, researching, outlining, and any other way of getting ideas and planning what you want to write.

Drafting or Composing. This is the part where you are actually writing, whether it is with pencil and paper, or on a computer.

Revising. This is where you are organizing and improving your ideas: changing the order, adding details, cutting out what doesn't belong etc.--all to make your writing as effective as possible.

Editing. This is when you proofread and fix any convention errors.

Publishing, or sharing your writing so others can read it. 

Rubrics

A rubric helps to define how the teacher will score your assignment, If you check the rubric as you revise an assignment, you can make sure to include everything that is expected.

 Core standards

Most of the rubrics used in this class are based on the Utah Core guidelines for improving argumentative, expository and narrative writing.

  • Here is a rubric with examples of the standards you will be graded on: 

It may help you to look at sample standards that use this terminology. Here is a rubric with examples of standards that use many of the terms above:

Category 5 3 1
Introduction & organization Introduces precise, knowledgeable claim, establishes significance, distinguishes from opposing or alternate claims, and sets up logical organization of claims, counterclaims, reasons and evidence Introduces claim, establishes significance, and sets up logical organization Claim may not be identified, or order may seem random or confusing
Development of ideas and content Develops claims and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplies most relevant data and evidence, points out strength and limitations in discipline-appropriate form, anticipating audience knowledge, concerns, biases and values, using credible sources Develops claims and counterclaims, supplies some data and evidence Not sufficient, relevant evidence or data to support claim
Development of relationships, cohesion and flow Uses words, clauses and phrases, as well as varied syntax, to link major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claims and reasons, claims and counterclaims, reasons and evidence. Uses words, clauses and phrases to link major sections of the text, create cohesion and clarifyrelationships between claims and reasons May lack transitions and connections between ideas
Word choice, style and tone Establish and maintain a smooth, formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms, vocabulary and conventions of the discipline for which they are writing Establish a formal style and objective tone May use words incorrectly or fail to create an appropriate style and tone
Conclusion Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented, while providing a sense of confident closure or resolution, beyond just repetition of earlier statements Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented May lack a conclusion, or fail to support main claim
Conventions and language skills Has few or no errors in conventions; uses parallel structure and variety in sentences, phrases and clauses Has a few significant errors in conventions or sentence structure Many errors in conventions and/or sentence structure

 

The Six Traits writing system helps writers develop a strong writing system that will meet the Utah Core standards. 

For information about the SIX TRAITS writing system, see the PowerPoint or PDF about the six traits, and go to the Six Trait Writing web page.

The Six Traits writing system helps writers develop a strong writing system that will meet the Utah Core standards. 

 

Teacher Feedback on Writing Problems:

Generally, I will send you at least one or two comments along with your scores in the rubric for an assignment. If you want more detailed comments and corrections, let me know and I will go through your work line by line. 

01.02 Rubrics and writing process quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

computer-scored 15 points possible

This quiz will cover rubrics, the six-trait writing vocabulary, plagiarism, and the writing process. You must score at least 74% to pass this quiz, but you may take it multiple times.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.03 Good writing techniques - be specific! (LA 9)

Writing objectives: Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture demonstrating an understanding of word relationships and meanings. Use vivid verbs and specific nouns.

"Breakfast piece with a fish, ham and cherries", 1614 painting by Jan van Hulsdonck: WMC, public domain"Breakfast piece with a fish, ham and cherries", 1614 painting by Jan van Hulsdonck: WMC, public domain

 

We live in a very specific and concrete world.

The particular, specific details of our lives are what make each of us unique and interesting.

The use of specific details in writing is related to ideas, word choice, cohesion, tone and voice. Help engage and inform the reader by painting specific word pictures when you write. Use the best word - not necessarily the fanciest, but the one that says exactly what you mean. 

 Specific Details for Effect

Specific, concrete sensory details help the reader visualize what you are describing. Details are also a key to humor (see humor section below).

Examples:

Instead of saying "My mother was sitting and working," say: Mama settled back into the cane chair and scooped up another apronful of peas. She snapped about three peas to every one of mine. Her right hand twisted over and back as she snapped a little curl of string off the end of each pod and rolled out the peas with her thumb. (Kingsolver, Barbara - from The Bean Trees) 

 Humor

Writers know the value of laughter; even subtle humor can help turn a “boring” paper into one that is fun to read.

Examples:
One of my students wrote in a story that one of the characters choked to death--but he made it funny by saying that she choked to death on an organic plum pit in the Back to Nature Health Foods store.

“My point is that God created a prototype for a reasonably sturdy carbon unit, gave us a perfectly usable place to live, some excellent advice, as in ‘words to live by’--most of which are misunderstood by the least of my brethren--and stood back to see what we’d do with it.” I’m surprised. I didn’t know Ellerby had any philosophical considerations. I thought he just drove his Christian Cruiser through the world seeing whose nose he could get up. And how far. Lemry’s eyes land on me. “Mobe?” My hands shoot up in surrender. “I give a wide berth to all religious discussions. My plan is to get baptized late in the afternoon of the evening I die, so I don’t have time to sin. A spot in heaven awaits me.” “Cute,” she says. “And chicken.”(Crutcher, Chris - from Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes)

 Vivid verbs & specific nouns

Make your verbs and nouns do most of the work; use adjectives and adverbs sparingly.

Instead of saying, "He walked slowly and determinedly over the wet, muddy ground," say: He slogged through the muck.

Instead of saying, "An expensive, fancy sports car went by really fast and loud," say: A Porsche roared by.

Vivid vs. weak verbs examples (in random order):

Vivid verbs: mentioned, shouted, suggested, march, paddle, propel, rock, scamper, slub, unwind, wade 

Weak verbs: said, talked, spoke, took, got, did, do, see, walk

   

 

Specific vs. general nouns examples (in random order):

Specific or concrete nouns: girl, boy aunt, cousin, minivan, sedan, Audi, beetle, high school, lake, canyon, steak, pnacakes, roar, rumble

General/generic nouns: person, people, vehicle, car, place, building, food, noise, sounds

 

   

 

01.03.01 Good writing techniques - specific details quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz will cover the information in lesson 01.03.

You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 73% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.04 Good writing techniques - use parallel structure (LA 9)

Objective: Use parallel structure in clauses and sentences.

Harald Hoyer from Schwerin, Germany, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic via Wikimedia CommonsHarald Hoyer from Schwerin, Germany, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic via Wikimedia Commons

Parallel Structure and Magic Three Parallel Structure
In writing, we say that adjacent phrases (or clauses) are parallel if they have the same structure and serve the same purpose. Again, if we only have one phrase or clause, we can't say it's parallel because there must be at least one other phrase or clause to make a comparison.

Writing uses parallel structure for at least two reasons: it is easier to understand, and it creates a rhythm.

We often use parallel structure to combine multiple, related ideas into a single sentence:

 Instead of saying "During my freshman year, I hope to make new friends.  I hope to pass all my classes.  I hope to improve my soccer skills," a good way to combine those ideas is like this: "During my freshman year, I hope to make new friends, pass all my classes and improve my soccer skills."

Examples of parallel structure:
For better or for worse, for richer or for poorer, in sickness and in health... [that's three sets of two parallel phrases each]
I like skiing and hiking. -OR- I like to ski and to hike. [WRONG: I like to ski and hiking. Don't mix the 'ing' and the 'to...' versions of the verbal phrases.]
A countryman between two lawyers is like a fish between two cats. (Benjamin Franklin)
Be civil to all; sociable to many; familiar with few; friend to one; enemy to none. (Benjamin Franklin)
Character is like a tree and reputation like its shadow. The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing. (Abraham Lincoln)

Magic Three is a special case of parallel structure, using three parallel phrases or clauses: by David Crocker, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic via Wikimedia Commonsby David Crocker, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic via Wikimedia Commons

Three parallel groups of words, usually separated by commas in one sentence (though sometimes in three separate sentences), that add emphasis or support for a point, or create rhythm.

Examples:
Jeri liked riding her horse on a cool summer evening, hiking in the mountains to see the fall leaves, and playing her silver flute at midnight.

My best friend, my worst enemy, and my older sister were all going to be there.

Charlie's parents must want to get rid of him. For his fourteenth birthday, they bought him a matched set of designer luggage. For his fifteenth birthday, they bought him an eight week trip to a college prep summer camp. For his sixteenth birthday, they bought him a Hummer with leather seats, a thousand dollar gas gift card, and a fully functional GPS system. [Notice that this one has a Magic Three in the last sentence, as well as the Magic Three created by the three sentences taken together. This passage could also be used as an example of repetition for effect.]

NON-examples of Magic Three:

This sentence is not Magic Three because it only has three WORDS, not three GROUPS OF WORDS, in parallel:

I hate coconut, zucchini, and onions.

These sentences are not Magic Three because the three groups of words don't create parallel structure

The directions said we would be adding the flour, stirring in the milk, and then to bake for 30 minutes.
After we go to the grocery store, we will be stopping for gas and then my dad will meet the team.

 

01.04.01 Good writing techniques - parallel structure quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz will cover the information in lesson 01.04.

You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 73% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.05 Home essay (LA 9)

Produce clear and coherent writing. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts. Use parallel structure in clauses and sentences.

Houses of different countries: Image from The New Student's Reference Work, WC, public domain 1923Houses of different countries: Image from The New Student's Reference Work, WC, public domain 1923

 

The next assignment involves writing an essay about your home. Your audience for this essay is someone who has never visited your home. Be sure to include plenty of specific, concrete details, examples and descriptions. 

01.05 Home essay pre-writing and writing (LA 9)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

This assignment has two parts: the pre-writing exercise, and the written draft. Please turn in both parts when they are asked for.

A. Prewriting

Think of either your home, or a favorite room in your home. Make a list of at least twenty specific things you might see, hear, smell, taste or touch if/when you are standing in it.

B. Draft

Write a page, in essay format, using the details you just listed, about your "home". Be SPECIFIC and CONCRETE. Somewhere in your essay, use the two techniques 'specific details for effect' and 'magic three' and identify them in parenthesis directly after them.

C. Submit

Submit your work, from A. & B. above, in the following assignment submission sections.

 

SAVE ALL OF YOUR WORK!

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


01.05.01 Home essay, revised and edited (LA 9)

teacher-scored 28 points possible 30 minutes

Read over your teacher's feedback on the draft you submitted earlier of your "Home" essay before you finish and submit this assignment.

Again, this assignment has several parts: 

A. Revise your "Home" essay by following the instructions in the prompts below:

  • Look at ideas, organization, and sentence structure.
  • Does it need more (or more specific/concrete) details?
  • Do the details and ideas work together well, or should you delete some and choose different details to help the reader understand what you mean?
  • Does it need an introduction or conclusion?
  • Are things in a logical order?
  • Are sentences clear?
  • Do they flow smoothly if you read them out loud?
  • Did you use different lengths and structures for your sentences?
  • Make those changes in the second copy.
  • Remove the phrase identifications (specific details and magic three).
  • Look for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, grammar, incomplete or run-on sentence errors, and fix them

B. Submit your final, revised essay in the following assignment submission section.

Drafts 01.08 (1)
You've already rated students with this rubric. Any major changes could affect their assessment results.

Drafts 01.08 (1)
Criteria Ratings Pts

Introduction - Topic is introduced and the essay is explained with a unified whole purpose. - 20.0 pts

Development of ideas and content - Topic is thoroughly developed with relevant facts, definitions, details, quotations, and other necessary information and examples using credible sources.
This area will be used by the assessor to leave comments related to this criterion. - 20.0 pts

Development of relationships, cohesion and flow - Uses appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections and concepts of the text. - 20.0 pts
 

Word choice, style and tone - Uses precise language, topic-specific vocabulary, and techniques to manage the complexity of the topic. - 10.0 pts
 

Conclusion - Provides a concluding statement that illustrates the importance and purpose of the topic discussed. Provides a sense of confident and purposeful closure. - 10.0 pts
 

Conventions and language skills - Has few or no errors in conventions, grammar or usage. - 10.0 pts
 

Total Points: 28.0

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.

   

SAVE ALL OF YOUR WORK!

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.00 Unit 2: Reading skills (LA 9)

Walden Pond: Bsadowski1, WC, CC BY-SA 3.0Walden Pond: Bsadowski1, WC, CC BY-SA 3.0

 

Unit 2: Reading skills

In this unit you will work on reading skills, There will be several short assignments and quizzes, and one major reading assignment.

"We read to know we are not alone." – C.S. Lewis.

02.01 Becoming Good Readers (LA 9)

Reading: Proficiently read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, and literary nonfiction, with text complexity.

Young readers: US government image, public domainYoung readers: US government image, public domain

"There is then creative reading as well as creative writing. When the mind is braced by labor and invention, the page of whatever book we read becomes luminous with manifold allusion." -Ralph Waldo Emerson

Before You Read

Begin reading, you can begin preparing, mentally, to read well. This is how to get this done:

Know the purpose for your reading.

Look over the title, author, and any pictures or subtitles for clues about the subject matter.

Activate your prior knowledge. What do you already know about the subject matter or related topics?

While You're Reading

Read quickly enough that you don't lose the train of meaning. Don't get so stuck on some difficult point that you forget the main point.

 “See" what you're reading about. Make a mental movie of what you are reading. Imagine what things in the reading look, sound, smell, taste or feel like.

Draw connections and make comparisons between what you are reading and your own personal experiences.

Make predictions about what you expect to happen next, or what point you think the author is trying to make.

Check your understanding. Try to keep a mental running summary of what you read.

Notice your questions about what is going on in the reading, and why the author wrote what or how s/he did.

Evaluate what you read. Does it make sense? Does it fit with what you already know or believe? If not, why not?

After You Read

Review, mentally, what you read.

Discuss what you read with someone else.

Evaluate, Did you like it? Was it well-written? Was it convincing? Why or why not?

Two Aspects of Reading: Speed and Comprehension

When people talk about becoming better readers, they usually mean two things: reading faster, and understanding harder material. 

02.01 Becoming Good Readers (LA 9)

02.02 Evidence and theme (LA 9)

Objective: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text.

Uncle Henry, Dorothy, Toto, and Aunt Em: William Wallace Denslow, 1900, public domainUncle Henry, Dorothy, Toto, and Aunt Em: William Wallace Denslow, 1900, public domain

Themes, Literary and Otherwise

The word "theme", in reading, means the main subject, topic or focus of an event, book, or movie; or a repeated idea: a 'motif'.

In Search of the Literary Theme: Guidelines

The theme is usually implied rather than stated. For most works of literature, you will need to use inference to determine themes. You will have to work and think to figure out a theme.

A work of literature may have more than one, correct theme. HOWEVER, that doesn't mean that just any theme you come up with is a correct one. You must be able to find evidence in the text to support the idea you think is the theme.You should be able to find several examples of evidence for the theme in your reading.

A theme is a generalized idea, like "Love conquers all . . ."  

Finding Evidence for a Theme

First look for the main ideas and repeated details while you read. Make sure that I can back up my observations with evidence from the text.

 Read the following selections (available online at the links below, or attached as a PDF). Look for clues to the themes of these works.

"The White Seal" by Rudyard Kipling

"The Song of Hiawatha" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

From Walden, chapter 2, by Henry David Thoreau

 

The following quiz and assignments will refer to these readings. 

02.02 Evidence and theme readings (LA 9)

02.02.01 Questions on readings (LA 9)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

illustration from "The White Seal": W.H. Drake or John Lockwood Kipling, copyright expiredillustration from "The White Seal": W.H. Drake or John Lockwood Kipling, copyright expired

How to find and define a theme in literature:

Throughout this class, you will be reading for themes and main ideas, and looking for textual evidence to support your conclusions. In your writing, you will work on including evidence, in the form of specific details and examples, to create a theme or support a main idea.

Read the following selections (available online at the links below, or attached as a PDF). Look for clues to the themes of these works. 

Answer the following questions about the three readings. Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment. 

*******************************************************************************

A. "The White Seal" by Kipling

1. Prior knowledge: What did you already know about seals?

2. Making connections: What personal experiences or other 
books/movies did this story remind you of, and why? [Note: I will not accept "none" as an answer. If you don't immediately see an obvious connection, think about the themes and how they might apply to your life or other stories.]

3. Seeing images: Describe the way you pictured one scene from the story.

4. Motifs: What actions, symbols or ideas were repeated in the story?

5. Theme: What theme can you find in the story (remember it should be a general statement about life, in a complete sentence)? What evidence supports this theme? (use direct quotes)

B. "The Song of Hiawatha" part 1 by Longfellow

1. Prior knowledge: What did you already know about native Americans?

2. Making connections: What personal experiences or other books/movies did this poem remind you of, and why? [Note: I will not accept "none" as an answer.]

3. Seeing images: Describe the way you pictured one scene from the poem.

4. Motifs: What actions, symbols or ideas were repeated in the poem?

5. Theme: What theme can you find in the poem (remember it should be a general statement about life, in a complete sentence)? What evidence supports this theme? (use direct quotes)

illustration from "The White Seal": W.H. Drake or John Lockwood Kipling, copyright expired

C. Walden, from chapter 2, by Thoreau

1. Prior knowledge: What did you already know about Thoreau, or about living in the woods?

2. Making connections: What personal experiences or other books/movies did this narrative remind you of, and why? 
[Note: I will not accept "none" as an answer.]

3. Seeing images: Describe the way you pictured one scene from the narrative.

4. Motifs: What actions, symbols or ideas were repeated in the narrative?

5. Theme: What theme can you find in the narrative (remember it should be a general statement about life, in a complete sentence)? What evidence supports this theme? (use direct quotes) 


***************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Note that the estimated time for this assignment includes the time you spend reading the selections.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.02.02 Reading, theme and evidence quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 20 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz will cover the information in lesson 02.01, 02.02, and the three readings ("The White Seal", "The Song of Hiawatha" and Walden chapter 2).

You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 70% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.03 The Greek Gods and the Trojan War (LA 9)

Objective: Read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

Zeus, king of the gods: Wikimedia Commons, Väsk, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedZeus, king of the gods: Wikimedia Commons, Väsk, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

For this unit, you will be reading The Odyssey, by Homer. You will understand it better if you know a little about the Greek gods.

The Greek gods were pretty much like regular people, except that they were immortal and had supernatural powers. They were not necessarily ethical, just, merciful or kind, and could be selfish and capricious. They sometimes had temper tantrums or did things on a whim. They definitely played favorites.

 

How the Odyssey began:

The Trojan War and how it started

Athena, goddess of wisdom: Wikimedia Commons, G.dallorto, released by author

Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world, and when she reached marriageable age, young men came from all around in hopes of becoming her husband.

One man who came courting Helen was Odysseus, who was already known for his intelligence and cunning. Odysseus could see that any man who married Helen would probably be attacked and killed by others who wanted to steal her, so he convinced all the men there to make a treaty of sorts--they all vowed that they would help defend whichever man Helen married. Helen married Menelaus of Sparta, all the others went home, and everything went well for several years.

Odysseus went home to Ithaca and fell in love with Penelope. They married and had a son.

The problems started with the gods. Athena, Hera and Aphrodite were tricked into an argument about who was the most beautiful, and Zeus named Paris, a good-looking young man, to be the judge. Each of the goddesses tried to bribe him, and Aphrodite, who promised him the most beautiful woman in the world, won the contest (Hera had promised him power, and Athena had promised him wealth).

Aphrodite helped Paris to steal Helen from Menelaus. Paris took Helen to Troy, and Menelaus called upon all the men who had once promised to help defend him. Odysseus didn't want to leave Penelope and their newborn son, but was honor-bound to go. He told Penelope that if he had not returned by the time their son, Telemachus, had started to grow a beard, she should assume he was dead, and re-marry.

These Greeks (Menelaus and his allies) laid siege to Troy for ten years. Many famous battles and heroes had a part in the war, but in the end the Greeks won by a trick planned by Odysseus:

The Greeks pretended to leave, but left a large, hollow wooden horse behind on the beach. Odysseus and a few soldiers hid inside the wooden horse, which the Trojans dragged into the city during their premature celebration. A soothsayer had tried to warn the Trojans that it was a trick, but Poseidon sent a sea-serpent to grab him off the beach, so the Trojans didn't pay attention.

That night, Odysseus and his men snuck out of the horse and opened the city gates to let in the whole Greek army, who had come back under cover of darkness. The Greeks sacked Troy, Helen (no longer under Aphrodite's spell) went home with Menelaus, and all the Greeks started for home. Odysseus bragged about how it was his idea that had won the war, and he failed to give thanks to the gods for their help - in particular, he offended Poseidon.

The story of The Odyssey tells about Odysseus' adventures on his journey home, which takes years, and about Telemachus' journey to try to find his missing father.

 

02.03.01 Trojan war and Greek gods quiz (English 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

Poseidon, god of the sea, with his trident: Wikimedia Commons, Pacogq, public domainPoseidon, god of the sea, with his trident: Wikimedia Commons, Pacogq, public domainGo to your main class page, and into Module 3, to take this quiz after you have completed the lessons and readings from 02.03 (about the Greek gods and the Trojan War).
You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 73%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


02.04 Epic poetry: The Odyssey (LA 9)

Objective: Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States. Determine a theme or central idea and observe the characters of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text.

The Trojan Horse ruse ends the siege of Troy: Wikimedia Commons, Lefevre, public domainThe Trojan Horse ruse ends the siege of Troy: Wikimedia Commons, Lefevre, public domain

The events and characters from The Odyssey have woven their way into our culture--not just in the United States, but worldwide.

The Odyssey could be considered the ultimate classic. After the Bible, and the works of Shakespeare, you are likely to hear more allusions to Homer's The Odyssey and The Iliad than to any other single classic.

Begin reading and/or listening to The Odyssey right away, so that by the time you get to unit 4, you will be finished with it. Take notes that include the names of important characters and places, and the events of the story. That will help you with the quiz questions and assignments in unit 4.

The Trojan Horse ruse ends the siege of Troy: Wikimedia Commons, Lefevre, public domain

While you are reading The Odyssey, you can also work on the lessons and assignments in Unit 3.

Epic Poetry

The Odyssey is an example of epic poetry. An epic is a long story-- usually long both in the length of telling and also in the time span covered by the events--about heroic deeds important to a country or culture.

According to tradition,The Odyssey was originally 'written' (or at least created) nearly 3000 years ago by a Greek poet named Homer, who was supposed to have been blind. It is quite likely that Homer did not write down or read the poem, but performed by reciting it aloud from memory. At that time, long before the printing press or widespread literacy, poets, bards and actors commonly memorized what seem to us like impossible quantities of material. In the original Greek, The Odyssey was a poem, over 12,000 lines long, and entirely composed in dactylic hexameter. (If you study poetry, you'll learn more about exactly what 'dactylic hexameter' means, but for our purposes in this class, just know that it means each line had the same rhythm and the same, or nearly the same, number of syllables: sixteen, give or take one.)

Odysseus (called Ulysses in Roman times) is a hero who exemplifies the virtues the Greeks admired in men: he is both physically strong (a great warrior), and mentally brilliant (a great strategist and thinker). His story takes him all over the areas of the world known to the Greeks at that time, and spans ten years (twenty, if you count the time he spent fighting at Troy).

 

Which versions of The Odyssey should you use?

I am including two versions of The Odyssey that you are welcome to use for this class. If you would like to use a different version, let me know. 

On-line text versions: (you could print these out to avoid reading everything on the screen, and to have something to refer to when studying) See links below.

To get a sense of the overall plot and main events, there is nothing wrong with looking at the Wikipedia article or a site like Cliff Notes or Spark Notes, or with watching a movie version. If you don't like spoilers, do that AFTER you read the first version you choose. 

03.00 Unit 3: Language skills (LA 9)

Copy readers in NY Times newspaper newsroom, 1942: WMC, US govt image, public domainCopy readers in NY Times newspaper newsroom, 1942: WMC, US govt image, public domain

Unit 3: Language skills and conventions

In this unit you will work primarily on language skills and conventions, Topics in this unit include punctuation (especially commas, semicolons and colons), frequently misspelled words, parts of speech, sentence structure, clauses and phrases.

NOTE: Please begin working on this unit even if you haven't finished reading The Odyssey. Keep reading The Odyssey while you work on this unit. 

 

03.01 Common Misspelled Words (LA 9)

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

Dessert or desert?: Wikimedia Commons: Hannes Grobe pie image, CC Attribution 3.0 Unported; Santryl Sonora Desert image, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedDessert or desert?: Wikimedia Commons: Hannes Grobe pie image, CC Attribution 3.0 Unported; Santryl Sonora Desert image, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
The following words, which are often misspelled or confused, may appear on the spelling quiz:

There (a place)/their (possessive)/they’re (contraction for "they are") - They're going to hang their coats there.

Your (possessive)/you’re (contraction for "you are") - If you want your diploma, you're going to have to work for it.

Were (verb - past tense of 'are')/we’re (contraction for "we are")/where (question about place) - We're about to pass the place where you were born.

We’ll (contraction for "we will") /will (verb - future tense of "is") - We'll wait for you if you will hurry.

Write (to put words on paper)/ right (correct; or the opposite of left)/ wright (one who makes - for instance, a wheelwright)/ rite (ritual - for instance, the rite of baptism) - Write down the right answer.

Through (finished; or moving in one side and out the other)/threw (past tense of throw) - The players threw the ball through the net.

Until (notice there is only one "L")

Piece (part)/peace (opposite of war) - Just give me a piece of cake, and I won't disturb the peace.

Definitely (certainly) /defiantly (in a rebellious way) - Defiantly, the prisoner told his guards he would definitely escape.

A lot (this is always two separate words; 'alot' is always wrong)

Its (possessive)/it’s (contraction for "it is") - It's about time the car got its safety inspection.

Here (this place)/hear (what you can do with your ears) - My mom told me to wait here, but I didn't hear her.

Accept (verb: receive willingly)/except (not including)/ acceptable (good enough) - All of us except Jenny will accept your invitation. Will jeans be acceptable attire for the party?

Argument (Notice there is no "e" after the "u")

Believe (Notice the "i" before "e")

Advise (verb - give advice to)/advice (noun - the good suggestion you may not want to follow) - I asked my dad to advise me, but I didn't like his advice.

Receive (notice the "e" before the "i")

Principal (most important; or the leader of a school)/principle (a basic truth, rule, or generalization) - The principal reason I decided to stay was to support the principle of freedom to assemble.

Affect (usually a verb - to act upon)/effect (usually a noun - the result of an act) - The new rule will affect all of us, and its effect will be to encourage us to work longer hours.

All ready (completely prepared)/already (adverb - prior to) - We thought we were all ready on time, but the concert had already started.

All right (always two words) - I told my parents I would be all right while they were gone.

Desert (a dry place; or, verb, to leave alone)/dessert (noun - something sweet to eat after dinner) - The wicked stepmother wanted to desert the children in the desert with nothing to drink just because they had asked for more dessert.

Loose (not tight), lose (opposite of win; or, to allow to go missing), loss (noun - something that was lost, or the act of losing) - If you leave the lug nuts loose, your car may lose a tire, and that loss could cause a wreck.

Quiet (not making noise), quite (to a degree), quit (verb - give up) - It was quite quiet in the room after Peter announced he was going to quit the team.

Set (to put something in place), sit (to move to a sitting position) - Please set the plates on the table, and then sit down.

Then (at that time), than (introducing the second element in a comparison) - If you would rather have a clarinet than a flute, then let your father know.

Cite (to quote or refer to)/site (place)/sight (what is seen) - You may cite the book as an authority on sites to visit if you want to see some awesome sights.

Sole (only; or bottom of a shoe), soul (the immortal, non-physical part of the self) - God may be the sole being familiar with our souls.

Stationary (not moving)/stationery (fancy writing paper) - Since the train was stationary, Sara got out some stationery and began writing a letter to her aunt.

Wear (to put on your body)/where (question about place)/ware (manufactured articles of a certain type; or goods that are for sale) - I was still trying to decide what to wear when my brother asked me where I had put the clean silverware.

Weather (meteorological conditions) /whether (which of two; in case) - Wear a jacket whether or not the weather seems warm when you leave.

Who’s (contraction for "who is")/whose (possessive) - Do you know who's coming for dinner, or whose coat that is?

Pore (to look at closely; or a very small opening)/pour (flow, or cause to run)/poor (lacking money) Take an hour to pore over your notes the night before the test. At the free banquet for poor families, Jordan's job was to pour gravy over the potatoes.

Study these words and make sure you know when to use them correctly. You can find more definitions and examples of correct use in Writer's Inc, or in dictionaries.

03.01 Spelling quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz covers the commonly-misspelled words from lesson 03.01 . You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 73% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.02 Reviewing commas, colons and semicolons (LA 9)

Objectives: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.

Original image from Wikimedia Commons, "Happy Days" publicity shot, public domainOriginal image from Wikimedia Commons, "Happy Days" publicity shot, public domainObjectives: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. 

(Interestingly, in Old English, Greek and Latin, there was no punctuation at all. In fact, there were no spaces between words.  They would have written that sentence like this: therewerenospacesbetweenwords )

Final punctuation

We use three kinds of punctuation marks to show the end of a sentence: periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

*Questions should end with a question mark: Why do you want to go see that movie?

Statements expressing a lot of emotion should end with an exclamation point: I hate getting shots!

Everything else should end with a period.

Internal punctuation

Inside a sentence, we mainly use three kinds of punctuation marks: commas, semicolons, and colons.

Semicolons are a little tricky, and you could probably do lots of writing and never really need a semicolon. There are three ways to use a semicolon correctly.

One: If you have two sentences that are very closely related, and maybe you want to imply a causal (cause-effect) relationship, you may use a semicolon instead of a period between the two. The semicolon then acts kind of like a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so). For example: Sarah's wedding cost thirty thousand dollars; her parents are broke.

Two: If you have a long sentence with a complicated list in which there are already commas within the description of each item, you may use a semicolon like a stronger comma to help keep the reader from getting lost in all the descriptions. For example: The unit was equipped with two large trucks, each capable of transporting three squads; fourteen heavily armed tanks, complete with heavy fire-power, thermal imaging, and computer guidance systems; and multiple anti-aircraft systems, both heavy surface-to-air missiles and lighter, shoulder-fired weapons.

Three: Between two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb (like therefore, moreover, meanwhile, however), before the conjunctive adverb. For example: I need this class to graduate from high school; furthermore, it will help me prepare for college.

Colons are commonly used between the hour and minutes sections when telling time (8:35 pm), after the salutation in a business letter (Dear Sir:), and, as we have been doing in this lesson, to formally introduce a sentence or section. Besides those, there are two other good uses for colons.

One: To introduce a list of items that are elaborating on a previous noun. For example: I am very fond of berries: strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and especially blackberries.

Two: Before a word, phrase, clause or sentence that renames, explains, or emphasizes the main clause. For example: There was just one word to describe my little brothers: trouble.

That brings us to commas. You may have been told to use a comma to indicate a pause in the sentence. If only it were that simple! Below I will list just some of the situations in which you should use commas.

  • To separate items in a series. For example: This sweatshirt comes in four sizes, two fabrics, and eleven colors.
  • Between independent clauses connected by coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, so), BEFORE the conjunction. For example: Hector could have gone to the mall, but he wanted to go to soccer practice.
  • To enclose an explanatory word, phrase, or clause within a sentence, if the sentence would still be complete without that word, phrase or clause. For example: Yuki's dad, a nuclear physicist, may someday win a Nobel prize. OR The couch, which was not in bad shape, had been left at the side of the road.
  • After an introductory phrase or clause. For example: Before moving to Utah, Samuel lived in Mississippi.
  • To separate the spoken words in dialogue from anything else in the sentence. For example: "Knock it off," Julie said sweetly, "or I'll tell your friends you are wearing pantyhose under your jeans."
  • Before the year in dates. For example: He was born in August, 1889.
  • Between the main sections of an address (name, street address, city, state). For example: The party will be held at Victory Park, 450 S Arlington Avenue, Pleasant View, Ohio.
  • Between adjectives modifying the same noun, if the order of the adjectives doesn't matter. For example: Marli donated her long, curly, beautiful hair to Locks of Love.
  • To set off a word or phrase that interrupts the flow of a sentence and could be moved to different places in the sentence. For example: Jared wanted to order dessert, too. OR The bill, fortunately, was under twenty dollars.
  • Around contrasted elements in a sentence. For example: I wanted some filling food, not just potato chips, to eat before bed.

 

These links will help you understand punctuation even further.

03.02.01 Writing techniques and punctuation assignment (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 20 minutes

Sentence Workshop - Punctuation review

Make sure you have learned in the lesson before you start on this assignment.

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Save your completed work and submit it in the corresponding submission section of the module.

**********************************************************************

Writing sentences

Proper use of punctuation in your writing helps readers understand what you mean. Follow the instructions in each part to write your sentences. 

a. Write one sentence using commas to separate single-word items in a series.

b. Write one sentence using commas to separate the three phrases of a 'magic three'.

c. Write one compound sentence using a comma to separate independent clauses.

d. Write one sentence using a comma to separate an introductory phrase or clause from the main clause.

e. Write one sentence in which you use commas to set off appositive, parenthetical, or unnecessary clauses or phrasWrite one sentence which use commas to set off dialogue.

f. Write one sentence using commas to separate multiple adjectives modifying the same noun, where the order of the adjectives doesn't matter.
(Don't put a comma between the last adjective and the noun.)

g. Write one sentence that correctly use a colon before a list.

h. Write one sentence that correctly uses a colon before a word, phrase or clause that renames or emphasizes the previous one.

i. Write one sentence that uses a semicolon between two closely related sentences to imply a cause-effect relationship.

j. Write one sentence that uses a semicolon between two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb. Remember the comma after the conjunctive adverb.  

************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class. 

************************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.02.02 Punctuation quiz (English 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

Go to the link in Module 3 on your main class page to take this quiz after you have studied the information on punctuation in lesson 03.02. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 67% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.03 Basic Vocabulary for Parts of Speech & Usage review (LA 9)

Objectives: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Louis Sergent, determined that he will finish high school and not work in the coal mines, does his homework, 1946, Kentucky.: Russell Lee image, NARA, public domainLouis Sergent, determined that he will finish high school and not work in the coal mines, does his homework, 1946, Kentucky.: Russell Lee image, NARA, public domainEarlier in your school career, you have probably learned about parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc), clauses, and phrases. If you are not 100% sure about any of these, use the links below and/or the attachments to review; you will need to understand them to be able to work on some of the more advanced writing we will work on in this class. 

03.03 Parts of Speech Review Quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

You may need to review the information about parts of speech (see links above) before you take this quiz. If you are not confident with this material, you will have a very difficult time learning about phrases and clauses.
Go to Module 3 on your main class page to take this quiz. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 67% to pass.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.04 Vocabulary: Prefixes & suffixes review (LA 9)

Objectives: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech.

 

Many English words use prefixes (a word part added at the beginning) or suffixes (a word part added at the end) to create variations in meaning. Most of these prefixes and suffixes came from Greek or Latin.

You probably learned these in earlier grades, so this should be a review for you. Some are especially common in math, science or medicine.  For instance, the prefixes that suggest numbers are probably familiar:  uni- or mono- (one), bi- or di- (two), tri- (three), quad- (four), pent- (five), hex- (six), hept- or sept- (seven), oct- (eight), non- (nine), and dec- (ten).

Often, suffixes also provide clues about what part of speech a word is. You don't need to memorize to take advantage of this--if you meet an unfamiliar word with a familiar suffix, just think of a word you DO know that uses the same suffix. Chances are excellent they are both the same part of speech.

For example, suppose you are wondering about the word "indefatigable." What's a familiar -able or -ible word? How about visible, or laughable? Those are both adjectives--and so is indefatigable.

Study any of these you did not already know--they will be on the quiz about prefixes and suffixes.The sun sets over a set of "Big Eyes" binoculars on the signal bridge of the USS Harry S. Truman: Ricardo J. Reyes, US Navy image, public domainThe sun sets over a set of "Big Eyes" binoculars on the signal bridge of the USS Harry S. Truman: Ricardo J. Reyes, US Navy image, public domain

Common Prefixes

Prefix Meaning Examples
bi- two bicycle, bisect, binoculars, bimonthly
extra- beyond, outside extraterrestrial, extraordinary, extravagant, extrovert
fore- front forethought, forehead, forecast, forefront
il- not illegal, illiterate, illegible, illogical, illegitimate
im- not impossible, imperfect, improbably, immobile, impassable
mis- incorrect, bad misbehave, mistake, misuse, misprint, misfit, misinform
post- after postpone, postgraduate, postwar, postoperative
pre- before prevent, prelude, prehistoric, preview, precede, predict, present
re- again return, revise, review, revive, reclaim, remain, receive, retouch
un- not undone, unable, unfit, unequal, unearned
anti- against antibody, antiwar, antidote, antacid
com- together common, community, combine, company, compare, complete
con- together connect, contact, contract, conversation, convince, conjunction
dis- apart from, away disappear, distract, distort, dispute, dismiss, discuss
inter- between international, interfere, intervene, interrupt, interject, interstate
intr- within, into intravenous, intracity, introduce, introvert, introduction
non- not nonstop, nonprofit, none, nonsense, nonfat, nonexistent
pro- forward progress, produce, protect, provide, propose
super- over, more superior, supreme, supernatural, supervisor, superhero
trans- across, beyond transport, transoceanic, transfusion, transmit, transmission

Common Suffixes

Suffix meaning part of speech examples
-able, -ible capable of, able to adjective expandable, visible, edible, capable, agreeable, malleable
-ate cause, make verb create, separate, dominate, segregate, equate
-er, -or one who, that which noun operator, farmer, author, doctor, baker, dancer, teacher
-ful full of, characterized by adjective beautiful, careful, useful, hopeful, helpful, fearful
-ist one who (does, makes) noun artist, physicist, chemist, biologist
-less without adjective hopeless, worthless, careless, useless, fearless, heartless
-ly in the manner of adverb usually, sincerely, exactly, carefully, suddenly, probably
-ment action, state of, result of noun movement, amendment, contentment, government
-tion act or state noun information, addition, position, motion, construction, transportation
-en make, make of verb or adjective wooden, frighten, frozen, happen, lighten, darken
-ess female noun lioness, actress, princess, goddess, governess, temptress
-ish resembling, origin, nature adjective foolish, selfish, smallish, clownish, Irish
-ism system, condition noun alcoholism, communism, capitalism, heroism
-ize make verb realize, organize, harmonize, recognize, neutralize
-let little, small noun booklet, piglet, coverlet, omelet
-ness quality or state of noun greatness, kindness, darkness, carelessness, softness
-ous full of, having adjective dangerous, glorious, various, treacherous
-ship state of, skill, quality noun friendship, relationship, hardship, companionship
-tude state of, having noun multitude, gratitude, solitude, verisimilitude

computer-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

Go to Topic 3 of the main class page to take this quiz after you have studied the prefixes and suffixes in lesson 03.04. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 70%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


03.05 Sentences, clauses, and phrases review (LA 9)

Objectives: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Use parallel structure.* b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

Before you go on to the next quiz, take time to make sure you fully understand these terms and concepts, which you have probably learned in earlier grades:

sentence clause
phrase subject (simple or compound)
predicate (simple or compound) direct object
indirect object complement
independent clause dependent (subordinate) clause
simple sentence compound sentence
complex sentence compound-complex sentence
modifiers conjunction (coordinating or subordinating)

Wikimedia Commons, Steven Pavlov, public domainWikimedia Commons, Steven Pavlov, public domain

 These terms (explained more below), and applications of them, will be on the next quiz.

03.05.01 Sentence parts (LA 9)

Basic parts of the sentence

This is a brief review of some of the most basic parts of a sentence:

The Subject

The subject of a sentence is usually a noun or pronoun, although it can be a phrase, and it is usually (though not always) near the beginning of the sentence.

Often, the subject is whatever (or whoever) is doing the action of the sentence: The horses were galloping across the field. The boat will sail away. John and Allen played so well the team won the game. (Notice that this complex sentence has two clauses, and the first clause has a compound subject.)

Often, the subject is the topic of the sentence: The painting is beautiful. The hot, spicy chili tasted wonderful.

Sometimes the subject is being acted upon: At the end of his mission, the spy was debriefed by the CIA. The victim had been stung over a hundred times.

A clause or simple sentence usually has one subject, but can have a compound subject: Ladies and gentlemen, start your engines. Lobsters, spiders, earthworms and honeybees are all invertebrates.

Here is an example of a subject that is a phrase: Michael choosing me to be his partner meant a lot to me. (The verb is 'meant'.)

The Predicate

Simply put, we might say that the predicate is everything in the sentence that isn't part of the subject. We are going to look at three components that may be part of the predicate: verbs, direct objects, and indirect objects.

 - Verbs

Verbs most often specify the action of the sentence:

Gavin flew the kite. The snake is swallowing the mouse. The wind blew all night. The man was overcome with sorrow. The trees had been struck by lightning. After we eat dinner, we will be going for a walk in the woods.(This is a complex sentence, so it has two sets of verbs.)

Verbs can also link the subject to some information about it:

The candy will be sticky. The champion collie was beautiful. Her name is Bethany. The fried chicken smelled delicious and tasted even better. (This simple sentence has a compound predicate.) The drumrolls sounded like distant thunder. 

Some verbs, which are called intransitive verbs, show a complete action that doesn't need an object:

The big bull was bucking, spinning and twisting. George smiled. Her broken leg ached for months after the accident. After dinner, we just rested.

 - Direct objects

Some verbs, which are called transitive verbs, show an action that is done TO something - these verbs need a direct object. The direct object receives the action of the verb:

The basketball team ate twenty-two pizzas. [The direct object - pizzas - tells WHAT they ate.]

I'm ordering Christmas presents on-line. [The direct object - presents - tells WHAT is being ordered.]

Some specialists earn several hundred dollars an hour.

There can be multiple direct objects: Jared bought milk, cookies, and ice cream.

If there are multiple verbs, each verb can have its own direct object, as in this Magic Three structure: Megan outran her opponent, received the pass, and scored a winning goal.

A direct object is usually a noun or pronoun, but it can also be a phrase: I want to go skiing.[To go skiing is WHAT I want.]

 - Indirect objects

A few sentences also have an indirect object, which specifies for whom (or to what) the direct object belongs:

I am ordering my children Christmas presents. [The presents are FOR the children.]

Skyler fed the horses their hay and the chickens corn. [The hay was fed TO the horses, and the corn was fed TO the chickens.]

The magical goose laid us a golden egg. The waiter brought Susan dinner. We will get the car new tires.

To decide whether a word is an indirect object, try re-arranging the sentence with the word after 'for' or 'to': "I'm picking my daughter a necklace" can be re-stated as "I'm picking a necklace FOR my daughter," so in the original version, "daughter" is an indirect object. "I'm picking my daughter up after school" can NOT be re-stated as "I'm picking up after school for/to my daughter", so in that sentence, 'daughter' is NOT an indirect object.

03.05.02 Sentences, clauses, and phrases (LA 9)

When we write or talk, we use groups of words. For the sake of simplicity, we have names for different kinds of groups of words - so that we can talk or write about our talking or writing.

The key unit of written communication is the sentence. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark or exclamation point. It is the smallest group of words that can stand alone (often it is said to "express a complete thought"). A sentence always has a subject and a predicate (though sometimes the subject may be understood rather than expressed, as in "Get out of here!", where the subject is understood to be "You").

A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. A clause may be an independent clause (in which case it may be a whole sentence by itself, or a part of a complex sentence), or a dependent clause, also called a subordinate clause (in which case it must be part of a complex or compound sentence). A dependent clause is not missing any parts - the thing that makes it dependent is an extra word (or words), usually a conjunction which is meant to link or relate it to an independent clause. For example: I stayed up late so that I could study. "I stayed up late" is an independent clause, which could stand alone as a sentence. "So that I could study" is a dependent clause which can't stand alone as a sentence, but ONLY because the words "so that" link it to the first clause. If you left out "so that", then "I could study" could be a complete sentence on its own.

A phrase is a group of words working together to function as a single part of speech. It may have a subject, or a predicate, but doesn't necessarily have either, and never has both. A phrase alone can never be a complete sentence. Here are some examples of phrases:

going to Georgia

caused various problems

up the stairs

the strongest man

in the county

 

A simple sentence has only one clause (though it may have many phrases). Examples of simple sentences: Marian slept. The cat and dog chased each other around the house. Tom ordered a milkshake. The house has a spiral staircase, two stained glass windows, and a balcony. We stopped for groceries, talked to friends, and drove home. Before starting chores, they changed clothes.

A compound sentence has two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction (commonly, and, or, but, & so). Examples of compound sentences: We won the first game, so we had to stay for the finals. I finished running errands, but I was late. Margaret can go to the carnival, or Jared can go to the movie. He was happy, and he was pleased with his son. Another, much less common kind of compound sentence has two independent clauses connected by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb (such as: then, thus, however, also, nevertheless, similarly, for example, in addition). Examples: We won the first three rounds; however, we lost in the finals. She told her mother; furthermore, she left a note on the refrigerator.

A complex sentence has one independent clause and one dependent clause. Either clause can come first, and the dependent (sometimes called subordinate) clause begins with a subordinating conjunction (such as: because, since, that, before, after, in spite of, although, if, while, until, when, where, unless), or a relative pronoun (which, who, that). Examples of complex sentences: After we started home, we quickly got lost. We got lost after we started home. Because she was wearing white, she didn't want to fall in the mud. Lois wouldn't have minded getting muddy if she had been wearing jeans. Unless George is going to drive, Tyler can't go. Desrie likes Robert in spite of the fact that he wears twelve earrings. We went to see Paul, who is my favorite brother. [who, which, that & what can act both as the subordinating conjunction and as the subject of the dependent clause]

As you might guess, a compound-complex sentence has both two independent clauses, and at least one dependent clause, in any order. Examples of compound-complex sentences: Marty was hungry, so after they finished cleaning up, they bought a pizza. Before the test started, Jeremy got sick, and Brent passed out.

More explanation & examples about simple, compound, and complex sentences:

A simple sentence can be stripped down to its single subject & verb.

Here is a long simple sentence: Hoping to meet her brother on the evening before their departure, she carefully planned a schedule to help with her preparations. Why is this a simple sentence? Because if you get rid of all the extra modifiers, it strips down to "she planned a schedule". It has only one clause. You might think of a clause as a basic subject/verb unit.

If you think of it that way, you can see that this is still a single clause even though the subject & verb are compound: George and Terry stopped and waited. It is one unit of meaning.

Compound sentences:

On the other hand, if we say "George stopped, and Terry waited," now we have two clauses - two units of meaning. Each unit has its own subject doing a unique thing. We could also say "George stopped, but Terry waited," or "George stopped, so Terry waited." Any of those three are compound sentences because they consist of two independent clauses, connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, or).

Complex sentences:

The other way of connecting clauses involves subordinating conjunctions, which suggest how one of the units of meaning depends on the other. If we say "Because George stopped, Terry waited," we have a complex sentence - one independent clause (Terry waited) with at least one dependent, or subordinate, clause (because George stopped). In many cases (but not always), we can reverse the order of the clauses ("Terry waited because George stopped.)"

A complex sentence can have clauses nested inside of clauses: Because Terry was waiting ~ while George was stopped,~ the whole convoy came to a halt~ until the tow truck arrived~ so that George's car could be hauled back home~ where a mechanic was waiting to fix it ~so that he could continue on with everyone else. That has seven clauses! Only one (the whole convoy came to a halt) is independent.

Compound/complex sentences:

More often, complicated sentences use both ways of connecting clauses, so they have two or more independent clauses AND one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses: George stopped ~ and Terry waited ~ while the rest of the group caught up. (Two independent clauses and one dependent clause)

03.05.02 Sentences, clauses, and phrases review quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 67%. The questions are based on the lesson and links in lesson 03.05.02 (sentences, phrases and clauses).

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.00 Unit 4: Narrative (LA 9)

Detail from "Grandfather Tells a Story": Albert Anker, 1884, Wikimedia Commons, public domainDetail from "Grandfather Tells a Story": Albert Anker, 1884, Wikimedia Commons, public domain

 

Basically, the purpose of narrative is to tell a story. A narrative may tell a true (nonfiction) story, or an invented (fiction) story, but the focus is on what happens.

When you talk to a friend, you tell them what you've been doing, or what has happened in your life since the last time you talked to them. That's an example of narrative.

Novels, biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, and some essays and poetry are narrative. Most plays, movies and TV shows are narrative in structure, also.

Here are a few terms to review, in relation to narrative: 

Plot - what happens in the story; how events unfold

Characters - the people (or aliens, animals, gods, etc) who do things in the story

Protagonist - the main character or "hero" of the story

Antagonist - a character who opposes the protagonist

Setting - where and in what time period the story happens

Theme - remember from unit 2? A theme is like an underlying message or lesson about life you can infer from the story.

You should now be finished reading The Odyssey (one of the greatest classics of western literature. 

04.01 Archetypes (LA 9)

Objectives: Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

Vivien Bewitches Merlin: Wikimedia Commons, Howard Pyle illustration from the 1903 edition of The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, public domainVivien Bewitches Merlin: Wikimedia Commons, Howard Pyle illustration from the 1903 edition of The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, public domain

Archetypes

Certain kinds of characters and situations occur in human lives and stories from all over the world and from all time periods. These recurring characters, behaviors and themes are called "archetypes".

The young and/or inexperienced hero (male or female) who must leave home to find something, or rescue someone, is a common archetype. Luke Skywalker of the Star Wars movies is an example of this. In many fairy or folk tales, it is the youngest child, an orphan, or a poor farmer, soldier, or woodcutter, who saves the kingdom. Often, there is something special, mysterious or unusual about the hero's birth or parentage.

Often s/he has a faithful companion (think of Sam in The Lord of the Rings). The older, wise man or woman--a mentor--who gives the hero help or advice is another archetype (think of Obiwan and Yoda in Star Wars, or Dumbledore in the Harry Potter books).

Often, the hero must go through an experience symbolic of death--descending into a cave, the underworld or the belly of a monster, or undergoing a critical injury. Sometimes the hero must fight or outsmart a monster or dragon (itself another archetype).

In many stories there is a 'trickster' --a mischievous, clever character who may be good, evil, or uncommitted, but uses his/her wits to trick or manipulate others. The Norse god Loki, the Greek god Hermes, Anansi the spider in African tales, and Coyote in many native American tales are all examples of tricksters.

The nurturing mother, wicked stepmother/father, and the evil witch or villain ("destroyer") are also archetypes.

In addition to these obviously evil characters who stand in the way of the hero's quest, often there is a temptation to abandon the quest: a person or situation that tempts the hero to abandon the quest in favor of a pleasant, easier alternative. In The Lord of the Rings, the members of the Fellowship are offered the chance to stay in Rivendell or Lothlorien. In The Odyssey, Odysseus could have stayed on the nymph's island.

Once you begin to think about archetypes, you can see examples in many of the stories you read, and movies you watch.

The Hero's Journey

The hero's journey is a common framework for a story, and often contains two or more of the following archetypal components:

* The call to adventure: an invitation or opportunity to take part in an important quest or adventure

* Crossing a threshold, or passing a boundary, door or gate: the hero moves from a known or safe place into a new, unknown place. Sometimes there is a "gatekeeper" (threshold guardian) who must be convinced to let the hero pass through.

* Challenges or dangerous trials: the hero must overcome tests, dangerous ordeals, monsters, or other difficulties

* Temptations: the hero is offered a chance to be safe and happy if s/he abandons the adventure

* Meeting a wise or helpful guide: the hero meets someone who will teach, mentor and advise him or her. Usually this is an older man or woman who appears humble or weak, but is really powerful and wise. This person may give the hero a magical weapon or charm.

* Companions: the hero meets or is given companions who will go with him or her on the journey

* Making a sacrifice: the hero must choose to give up something s/he loves or treasures; or the hero is badly wounded because of his/her courage

* Descent to the underworld: the hero goes into a place of darkness (a cave, Hades, or the belly of a beast are common examples) from which it is difficult to return. Sometimes the hero brings back some kind of treasure.

 

* The triumphant return: the hero returns home after successfully completing the task or quest

04.02 Movie viewing assignment (LA 9)

Objective: Make logical inferences; cite specific textual evidence; determine central ideas; summarize key supporting details; analyze how individuals, events and ideas develop and interact in a story.

Bushmen rock painting in Zimbabwe: Steve Evans, Wikimedia Commons, CC Attribution 2.0 GenericBushmen rock painting in Zimbabwe: Steve Evans, Wikimedia Commons, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic
View one of the following movies:

The Lion King

O Brother Where Art Thou

Holes (or you may read the book Holes if you prefer)

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (originally the first of the series to be filmed)

As you watch, take note of how the characters view their journeys, and how they view their homes. On what evidence do you base these ideas? See the questions you will need to answer, below.

04.02.01 Movie viewing assignment (LA 9)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

For the movie you watched, please answer the following questions in complete sentences: 

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

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1) Explain what you know about the main character’s home.

2) Describe the journey taken by the main character--how and where did it begin, progress, and end?

3) Did this character change during the journey?

4) List and briefly describe four additional characters from the movie. What archetype each character represents?

5) List and briefly explain at least four problems or events in the movie. What archetype did each event represent?

6) What role did God, a greater power, a wise leader, or the gods, play in the movie?

7) What advice about life, message or theme can you get from this movie? 

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class. 

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.03 Finishing The Odyssey (LA 9)

Objectives:Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text and cite specific textual Analyze how complex characters develop over the course of a text. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums.

 

*Finish reading The Odyssey. You will need to be finished for the next assignments. 

04.03.01 The Odyssey - comparing versions of the "stringing the bow" scene (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 30 minutes

Odysseus and the Sirens: Wikimedia Commons, public domainOdysseus and the Sirens: Wikimedia Commons, public domainUsing evidence to compare two versions of a scene from The Odyssey

NOTE: this assignment is not about the whole book; you will be comparing two versions of only one short scene.

Do this assignment after you have completed reading or listening to the entire book.

The three links below will take you to different versions (translations or re-tellings) of the contest with Odysseus's bow, near the end of The Odyssey.


Read two of the three versions, and then answer the questions. 

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

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  1. Which two versions did you read?

  2. List four specific ways that the two versions are different..

  3. Give two reasons that Penelope proposes this contest (one reason from each work)?

  4. Which version did a better job describing this incident and why?

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.03.02 The Odyssey in Art and Poetry (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 30 minutes

Read or view all of the poems or pictures at the links below. (Yes, there may be quiz questions on any of them.)

Choose one of the poems and one of the pictures and answer the questions below. Use complete sentences!

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work, putting each answer after the question and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

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Visual art:

Visual art:

1. What is the name of work and name of artist?

2. What event in The Odyssey is depicted in this work of art?

3. What did the artist show that was specifically mentioned in the original written version?

4. What did the artist include that is 'extra' (not mentioned) in the original?

5. What did the artist leave out or change? 

Poem:

6. Which poem are you writing about?

7. How did the poet connect this poem to The Odyssey?

8. What ideas or themes from The Odyssey are included in the poem?

9. What is the general feeling or tone you get from this poem? (List two examples of word choice or images from the poem that help create that tone.) 

 

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 Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 4 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.03.03 The Odyssey quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 30 points possible 10 minutes

Go to your main class page, and into Module 3, to take this quiz after you have completed reading or listening to The Odyssey.
You may take this quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 74%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.04 Archetypes and epic poetry (LA 9)

Reading: Read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.

Hiawatha: Wikimedia Commons, Frederic Remington, public domainHiawatha: Wikimedia Commons, Frederic Remington, public domain

Remember that an epic is a long story of heroic deeds, usually important to a culture or country's history. The Odyssey and The Iliad by Homer are (in their original versions) examples of epic poetry.

Many traditional epics were written in the form of poetry, probably because that made them easier to memorize (remember, back then there were no printing presses to make books, and not many people even knew how to read).

You've already read part of Longfellow's epic poem "The Song of Hiawatha", based on traditional Native American stories he had heard. Now that you know about archetypes, you're going to revisit "The Song of Hiawatha" to read parts 3 and 4: "Hiawatha's Childhood" and "Hiawatha and Mudjekeewis" (attached in PDF form, or use the link below).

As you read, watch for examples of archetypes in these narratives of Hiawatha's birth, childhood, and coming of age. 

04.04.01 Archetypes quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 15 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz covers the material on archetypes, "The Song of Hiawatha", and applications of archetypes to earlier readings.

You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 74%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.05 Hero stories (LA 9)

Objectives: Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature, from outside the United States, using the theme of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text. Read informational Text analyze U.S. documents of historical and literary including how they address related themes and concepts. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Robin Hood meets Little John on the bridge: Wikimedia Commons, Louis Rhead, public domainRobin Hood meets Little John on the bridge: Wikimedia Commons, Louis Rhead, public domain Read (or view/listen to) each of the following pieces (links below). As you read, ask yourself what the writer tells us about heroes, or the particular 'hero' in the piece, and look for evidence of that theme. Be sure to notice how the author uses the four elements of narrative: 

  • exposition (telling about things that happen, or have happened)
  • dialogue (conversation between two or more characters)
  • description (telling how things or people look, sound, smell, taste or feel, in the tactile sense)
  • reflection (what at least one character is thinking or feeling about events)

There will be quiz questions drawn from all of these readings.

The story of David and Goliath, 1 Samuel 17, from the Old Testament in the Bible

"The Coming of Little John", from Robin Hood, traditional

"The Tiger King's Skin Cloak", Mongolian folk tale

"The Gettysburg Address", by Abraham Lincoln

"Invictus" poem by William Ernest Henley

"Beware of the Dog" by Roald Dahl

In later assignments for this lesson, you will be planning, writing and revising your own hero story.

04.05 Hero stories (LA 9)

If the link to "The Tiger King's Skin Cloak" isn't working, see attachment instead.

04.05 Short responses: Heroes (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 30 minutes

David holding up the head of Goliath: Wikimedia Commons, Gustave Doré, public domainDavid holding up the head of Goliath: Wikimedia Commons, Gustave Doré, public domain

Choose THREE of the readings for this lesson (or you may use "The Song of Hiawatha" for one) and explain what you think the author of each piece would consider the most important qualities of a hero.

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

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What do you think the author of each piece considers the most important qualities of a hero? What details/specific evidence from the piece lead you to this conclusion?

Your answer for each reading should be in the form of a paragraph, starting with a claim about what the author would consider to be the qualities of a hero, and then quoting or paraphrasing evidence from the text to support your claim. 

 

  1. Title of piece:
    Answer paragraph:
  2. Title of piece:
    Answer paragraph:
  3. Title of piece:
    Answer paragraph:
  4.  

 

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.05.01 Original hero story: first draft (LA 9)

teacher-scored 35 points possible 60 minutes

Plan a fictional (made-up) story which includes a character you would consider a hero.

Plan a fictional (made-up) story which includes a character you would consider a hero.

Write a part of your own, original hero story by doing the following:

Answer the questions below,
Create ONE SCENE from the story using the information gathered in the questions.
Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word-processing document on your computer.

Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment. 

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Pre-writing

  1. Explain who your hero is and what important qualities of a hero will your hero demonstrate in this story?

  2. Briefly summarize what the conflicts in the story would be, and how the hero gets pulled into the conflicts.

  3. What archetypes would be involved in the story?

  4. Briefly summarize how your hero would finally resolve the major conflict or difficulty, and how the story would end.

Composing

Finally, write (in complete, detailed story form) ONE SCENE from the story. Your scene should cover one incident or challenge from the story. This draft will be scored according to the rubric below

Remember, when writing dialogue, to start a new paragraph each time a different person speaks.

Incorrect:

"What will happen if we just stay here?" asked Tamara. "I'm not sure," said Titus. "Does it matter?"

Correct:

"What will happen if we just stay here?" asked Tamara. "I'm not sure," said Titus. "Does it matter?" 

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class. 

You will be graded according to the grading rubrics listed in the corresponding submission sections for this unit.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.05.01 Original hero story: revision (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 30 minutes

After you have read my feedback on your initial draft, revise your scene from the previous lesson and practice reading it aloud (that may help you notice things you could improve on).

Make sure your story includes exposition, dialogue, description and reflection.

You will turn in the audio of yourself reading the story out loud, and the revised text version.

You may record an audio file (as an MP3) and attach it to the assignment submission window, OR you may call my Google Voice phone number and read the story scene aloud in my voice mail.

You will be scored on how smoothly and expressively you read it.

Scoring 

Content improvements (added details, dialogue, and ideas, or improvements in organization/order) 6
Style improvements (tone, word choice, sentence fluency, grammar) 4
Conventions 5
Fluency and expression of reading 10

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 5 of your enrollment date for this class.


04.05.02 Heroes quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 20 points possible 10 minutes

Rowing to rescue shipwrecked sailors off the Northumberland Coast: by John Wilson Carmichael, copyright expired, via Wikimedia CommonsRowing to rescue shipwrecked sailors off the Northumberland Coast: by John Wilson Carmichael, copyright expired, via Wikimedia Commons

This quiz covers narrative writing and the stories about heroes. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 70%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.00 Unit 5: Exposition (LA 9)

Climber reading guidebook: Elson image, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 GenericClimber reading guidebook: Elson image, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 GenericExposition is writing that describes something, explains, or informs. Expository writing should examine, explain, and communicate ideas, processes, concepts and information clearly and accurately.

Expository writing includes

  • technical writing like the manuals that come with games or software
  • 'how-to' writing like magazine articles about how to fly-fish, build a greenhouse, or make artisan bread
  • descriptive writing like a travel book, an article about the latest fashions, or information about a house for sale on a real estate website
  • scientific journal articles describing an experiment or study, and reporting the results
  • news reports about a current event
  • ...and many other forms

By now you may have noticed that the three types of writing (argument, narrative and exposition) sometimes overlap, and that many pieces of writing include aspects of two (or all three). When you aren't sure how to classify a particular writing, ask yourself what the main purpose is--to argue, to tell a story, or to inform?

Novels, short stories, and biographies are usually narrative though they are likely to include sections of exposition. Arguments are also likely to contain some exposition, and sometimes some narrative. In the same way, expository writing may include some elements of narration or argument, but its main purpose is to inform.

05.01 About an Expository Comparison/Contrast Essay (LA 9)

Objective: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

Earth and the moon compared: NASA image, Wikimedia Commons, public domainEarth and the moon compared: NASA image, Wikimedia Commons, public domainI doubt that you ever go through a day without making SOME comparison or contrast. Writing a comparison/contrast essay isn't an entirely new skill--it's just applying your everyday, ordinary thinking process to writing. 

Note - In common usage, people often say 'compare' when they are looking for both likenesses and differences. Usually if a teacher tells you to write a comparison essay, s/he really means a comparison/contrast essay.*

Like many essays, a comparison/contrast essay usually begins with an introductory paragraph that includes a 'thesis statement.' That's just a sentence that tells your main point. The introduction usually gives some background information, and maybe two or three basic, general statements about reasons for your main point. If you're writing about literature, your introduction should name the titles of the works you are comparing. Jump right in and say what you think, WITHOUT phrases like "In this essay I will..." or "This essay will be about..." or "I'm going to write about..."

The middle paragraphs of your essay will have examples and specific details from the two stories (or whatever you are comparing), organized in a logical way to support your main point. In a comparison/contrast essay, often you will alternate between a statement about one of the works and a statement about some parallel aspect of the other work. For example: "In the Harry Potter books, Harry is the young, inexperienced hero. In The Lord of the Rings, it is Frodo." (See the required link below for more about ways to organize your essay.) Most high school essays have from one to four middle paragraphs (three is most common). Each paragraph should be organized around some main idea or topic. When you have finished explaining and giving examples for one idea, end the paragraph and start another.

The last paragraph of your essay is the conclusion. Your essay shouldn't seem like it quits where you ran out of ideas, or like you just stopped because it was time to go eat dinner. The ending should sound/feel like a natural stopping place--like you have closed and locked a door, not run out and left the door standing open behind you. One way to accomplish this is to 'sum up' what you have been saying. You should take your original thesis statement and expand on it or give it a twist. You might include an evaluation of the two works in your conclusion; you might make some prediction about how people in the future will view things, or about possible sequels or re-makes.

Useful transitional words and phrases for comparison/contrast essay include some like these: similarly, similarities, in contrast, by comparison, compared to, differences, however, although, parallels, likewise, on the other hand, however...

Visit the links below for a good example of a comparison/contrast essay, more information and help with writing comparison/contrast essays. There will be quiz questions from the required links.

05.01.01 Odyssey Expository Comparison/Contrast Essay pre-writing and first draft (LA 9)

teacher-scored 40 points possible 50 minutes

Odysseus' ship passing Charybdis: public domain, author unknown, via Wikimedia CommonsOdysseus' ship passing Charybdis: public domain, author unknown, via Wikimedia Commons

Begin work on your original comparison/contrast essay about The Odyssey and the movie you chose to view for lesson 04.02.

Complete your work in a word-processing document, save it to your computer, then copy and paste your work into the assignment submission window for this assignment. 

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Pre-Writing (for this section only, you may choose not to write in complete sentences)

A. First impressions

1. List at least four important characters in The Odyssey. 

2. List at least four important characters in the movie you watched. 

3. Think of this as a 'matching' question on a test. Which characters on your list from The Odyssey are similar to (correspond to) which characters from the movie in some way? Match them up, with a brief comment about what it is about them that corresponds. 

4. List at least three problems or events in The Odyssey.

5. List at least three problems or events in the movie you watched. 

6. Again, match them up--which events from The Odyssey correspond to or have similarities with which events from the movie, and how are they similar? 

7. What role did God, or the gods, play in The Odyssey, and what were the characters' attitudes toward the gods? 

8. What role did God, a greater power, or the gods, play in the movie? 

C. Theme (remember, a theme is a complete sentence that makes a general statement)

9. Identify two themes from The Odyssey, and refer to evidence from the story supporting those themes. 

10. Identify two themes from the movie, and refer to evidence from the story supporting those themes. 

D. Order

11. Briefly explain what order you plan to put your ideas in for your essay (how it will be organized). See the link above for the Comparison and Contrast Guide at ReadWriteThink for the possible ways to organize a comparison/contrast essay, and choose one. 

Composing

Write a comparison/contrast essay (at least 400 words) about “The Odyssey” and the movie that you chose. You will need an introduction, at least three paragraphs in the body, and a concluding paragraph. Compare and contrast characters, themes, and events from The Odyssey with characters, themes, and events from the movie you watched. 

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Revise your essay for better ideas, examples, organization, introduction, conclusion, transitions, word choice, style, and sentence fluency. 

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


05.02 Finding and evaluating sources (LA 9)

Objective: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question.

Orville Wright's diary from 1903, noting first successful airplane flight: Library of Congress image, public domainOrville Wright's diary from 1903, noting first successful airplane flight: Library of Congress image, public domain
Where can you find information?

Primary sources

  • Talk to or read about someone who was there. Someone who has 'first-hand' knowledge of your topic is an extremely useful source. For obvious reasons, this may not be an option for something that happened a long time ago, or a long distance away. 

Secondary sources

  • Information written by anyone who was not an actual participant or eyewitness (in many cases, most or all of your information will be from secondary sources, in print or online) 

Why is it so important to carefully evaluate information and its sources?

  • You want to know whether your information is true and accurate (or not). You should be especially careful about evaluating online sources. 
  •  
  • The writer may be wrong or lying for their own gain. The writer may be sharing only part of the truth or passing along second-hand information that supports personal biases.
  • Even photographs or videos can quite easily be 'photo- shopped' to show false images. 

Please read all the 'required' website links below. Yes, there will be quiz questions.

05.02 Finding and evaluating sources (LA 9)

05.03 Critical reading (LA 9)

Objective: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Determine the central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and valid.

Clarklupine image, Wikimedia Commons, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedClarklupine image, Wikimedia Commons, Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Critical reading' is likely to be the MOST important reading skill you can carry with you into your adult life. 

Critical reading goes beyond enjoying and/or remembering what you read. When you read critically, you need to consciously question what you are reading.

  • Is this really true?
  • How can I tell whether it's true?
  • Does this make sense?
  • Is it reasonable?
  • Is this the whole story?
  • How can I double-check on this?
  • Is it up-to-date?
  • Is this author knowledgeable, ethical, unbiased?
  • Who else would know?

All these questions, and more, need to be in the back of your mind as you read critically. 

In life and in many jobs--but especially in higher-paying jobs--a major part of your everyday work may be evaluating information. 

05.03.01 Unit 5 quiz (LA 9)

computer-scored 22 points possible 10 minutes

Go to Module 3 on your main class page to take this quiz. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 68%. The questions cover material (lessons and links) from unit 5.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 6 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.00 Unit 6: Argumentation (LA 9)

Justices of the Supreme Court of the US, 2009: US govt image, WC, public domainJustices of the Supreme Court of the US, 2009: US govt image, WC, public domain

 

For argument writing: Writers choose details, evidence, events and characters' words and actions to develop main ideas or themes; readers use details, examples and evidence to infer main ideas or themes.

In unit six, you will consider important components of "argument," both in reading/listening and in writing/speaking.

The purpose of argument is to set forth claims, counterclaims, reasons, and relevant evidence in such a way as to determine and clarify the accuracy or truth of the matter.

06.01 Introduction to Argument (LA 9)

Objectives: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development through specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. Read informational text and determine an author’s point of view or purpose. Evaluate an argument and assess whether the reasoning is valid. Write valid and substantive.

Patrick Henry addresses the Virginia Assembly, in the 1770's: Currier and Ives, copyright expired, via Wikimedia CommonsPatrick Henry addresses the Virginia Assembly, in the 1770's: Currier and Ives, copyright expired, via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

 

"Argument?" you say. "I'm good at that--just ask my parents!"  but that is not how we will be using that word in this class. 

The classical meaning of "argument" has to do with persuasion based on reasons. That is similar to how we will approach the concept of “argument” in this class. We will use the terms “rhetoric” and “discourse” to understand “argument” more fully.

 

Ethos, Pathos and Logos

Aristotle classified the techniques of rhetoric into three categories. Their Greek names are ethos, pathos and logos.

Ethos has to do with changing how you perceive the speaker/writer himself (or herself) and his/her credibility or authority.
Do you trust the speaker? If the speaker deliberately tries to use and improve his/her credibility as a way of persuading you, that is ethos.

Pathos has to do with emotional reactions.
Appealing to listeners' concerns or hopes, the speaker tries to arouse fear, anger, shame, sorrow, happiness or sympathy, often using 'loaded language'--words calculated to 'push your buttons.' It is human nature to be easily swayed by emotion.

Logos has to do with logic, knowledge, reasons, and facts.
The use of statistics, scientific studies, cause-and-effect relationships, and parallels from history are all examples of logos. Note, however, that logos can be used to mislead as well as to impart accurate information. A speaker who is working from false premises will arrive at false conclusions, even using logic. 

In this class, we will use 'argumentation' to mean logos--the use of logic and evidence in communication. Just as a poet or fiction writer uses carefully-chosen specific details to shape and clarify a poem or story, a writer of argument uses facts, examples and evidence to shape and clarify the meaning.

How is argument different from persuasion?

The purpose of persuasion is to convince others of something. The purpose of argument is to determine the truth about something. That said, argument may sometimes be used as part of persuasion. 

How is an argument different from an opinion?

All of us have opinions. Sometimes your opinion may differ from someone else's opinion, and the two of you disagree. That is still not an argument. When we begin using logical reasons or evidence to determine whether a certain view is correct, then we are using argument. Note that not all opinions are about "arguable issues”, many are subjective and based mainly on personal feelings, tastes or biases. Personal preferences are not the same as verifiable facts.

For example:
Let's analyze the Declaration of Independence:

  • Does it contain examples of the use of 'ethos'?

Not much. It doesn't mention anyone by name, and it wasn't delivered as a speech, so we can't pin it to any particular person's reputation or charisma.

  • Does it contain examples of the use of 'pathos'?

It does use some 'loaded' language (suffer, evils, abuses, usurpations, despotism). However, it doesn't contain any specific, graphic images, so it doesn't elicit strong emotions--the appeals to pathos are minimal.

  • Does it contain examples of the use of 'logos'?

Yes, for sure. It is constructed in a very logical manner. It starts with premises (the list of the unalienable rights, the purpose of government, and the rights of people to change their government); it proceeds to explain how human nature tends to put up with problems rather than make major changes; and it ends with the claim that people have a right and duty to change a government that does not respect their rights. 

The graphic below illustrates another way of looking at disagreements. The top three levels fall into what we would consider 'argument.'
Graham's Hierarchy of Disagreement: Rocket000 image, Wikimedia Commons, public domainGraham's Hierarchy of Disagreement: Rocket000 image, Wikimedia Commons, public domain

 

 

 

06.01 Recognizing types of persuasion and argument (LA 9)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Your assignment is to analyze the excerpts below to see what aspects represent ethos, pathos and logos. You will then need to explain why you think the example is an example of one of these techniques.

These examples were taken from persuasive or argumentative speech or writing - editorials (opinion pieces) and speeches. Straight news stories or advertising are not good sources for this purpose.

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment. 

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1. "Across the country no fewer than 3.2 million seniors are graduating about now from more than 37,000 high schools." (David McCullough)

A. Is this ethos, pathos or logos?

B. Defend your answer to A.

2. "Climb the mountain not to plant your flag, but to embrace the challenge, enjoy the air and behold the view." (David McCullough)

A. Is this ethos, pathos or logos?

B. Defend your answer to A.

3. "More importantly, we recognized that no counterterrorism strategy could succeed in isolation. As you know from the Pakistan and Afghanistan strategy documents that we have made available to the Commission, our counterterrorism strategy was a part of a broader package of strategies that addressed the complexities of the region." (Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice)

A. Is this ethos, pathos or logos?

B. Defend your answer to A.

4. "This unspeakable act on the United States has really forced me, however, to rely on my moral compass, my conscience, and my God for direction." (Representative Barbara Lee)

A. Is this ethos, pathos or logos?

B. Defend your answer to A.

5. "Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and sans-serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great... ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the "Mac" would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts." (Steve Jobs)

A. Is this ethos, pathos or logos?

B. Defend your answer to A.

**********************************************************************Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02 Readings in argument (LA 9)

Objectives: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development. Summarize the text. Read informational text and analyze how the author unfolds a series of ideas or events. Evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text.

Executions in the United States, 1930-2004: Wikimedia Commons, released into public domain by authorExecutions in the United States, 1930-2004: Wikimedia Commons, released into public domain by author
Before you read:

Write a paragraph explaining what you believe about the death penalty, and why. Save the paragraph--you will need it later. 

Next, read the three articles (two links and one PDF below) about issues surrounding the death penalty in the United States. While you read:

Copy or summarize four to six statements 
or examples that seem especially good to 
you. Be sure to include at least one from
 each article ("The Death Penalty Pro and 
Con", " THE ULTIMATE PUNISHMENT: A 
DEFENSE", and "AGAINST THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT"). 

06.02.01 Response to readings in argument (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 20 minutes

Read closely; cite specific textual evidence. 

*************************************************************

1. Copy here the paragraph you wrote before reading the articles, explaining what you believe about the death penalty, and why.

2. List three of the statements or examples you wrote down from the articles, and identify the author and name of the article for each citation. Make note of which ones support or conflict with your position.

a. Statement and author: Type and explanation:

b. Statement and author: Type and explanation:

c. Statement and author: Type and explanation:

3. Has your position changed or stayed the same after reading these articles? Explain.

**************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.02 Quiz: reading and writing argument (LA 9)

computer-scored 20 points possible 10 minutes

This quiz covers the material from lessons and readings in this unit. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 70%.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.02.03 Performance Assessment (LA 9)

teacher-scored 18 points possible 50 minutes

1845 illustration for French proverb translated "Who loves well, punishes well.": Granville, WC, public domain1845 illustration for French proverb translated "Who loves well, punishes well.": Granville, WC, public domain

This quiz will challenge your analytical skills.

Note that this quiz is different from other quizzes in the class. It is longer and requires detailed answers after processing an interesting reading assignment.

Go to Module 3 on your main class page to take this quiz. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 68%.

Please study the attached readings in the quiz. You are free to ask a friend or a parent to read and discuss each of the readings in the quiz with you while you take the quiz. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class. 

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.03 Writing an argument essay (LA 9)

Objectives: Write arguments to support claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

Death penalty map:: Dark Blue: no death penalty; Light Blue: death penalty not applied for over 10 years; Brown: death penalty only used in wartime; Orange: used against adults; Red: used against adults and adolescentsDeath penalty map:: Dark Blue: no death penalty; Light Blue: death penalty not applied for over 10 years; Brown: death penalty only used in wartime; Orange: used against adults; Red: used against adults and adolescents

An argumentative essay presents reasons and factual evidence as well as counter arguments with regard to an arguable topic.

Pre-Writing

Choose a topic and search for factual information, opinions, and quotes that support the topic as well opposing evidence. Take notes on what you research. Organize the information in a way that makes sense to you. 

Composing

Start to compose the first draft of your essay. Your first paragraph needs to briefly state your claim (thesis) and the three main supporting points. Your three body paragraphs should each elaborate and be based on the three main points you stated in your thesis. You need to end the essay with a conclusion that is similar to your thesis paragraph but with a summative approach that explains why the essay is important and meaningful.

Revising

After you finish the first draft, you will put it away for a day or two and/or ask some friends to read it and let you know what strengths and weaknesses they notice. You should read it out loud once or twice and make note of what you see and hear needs changing. Once you have the feedback and notes you need, make the needed revisions. 

Editing

Look for any remaining spelling, punctuation, capitalization and grammar or usage errors. Fix them! 

06.03.01 Writing an argument essay: pre-writing and research (LA 9)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 50 minutes

You will now write your argument paper. Your argument for this paper based on your stand and research about the death penalty in section 6.02 of this unit. 


Important: You will need to research your stand even further and make sure you keep track of your sources. Keep a list of book titles, internet url's, article titles, publication dates, and all authors' names.

Copy and paste the questions between the rows of asterisks into your document.  Answer the questions and submit the whole document.

******************************************

1. State the main claim you will use in your essay (a complete sentence):

2. Identify (through research) at least three sources you can use for information to support or discuss your claim.

3. List your sources:

a: Author, title, publication date for first source: Quote from first source;

b: Author, title, publication date for second source: Quote from second source:

c: Author, title, publication date for third source:

Quote from third source:

4. List three arguments FOR (supporting) your main claim, in your own words. Be sure to include source references for facts used in the claims:

a:

b:

c:

5. List two arguments AGAINST your main claim, in your own words. Be sure to include source references for facts used in the claims:

a:

b:

6. Why is your claim important? 

**********************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.03.02 Writing an argument essay: composing (LA 9)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 50 minutes

Write your argument essay according to the instructions and research in this unit.

Your essay needs to be written using the following format:

  • An introductory paragraph that introduces your main claim and its significance with three main supporting points briefly stated.
  • The body of the essay should include two or three paragraphs that explain the specific examples you stated in the thesis. These need to be well researched with well documented facts. You should also include a counter claim and explain why it is not as pertinent as your claim (Feel free to use points that you researched in 6.02).
  • Use transitional words, clauses and phrases to clarify the relationships among claims, reasons, evidence and counterclaims, and link the paragraphs together. 
  • A concluding paragraph that is similar to the introductory paragraph but that states why all of these points and facts are important and need to be considered.

*****************************************************************

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class. 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.03.03 Argument Essay: revising (LA 9)

teacher-scored 24 points possible 30 minutes

Revise your essay according to the feedback you receive in the grading rubric and from anyone else that you choose to get feedback from.

Important: Avoid plagiarism by crediting all of your sources even if you do not use direct quotes from them.

Make sure you have credited your sources. You need a "works cited" list at the end of your paper; include at least the author's name, article title and publication date for each source.  Then, within the main part of your essay add in-text citations: wherever you use information from one of your sources, put the author's last name (or the first two or three words of the article title, if no author was listed) in parenthesis right after the sentence or section where you used the quotation or information from that source.

Wherever you used any direct quotes, put them in quotation marks (as well as using an in-text citation afterwards). 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class. 

 

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.04.01 Quiz: review for final test (LA 9)

computer-scored 16 points possible 25 minutes

This quiz covers the material from lessons and readings in the whole class, and is similar to the computer-scored part of the final test. You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 68%.

The actual final test will be longer, and include some essay questions.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 9 of your enrollment date for this class.


06.04: Preparing for Your Final Test

Go to the quiz link in Module 3 on the main class page to take your last quiz.  You may take the quiz multiple times, but you must score at least 68%.

This quiz covers all units in the class.  It is sort of like a "mini final test" except that it doesn't have essay questions (your final will include three major essay questions as well as the multiple choice/matching type questions).

Be sure to submit your "Ready" assignment at least 24 hours before you need to take your final test.