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Unit 08

08.00 Loops and OOPS

Unit 8 Introduction --> http://goo.gl/xWyrV

Unit 8 is titled Loops and OOPS because we are going to study repetitive control structures (loops) and introduce you to some of the basic idea behind Object Oriented Program Structure (OOPS). After completing unit 7, you should be ready to take on the real power of any computer language and that is the ability of a program to to the same thing over and over again. Not only can a program repeat the same actions, but the program can do it exactly the same way. There is great power in this. There are so many programming tasks that rely on these repetitive control structures.

We will explore the three kinds of Java loops.
For loop
While loop
Do While loop.

You will be introduced to object oriented structures and see how powerful they are.
You will be introduced to Greenfoot which is a structured Java environment to learn about object and classes.

08.00 Working with photo editing software overview. (Basic Photography)

Welcome to Digital Photography second-quarter. This class requires a prerequisite of Digital Photography first-quarter. Students will be able to learn and demonstrate some proficiency in the use of image editing software. By watching the videos and practicing using image editing software students will be able to reduce the file size in order to send images over the Internet. Students will be introduced to making images by photographing somebody doing their favorite hobby.

It is a requirement of this class that you take your own pictures. The pictures that you submit for the assignments must be taken during the time you are registered for this course. You can not use old pictures from before you started the course.

08.00 You and Your Freetime

08.00 - More Triangle Relations (Geometry)

This unit is about other triangle relations. We will learn about important lines and points in a triangle, as well as properties of some quadrilaterals that can be determined by the properties of a triangle.



08.00 - United States Domestic and International Position in the Cold War Era(U.S. History)

Soviet nuclear missile in parade, circa 1960: Wikimedia Commons, CIA photo, public domainSoviet nuclear missile in parade, circa 1960: Wikimedia Commons, CIA photo, public domainInvestigate how the postwar goals and actions of the United States and the Soviet Union were manifested throughout the world.

Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations.

Evaluate the effectiveness of American post-war foreign policy.

Examine the world's reaction to nuclear weapons.

08.00 - Using Vectors (Physics)

So far we have managed to deal with vectors by only considering vectors that were either in parallel or perpendicular directions. The parallel vectors can be treated like scalars, and the perpendicular vectors do not affect each other. (What about turning corners? Doesn't that acceleration affect the perpendicular velocity? Actually no. It does add a new velocity in the perpendicular direction, but it doesn't change the velocity in the original direction.)

But, as you probably realize, in the real world, vectors can be in any direction they want. So, it is time to consider what to do with vectors that are neither parallel or perpendicular to each other.



08.00 -er verbs, Sports, and Musical Instruments (FrenchI)

 

Unit 8:
 

Unit Content
 

Introduction to -er verbs in present tense (I forms) using things
students enjoy or do not enjoy (aimer), Affirmative and Negative forms.

Vocabulary: sports

Interlude: prepositions "le" and "au"

Vocabulary: musical instruments. 

Introduction of singular forms of present tense of -er verbs

Review correct usage of Je and J'

Introduction to plural forms of present tense of -er verbs

Introduction of negative forms of -er verbs (ne...pas, n'...pas)

Correct usage of Nous command forms.

08.00 Advertising: Messages and Media (Advertising)

08.00 Art - A through Z (Art History and Art Criticism)Q2

You worked so hard in the last unit there will be no projects for this unit. However, there are a few things that you still need to know before you can take the second quarter test. First, you need to know that if you have not satisfied with your current grade, you can redo any of the assignments for a better score. Second, there will also be a practice test for this quarter. It will be worth no points, but it is highly recommended that you take the practice test. You can retake it three times before you schedule the final quarter test with your proctor. You need to pass the final quarter test with 60% or better to receive credit for the class.

Art A through Z is information you will need to know about art careers, media and any cultures that we have not discussed in precious units. It is also a selection of art terms that we might have missed. Last, it provides you with terms that you need to know for the final quarter test .

08.00 Bonding, Shape, and Intermolecular(Chemistry3)

Bonding, Shape, and Intermolecular Forces
Physical properties related to bond type and intermolecular forces.

08.00 Chapter 8 (Geometry)

08.00 Community Service Project (Health II)

Introduction: CONSUMER AND COMMUNITY HEALTH OBJECTIVES

-Create and implement an advocacy plan to address an unmet health need
-Identify various professions that contribute to, or advocate for, health
-Identify health needs, opportunities to be proactive, related community resources, and available services.
-Practice advocacy skills and methods
-Reflect on results of the action plan.

08.00 Conflict Resolution (TeenLiving)

08.00 Coordinate Geometry Overview (Math Level 1)

Connecting algebra and geometry through coordinates and building on their work with the Pythagorean Theorem in 8th grade to find distances, students use a rectangular coordinate system to verify geometric relationships, including properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals and slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines. By the end of the unit, students will be able to:

  • Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the missing side of a triangle.
  • Use the distance formulas to calculate lengths of line segments in a coordinate plane.
  • Use the midpoint to find the midpoint of a line segment in the coordinate plane.
  • Explain linear relationships dealing with parallel and perpendicular lines, distance and midpoint in a coordinate plane.
  • Classify shapes and compute perimeter and area in a coordinate plane.
  • Use the knowledge of geometric shapes to generate complex shapes.

08.00 Electrical(PrinTech2)

08.00 Ethics in Journalism (Journalism)

It may seem like journalists can write what ever they please about a particular topic based on our American "freedom of speech". That is an easy assumption to make but it is not entirely true. Ethics in journalism is a code of conduct that keeps reporters moving in a honest direction with their reporting and career. A quality journalistic piece of writing employs the ethics that surround the profession to ensure that the news, ideas, events, thoughts, and opinions are substantiated by facts and truths.

The following readings and assignment will teach you some of the commonly accepted ethics rules that directly affect the work of a journalist.

08.00 Exploration of Mars(Astronomy1)

1st Quarter - Week 8: Exploration of Mars

08.00 Exponential Functions (Math I)

We are now ready to extend our understanding of geometric sequences to continuous functions.

We are now ready to extend our understanding of geometric sequences to continuous functions.



08.00 Film and the Arts (English 9)

Most assignments in this unit are focused on the novel you choose from the Arts in Life list, and on a scene from the movie you choose to study. You will consider the role played in our lives by the arts, learn some of the vocabulary of film-making, and also review types of clauses, and how they function in sentences.

08.00 Graphing Equations and Inequalities (PreAlgebra)

08.00 Growth of Industry

08.00 Housing Needs/Programming(IntDes3)

Housing Needs / Programming

08.00 Introduction to 2nd quarter (ArtHistory2)

Review the material from first quarter. For this quarter you will need the textbook:
The Annotated Mona Lisa - A Crash Course in Art History From PreHistoric to Post-Modern

Read pg. 1-23

08.00 Introduction to Scratch Programming

Objectives:

The students will be able to:

  • Name the basic terms used in Scratch.
  • Create the beginning of a simple program in Scratch.
  • Complete a simple Scratch program.
  • Utilize the green flag feature.
  • Develop a dialogue between two or more Scratch sprites.
  • Explain the reasoning behind how their dialogue works.
  • Explain the 3 major ways to move sprites.
  • Choose the appropriate method of moving to make a cat circle the bases.
  • Explain event driven programming.
  • Write a program that responds to user created events from the mouse and keyboard.
  • Broadcast events.
  • Listen to and respond to events they create.
  • Change the background of the stage.
  • Complete a Scratch story.
  • Develop a Scratch story project.

08.00 License Revocation, Suspension, Alcohol, Point System, Driving Records - Handbook Chapter 8 (DriverEd)

This unit is designed to give you a basic understanding of License Revocation and Suspension, and under what circumstances this could happen. The handbook will outline what could cause you to lose your privilege to drive a motor vehicle. You can download this section of the Driver License Handbook from the link above.

At completion of this unit the student:

  • Will understand when your privilege to drive must be revoked or may be suspended.
  • Will understand how alcohol and drug use may affect your ability to keep your privilege to drive a motor vehicle.
  • Will understand the laws pertaining to under age drinking, an alcohol-restricted driver, and an ignition interlock restricted driver.
  • Will understand the laws pertaining to and will understand what implied consent law is, and what happens if you refuse to take chemical tests selected.
  • Will understand the Utah point system and how to clear your record.

08.00 Life Cycle, Breeding & Genetics (Horse Mgt)

Normal Life Cycle
Thoroughbred mare and foal: (WMC, CC, Just chaos image)Thoroughbred mare and foal: (WMC, CC, Just chaos image)
A new foal is born just over 11 months after conception. It will spend another 4-6 months with its dam (mother) before being weaned. A two to three year old horse is roughly equivalent to a teenage human. Although many owners and trainers begin riding horses when the horses are two to three years old, it would be better for the horse not to carry weight on its back till the age of four. By four, a horse is probably about as tall as it is going to get, though its bones (particularly those of the spine) are still maturing, and it will probably still gain length, muscle and weight. A five or six-year-old horse is capable of hard work.

It is possible to breed horses at the age of two, but most breeders wait till the horse is at least three years old. Mares may continue to bear foals into their twenties, though mares over the age of 15 are harder to breed, especially if they have not had a foal in recent years. Stallions often continue to sire foals as long as they live, though their fertility, too, tends to drop as they age.

Horses are considered to be in the prime of their life from about the age of 8 to 12, and if they have had good care and no serious injuries, they may continue to work and compete well into their teens, and occasionally even longer. Horses in their twenties often still enjoy (and benefit from) gentle pleasure riding. Most horses die in their mid- to late twenties, though modern care and "senior feeds" are lengthening the normal lifespan of many horses. Horses who were not ridden or worked hard till at least four years of age are more likely to stay sound and healthy into old age. Ponies tend to be longer-lived, often living into their thirties.

A 21-year-old Quarter horse working in a California state park: (WMC, CC, Mike Baird image)A 21-year-old Quarter horse working in a California state park: (WMC, CC, Mike Baird image)
In 2009, a 37-year-old half-Arabian named Elmer Bandit was still competing in competitive trail rides. He set a record for most miles of distance competition set by a single horse: 20,780 miles over 34 years. He was put down in 2008 when he was found down in his pasture and unable to get up.

A 35-year-old Thoroughbred in Japan: (WMC, CC, 身から出たタビ 管理人オーラ2002 image)A 35-year-old Thoroughbred in Japan: (WMC, CC, 身から出たタビ 管理人オーラ2002 image)
Notice that this horse is getting some gray hair on his face, he is thin, and his back has dropped. It is particularly unusual for a Thoroughbred to live this long.

08.00 Middle Ages Introduction (WorldCiv2)

Castelo de Óbidos, Portugal: Wikimedia Commons, Alegna13, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedCastelo de Óbidos, Portugal: Wikimedia Commons, Alegna13, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedChapter 8: Medieval Europe (500 - 1500)

Introduction:

The feudal system, with kings and queens, lords and knights, serfs and peasants, has
been the subject of numerous literary works. Much of what has been written is legend, but has roots
in real day-to-day events. Of major importance in this era is the appearance of the contract: an
agreement, either oral or written, between landowners and workers. The need for such an agreement was
a first step in the evolution of democratic thinking, in which all have rights and privileges.

Unit 8: The Middle Ages or Medieval Europe

Time Period: (500-1500 A.D.)

Geographic Areas: Europe

Unit 8 contains activities designed to increase your understanding of Europe in the Middle Ages. General assignment information is as follows:

Journal Entry: Students discuss personal thoughts and feelings on a topic that connects the modern world with cultures and peoples of the past.

Reading Challenge: Students answer a series of questions based entirely on information taken from articles that contain the required readings for the course. The articles are provided through World Book Encyclopedia Online.

Presentation: Students create a PowerPoint to present information on an aspect of Middle Age society.

Geospatial Map: Students are provided with the tools to research information and create an animated map that depicts visual information on a selected topic. Questions are included that students will research and answer.

Enrichment Videos: The videos contain information of interest to students who may wish to continue personal study of a topic discussed in the unit. Points are not given for watching the videos.

If you have any questions regarding the above information, or any other topic, feel free to contact your instructor.

Objective:
Appraise the major characteristics of interregional contact that linked the people of Africa, Asia and Europe.

Describe the impact the Silk Road had on trade across Europe and Asia.
Examine the consequences of the Crusades.
Analyze the impact of Mongol invasion on Europe and Asia

08.00 Shapes and Sizes (Navajo)

08.00 Spreadsheet Unit

Spreadsheet Unit Objectives

You will create spreadsheets and manipulate data. You will be able to perform the following tasks:

* Create, retrieve, modify, format, save and print a spreadsheet.

* Copy, move, insert and delete data.

* Insert and delete columns and rows.

* Calculate with formulas (+,-,*,/) and simple functions (sum, average).

* Sort data.

* Create, save, retrieve, print and interpret a chart.

Keyboarding Skills Keep your wrists low, but not resting on any surface.

08.00 Spreadsheet Unit (CompTech 2007)

Spreadsheet Unit Objectives
You will create spreadsheets and manipulate data. You will be able to perform the following tasks:

* Create, retrieve, modify, format, save, and print a spreadsheet.
* Copy, move, insert, and delete data.
* Insert and delete columns and rows.
* Calculate with formulas (+,-,*,/) and simple functions (sum, average).
* Sort data.
* Create, save, retrieve, print and interpret a chart.

Keyboarding Skills
Keep your wrists low, but not resting on any surface.

08.00 Spreadsheet Unit (CompTech)

Spreadsheet Unit Objectives
You will create spreadsheets and manipulate data. You will be able to perform the following tasks:

* Create, retrieve, modify, format, save, and print a spreadsheet.
* Copy, move, insert, and delete data.
* Insert and delete columns and rows.
* Calculate with formulas (+,-,*,/) and simple functions (sum, average).
* Sort data.
* Create, save, retrieve, print and interpret a chart.

Keyboarding Skills
Keep your wrists low, but not resting on any surface.

08.00 Streams and Arrays (C++)

This chapter covers File Streams and single dimensional Arrays.

08.00 Stress Management (Fitness for Life)

This unit provides information about the effects of stress and ways to cope with it when it does occur.

Image from Wikimedia Commons, Mathew Ingram, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic licenseImage from Wikimedia Commons, Mathew Ingram, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic license

This unit provides information about the effects of stress and ways to cope with it when it does occur. Begin by viewing/reading the unit 8 presentation and lessons. 

Assignments associated with this unit:

If you have the textbook, read chapter 17 (pages 292-303)

08.01 Stress Inventory

08.02 Relaxation Exercises


08.02 Activity log 11 - Week 5

08.03 Cardiovascular Risk Health Profile (Re-test mile & a half; compare with Assign. #1)

08.04 Unit 8 Review quiz

08.04 Activity log 12 - week 6

08.00 Technology and Communication

Objective 1: Demonstrate basic keyboarding and computer functions using basic software applications.
Objective 2: Refine and enhance documents as needed, using electronic spell check, thesaurus, grammar check, layout, design, and graphics as needed.
Objective 3: Recognize how new trends in technology create opportunities for communication.

08.00 The Legislative Branch (NavajoGovt)

08.00 This unit will cover parts 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10

08.00 Trigonometric Functions (PreCalc)

Trigonometric Functions are used to solve all types of problems. They are used for problems involving triangles, such a building a bike ramp. They are used for problems with oscillating motion, such as a simple pendulum.



08.00 Trigonometry (Math Level 2)

08.00 Understanding Poetry (English 11)

Robert Frost, 1941: Fred Palumbo, Library of Congress, public domain via Wikimedia CommonsRobert Frost, 1941: Fred Palumbo, Library of Congress, public domain via Wikimedia Commons

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading from the Utah Core:

• To become college and career ready, students must grapple with works of exceptional craft and thought whose range extends across genres, cultures, and centuries.

• Such works offer profound insights into the human condition and serve as models for students’ own thinking and writing.

In this unit, you will review literary devices, learn a technique for analyzing poetry, and do a close reading of six poems, choosing three to analyze.

08.00 Unit 8 (Psychology)

You are on the last unit! You are probably feeling that your head has been stuffed with information over the last bit of this course. This last unit however, may take more thought and effort on your part than any other unit! This unit will be tailored especially for you BY you! Who better to determine how you should live a healthy life than you! The above links will take you to the documents that will help you with grading your portfolio, and also includes the VALUES sort excercise document you need.

08.00 Unit 8 (Business Law)

08.00 Unit 8 (English 10)

08.00 Unit 8 (FrenchII)

Unit 8:

1. Introduction of Present-Tense of "-RE" verbs

2. Past-tense of "-RE" verbs

08.00 Unit 8 (Spanish I)

Welcome to Unit 8! In this unit, we will continue to add to what you have already learned. Something that is very different from English is the use of the accents over the vowels, and the use of the tilde over the "n." In this unit you will learn the specific rules of accent usage. You will also learn some more vocabulary, specifically vocabulary about the home, including the kinds of rooms, and items that are found in those rooms, including furniture and appliances. You will continue to learn about preterite (past tense) verb usage, emphasizing the -zar, -car, and -gar verbs, and how their yo-form endings require a special spelling change. You will also learn about the irregular preterite verbs. What are formal commands? How about informal commands? When do you use them, and what is the difference? Do you remember how to use reflexive verbs? You will review those in this unit too! These are just some of the many things that you will learn in this unit. The Destinos video series will continue to be a part of this unit. In addition to the normal video summaries, you will also do a Google Map geography assignment about Puerto Rico. Let's get started! Buena suerte.

08.00 Unit 8: Special Senses (MAP)

08.00 Unit 8: Exposition (English 9)

by Howard R. Hollem, NARA, public domain via Wikimedia Commonsby Howard R. Hollem, NARA, public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Exposition is writing that describes something, explains, or informs. Expository writing should examine, explain, and communicate ideas, processes, concepts and information clearly and accurately.

In this unit, you will

  • Write two expository essays (a description and an extended definition)
  • Study several short readings
  • Learn how to use MLA style to document your sources

Review the link below, from first quarter.

08.00 Unit 8: Final paper (English 11)

08.00 Unit 8: Reading skills (LA 9)

Thanksgiving Day -- The dinner: Winslow Homer, Harper's Weekly, 1858; public domainThanksgiving Day -- The dinner: Winslow Homer, Harper's Weekly, 1858; public domain

Unit 2: Reading skills

In this unit you will work primarily on reading skills, as outlined in the Utah State Core Curriculum for ninth grade English/Language Arts.  Topics in this unit will help you practice and improve your reading comprehension.  There will be several short assignments and quizzes, and one major reading assignment. You should expect this unit to take you anywhere from about two to twelve hours, depending on how much you already know, how fast you read, and how much you need to review.

08.00 Unit 8: Taking a Stand (English 12

It is better to discuss an issue without settling it, then to settle an issue without discussing it.

People need to realize that it is possible to agree to disagree agreeably.

The word controversy is made up of the prefix contra which means "against," and the root vers which means "turn away." Quite literally then, the word controversy means "something that turns people away from each other."

As I'm sure you're aware, issues that are controversial exist in abundance. While many such issues have significant social implications, others are based on individual circumstances that stem from disagreements between various institutions and patrons. For example, you may someday find yourself in a position where you disagree with a decision made by an insurance agency, a car dealership, or your local government officials. In such instances, it becomes extremely important that you, as both a consumer and a citizen, can effectively assert your position through effective argumentative discourse.

Beyond your role as consumer and citizen, as a professional you'll find that in virtually every field of study there are issues that prompt people to disagree. Consequently, this final unit of your high school English career will focus on increasing your understanding of a controversial issue related to the occupational interest you explored in the previous unit. Additionally, you will learn various argumentative strategies that will facilitate your ability to argue effectively.

08.00 Wellness of Children(ChildDev2)

Lesson 8.1 Childhood Illnesses
Lesson 8.2 Childhood Health Care
Lesson 8.3 Quality Care

08.00 Woher kommen Sie?

Lernziel 8: Woher kommen Sie?
Objective 8: Where are you from?
(Countries and languages of Europe, telling where you are from, asking where someone lives)

08.00.00 Concepts in Statistics (Sec Dev Math)

Statistics is the study of everything there is to do with data: its collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation.


Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865), mathematician and statistician
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gompertz.png



In this unit, you will study statistical graphs and tables, measures of spread or center, and the need to be diligent in looking for misleading graphs.

IF you feel confident you have mastered these skills, skip the lessons but take the quizzes and unit test. Otherwise, work through the lessons that follow.



08.00.00 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

Much of what drives thought and discussion in our country are the challenges, the problems.  After the work you have done this quarter, some of those challenges should be running around in your head a little. You’re part of the generation to which will be relied upon to attack these issues, so it’s only appropriate that you begin to form opinions about them. 

The heroes for our future will have to present solutions for the issues and challenges of the future generations. In this unit we will focus on problem/solution text organization and you'll be aksed to look at the future from a "problem/solution" perspective.

08.00.01 Course Philosophy (FrenchI)

Introduction: Course Philosophy (and such)

What is French?

A few years ago, I was visiting with a friend of my wife. He asked me what I did for a living.
I told him that I was teaching French.

"French," he said smuggly. "What is French?"

"What is French?" I thought to myself! "That is about the most stupid question that anyone
has ever asked me!"

"It's a language, of course?" I replied, with MUCH attitude. Sensing my anger,
he quickly changed the subject.

That night as I lay in bed, I began to ponder his question more intently. I came to realize
that there was much more to his question than I had at first noticed.

"What is French?" I thought to myself. Is it only a language, a bunch of words and sounds all strung together, or is it something more? Of course it is something more, it is A LOT more. French is people, places, realities, histories. French is attitudes, thoughts, cultures, ways of living. In short, French is a myriad of things. What had seemed to me to be a frivolous question from a very silly man, was quickly becoming the basis for my preparations for teaching French to others.

This Virtual Language Course reflects the new understandings that I made that evening and I will be passing them on to you. As a participant in this course, you will learn, not only the grammar of French, but you will learn about ALL of the aspects that make up the French world. My ultimate goal is that when you complete this course, you will begin to know and be able to answer with true understanding and an air of assurance the question, "What is French?"

I am excited to have you along on this adventure!

Bienvenue,
Monsieur B. Charon

08.00.01 Course Philosophy (FrenchI) Google Map

teacher-scored 24 points possible 90 minutes

Let's create a custom Google Map of the 8 countries that share a border with France. Print out the pdf file called France_Geography_GoogleMaps-FrenchQ3.pdf and carefully follow the detailed instructions. It may take some experimenting to get it just right! Visit Google's support link at the end of the PDF to learn more about creating custom maps.

Finally, once your Google Map is completed, submit your Short URL to your teacher as an assignment.

08.00.01 Review Materials(ArtHistory2)

Review Materials
Use the attached Rubric to help you review elements, principles, media, composition, style, and purposes of art.

Review Pre-History to Middle ages, including Greek and Roman art (see those chapters in your textbook). When you are ready, take the Pre-test. You will need an 80% or above to proceed with the second quarter of Art History.
ADD POWERPOINT HERE

Elements of Art/Design

Line - is a mark on a surface that indicates movement, shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Types of line can include actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal and contour lines.

Color - has 3 properties, Hue, Intensity and Value. The color wheel is a way of showing the chromatic scale in a circle using all the colors made with the primary triad. Complimentary pairs can produce dull and neutral color. Black and white can be added to produce tints (add white), shades (add black) and tones (add gray).

Texture - is about surface quality either tactile or visual. Texture can be real or implied by different uses of media. It is the degree of roughness or smoothness in objects.

Shape - is 2-dimensional (height + width) with no form (depth). Shapes are flat and can be grouped into two categories, geometric and organic.

Form - is a 3-dimensional object having volume and Depth (Height + Width + Depth) It is the illusion of a 3-D effect that can be implied with the use of contour lines, or outlines with values (lights and darks). Form can be viewed from many angles.

Value - is the degree of light and dark in a design. It is the contrast between black and white and all the tones in between. Value can be used with color as well as black and white.

Size/Proportion - refers to variations in the proportions of objects, lines or shapes. There is a variation of sizes in objects either real or imagined.

Space - Space can be positive or negative (blank areas, background). Sometimes a human's eye needs space to feel comfortable, and space will let the human's eye distinguish the part that's meant to be noticed, to create a focal point.

Line – outlines, wavy
Color – primary, warm (red, yellow), + black
Texture – shiny, smooth
Shape – round, oval
Form – sphere (highlights denote depth due to shading)
Value – high contrast
Size/Proportion – balloons appear to be same size, because
they are the same height, size, and do not overlap.
Space – positive space (balloon colors) or negative
(the air around the balloons, represented by white)

Principles of Compositional Design



If the Elements of art are the basic ingredients, the principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art.  The principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.
The Principles of design are the results of your working with the elements of art. 


Focal Point/Center of interest - is an area that first attracts attention in a composition. This area is more important when compared to the other objects or elements in a composition.  This can be by contrast of values, color, and placement in the format.


Balance - is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc.  Balance can be symmetrical or evenly balanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly balanced.  Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc., can be used in creating a balance in a composition.


Contrast - offers some change in elements, creating a visual discord in a composition. Contrast shows the difference between shapes, values, colors, space, line, size, or subjects and can be used to bring objects out and forward in a design. It can also be used to create an area of emphasis.


Movement - is a visual flow through the composition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way of placement and position.  Directional movement can be created with a value pattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that you can move your attention through the format.


Rhythm - is a movement in which some elements recurs regularly.  Like a dance it will have a flow of objects that will seem to be like the beat of music.

Unity – the result of working with all the elements and principles successfully. Unity , sometimes called Harmony, is when all the parts work together to make a unified whole, as opposed to a work with part that seem out of place, or separate from the rest of the work. Without this, there is no harmony, listed above.

08.00.02 Meet the Players (FrenchI)

The link in the URL's will take you to this lesson.

08.00.02 Meet the Players links (FrenchI)

08.00.02 Terminology Entry Test(ArtHistory2)

computer-scored 0 points possible 30 minutes

Terminology - Entry test
Terms in art which are used to describe art of all ages.
See if you are ready to take this course. You must pass with a 70% or above to continue. Go to Topic 3 of your class outline page to take this test.

08.00.1 Photo in Learn

teacher-scored 0 points possible 10 minutes

This is an extra credit opportunity. I will give you an extra point if you add a photo of yourself into the class. This will show up when you comment, chat or post an assignment. Avatars don't count.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Becoming Good Readers (LA 9)

By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, and literary nonfiction, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Young readers: US government image, public domainYoung readers: US government image, public domain

"There is then creative reading as well as creative writing. When the mind is braced by labor and invention, the page of whatever book we read becomes luminous with manifold allusion." -Ralph Waldo Emerson

Once upon a time (and I hope this was quite a long time ago, relative to your age), you were a beginner reader. You had to learn the very basics of how letters of our alphabet stand for sounds, and groups of letters stand for words. [Even before that, when you were so young you can't remember it, you were a beginner listener and talker, learning that the patterns in sounds you hear--or the signs you see, if you are not hearing--mean things.] As a beginner reader, you had to memorize or sound out each single word, and you often had a hard time making sense out of a sentence. Before long, though, you could read and understand most sentences, and most likely reading has now become an automatic skill--you do it without thinking about HOW you do it.

We're going to take a few minutes now to think about how we read, and identify some skills that really good readers use. If you already have these skills, great! Whether or not you have been doing these things all along, being aware of how to use these strategies can improve your reading.

 

Before You Read Note: of course, this means before the first time you begin reading at the beginning of a new piece, but it can also apply to intermediate points in your reading - before you read the next paragraph, chapter, stanza, etc. Before you begin reading, you can already begin preparing to read well! I don't mean by choosing a quiet, well-lit, and/or comfortable spot to read in, although those factors certainly can help. I mean prepare yourself mentally:

  • Know the purpose for your reading. Finishing a novel to find out how it ends is different from reading a chapter in a science book to prepare for a test or reading a poem your best friend wants to hear your reaction to.
  • Look over the title, author, and any pictures or subtitles for clues about the subject matter.
  • Activate your prior knowledge. What do you already know about the subject matter or related topics?

While You're Reading

  • Read quickly enough that you don't lose the train of meaning. Don't get so stuck on some difficult point that you forget the main point. Don't move your lips or sub-vocalize ("say" each word to yourself) as you read silently--it will slow you down.
  • "See" what you're reading about. Make a mental movie of what you are reading. Imagine what things in the reading look, sound, smell, taste or feel like.
  • Draw connections and make comparisons between what you are reading and past experiences:
    • text to self: relate what you are reading to personal experiences and memories
    • text to text: relate what you are reading to other things you've already read, or to movies or TV shows you've seen
    • text to world: relate what you are reading to things you know about the world even if you haven't personally experienced them
  • Make predictions about what you expect to happen next, or what point you think the author is trying to make. As you read on, notice whether what you are reading supports your predictions, and if not, modify them.
  • Check your understanding. Try to keep a mental running summary of what you read. If you're not sure you understand, try one or more of these strategies to help:
    • Re-read the sentence or paragraph to see whether you just missed or misread something
    • Continue to read just a little longer to see whether the next paragraph or page clears up the problem.
    • If there is a word you don't know, try to figure it out using context, word structure or grammatical clues. If you still can't understand the word, either look it up, or make a note to look it up later.
  • Notice your questions about what is going on in the reading, and why the author wrote what or how s/he did.
  • Evaluate what you read. Does it make sense? Does it fit with what you already know or believe? If not, why not?

After You Read Again, this may be after you have completely finished reading, or it may be when you have finished reading a section or chapter.

  • Review, mentally, what you read. If you will be tested over the material, take this a step further, and write down what you remember, looking back over the reading as needed for details you forgot.
  • Discuss what you read with someone else, or write in a blog or journal about it.
  • Evaluate, again. Did you like it? Was it well-written? Was it convincing? Why or why not? How does it compare to other things you've read? What did the author do well, and what could have been better?

08.01 - Cold War vocabulary to study. (U.S. History)

Berliners watching a C-54 carrying food and supplies land during the Berlin airlift, 1948.: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domainBerliners watching a C-54 carrying food and supplies land during the Berlin airlift, 1948.: Wikimedia Commons, USAF, public domainStudy these vocabulary and terms before you take the quiz 9:

Beginning of the Cold War era vocabulary list

United Nations, Yalta Conference, Harry Truman, Nuremberg Trials,
occupation of Japan, Potsdam Conference, satellite nations, Iron Curtain,
containment, Truman doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin airlift,
North Atlantic Treat Organization (NATO)

08.01 - The Center of a Triangle, part 1 (Geometry)

This lesson is about perpendicular bisectors, angle bisectors, circumcenters, and incenters.

For this unit we will be considering other points and lines of interest in a triangle. The title of this lesson is actually a joke, as you will see. There really isn't a single point that can claim to be the 'center' of a triangle. Rather, there are many of these. In this lesson we will learn about two of them.

The content of the lesson follows or you can read the attached pdf file.



08.01 - Vector Algebra (Physics)

I have been using vectors as if I expected you to know something about them. That is because you should have already completed the first quarter, and you should already know something about them. But, it never hurts to review.

To begin with, what is a scalar? A scalar is a number. This is what you are most familiar with. You can add two scalars, subtract one from another, multiply them, and divide one by another. Anything you expect to be able to do with a number, you can do with a scalar. There are many measurements we make in physics that are scalars. So far in this quarter we have used the following scalars: distance, speed, and time.

A vector is more than a scalar. A vector has a magnitude, that is to say, it has a number associated with it. A vector also has a direction. You are actually more familiar with vectors than you might think. If you ask someone where the bathroom is, and he tells you "100 feet" you would be confused. This might be how far away the bathroom is, but it doesn't tell you how to get there. He has only given you the magnitude. In order to actually be helpful, he would have to say, "100 feet to your right." Now you can find the bathroom. This is an example of a vector.

In physics, there are many quantities that depend on not merely the magnitude, but also the direction. So far, this quarter we have used the following vectors: displacement, velocity, acceleration and force.

Vectors are denoted either by using bolded font, like this:

A



Or by an arrow over the top, like this:



Both of which we have already used this quarter.

So, this is where we start doing serious math. We are going to add vectors that are not in the same direction, so we cannot treat them like scalars. We are going to add vectors that are not in perpendicular directions, so they do not ignore each other. We are going to learn to add the full range of possible vectors. It is very important that you read this chapter carefully. You need to learn how to do this, and do it right.

Good Luck!



08.01 Arts in Education (English 9)

"The arts" include visual arts like painting, drawing, sculpture, ceramics, etc; music and performance arts like dance, film and drama; literary arts like poetry and fiction; and related endeavors like architecture, body art, fashion design or landscape design. The arts are focused on creating something new - often (though not always!) something beautiful, though many people may not agree on what constitutes beauty.

Should the public schools offer and/or require classes in the arts? There is disagreement on this subject. On the one hand, many people feel that schools don't have time or funding to offer too many different classes, and should spend all their energy on teaching 'the basics' - usually defined as reading, writing, English, math, science and history. On the other hand, people believe that 'extra' subjects like the arts are just as important and should be taught in the public schools, both for their own sake and because they may help improve student learning throughout the curriculum.

Read at least two of the articles (see URLs for this lesson), and be sure to copy down a direct quote from each, along with the author's name, to use in writing your essay. Remember, you don't need to AGREE with the quote; you may choose to use the quote and explain why you think it is wrong.

Listen to the introduction by using the top link above and then clicking the microphone icon and play button.

08.01 Careers in Art (Art History and Art Criticism)

Careers in Art

There are many possibilities from which to choose for a career in art. Every year, more challenging and rewarding positions in the art world become available. People who can perform art and design jobs are needed in schools, museums, galleries, and small and large businesses and corporations.

In the distant past, a young person who wanted to be an artist would have to pay a master artist for permission to work as an apprentice in the master studio. There, apprentices learned as they observed and assisted the master. Today, students can develop their skills by taking courses in high schools, trade schools and colleges.

You might be interested in a career in art as you consider your future. You might have some talent and an interest in an art-related career. Today, the business world needs the skills of art specialists in many areas, including company reports, publication and advertising. There are careers in publishing, design and illustrations. There are also careers available for film and video graphic designers. Photographers and photojournalist are visual reporters and story tellers who are very much in demand. Other careers in the field of Photography include fashion, producing fine-art and video for television and film. There is also a need for building and landscape architects and interior designers. You could even choose a field in the entertainment world such as animation, special effects design, art direction or the performing arts such as dance or theater. Of course, there are the traditional art fields such as art education, art therapist, fine artist and those who have created a craft for either art's sake or for function.

If you think a career in art is in your future, ask yourself the following questions:
Do you find yourself noticing things that your friends may miss, such as the color of autumn leaves or the shapes of clouds? Are you curious? Do you like to solve problems? Do you keep an open mind about new and unusual forms of art? Do you like to draw or make things with your hands? Do you like to experiment with new materials and techniques? Do you get lost in art projects and lose track of time? When a work of art turns out wrong, are you willing to throw it out and start over again? Do you keep at a project unit it is finished? f you decide you want a career in art, practice what you like best, study the great artists and their styles, and ask your teacher for advice. If you really want a career in art, it will be there for you. If not, you have not lost anything from learning about the history or art and how others judge it. (Art Talks, Regan, pages 71-81)

08.01 Childhood Illness(ChildDev2)

CHILDHOOD HEALTH ISSUES

ALLERGIES

An allergy is the body's reaction to a foreign substance, such as a food or medicine, an inhaled particle like pollen or dust, or skin contact with a substance, like soap or wool. Symptoms of allergies vary and include any of the following:

  • Wheezing Runny nose Watery
  • Itchy eyes
  • Skin irritations
  • Hives
  • Itchy welts
  • Congestion
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting

ASTHMA

Asthma is a respiratory condition in which the airway to the lungs becomes temporarily narrowed due to contractions of the muscle around the respiratory passages. The narrowing causes respiratory distress and difficulty in breathing out or exhaling. The classic symptom is a whistling noise, known as wheezing, made during breathing out or exhaling. The medications available for relief contain the common ingredient theophylline. This drug relaxes the muscles in the bronchial tubes and relieves the narrowing. Children with sever asthma may .need to take medication every day between attacks. Asthma can be prevented by avoiding contact with known triggers or causes.

COLDS

Colds are caused by thousands of different viruses. Because of this, it is impossible to create a vaccine for colds. Colds can be transmitted by handling an infected object. Most infants that catch several colds-have symptoms of a runny nose, sneezing and coughing. For treatment, the infant’s doctor should be consulted. Acetaminophen can be used to reduce the fever.

COLIC

Colic is a regular 'fussy period" It usually occurs in the evenings and lasts several hours. The infant usually screams as if in pain, often pulling up his/her legs. Colic is a fairly vague and undefined condition which refers to unexplained excessive crying in an otherwise healthy infant. Colic usually begins during the second or third week of life and disappears by the third month. Although the cause of colic has not been proven, some of the following have been considered responsible:

  • A very sensitive nervous system
  • Reaction to the day's stimulation
  • A sensitive digestive system
  • Trapped gas
  • Sensitivity to certain foods in the breast-feeding mother's diet

Some remedies are to:

  • Swaddle the infant
  • Hold and rock the infant
  • Hold the baby in the football hold
  • Place a hot water bottle on the infants’ stomach
  • Provide the infant with a relaxed and calm environment
  • Burp the infant often while he/she is eating

CHICKEN POX

Chicken pox is a common childhood disease that lasts about a week. An itchy rash and fever are classic symptoms. It is caused by a virus that is related to the herpes virus. To treat chicken pox you can give acetaminophen to the child to reduce the fever and make the child feel more comfortable. DO NOT GIVE ASPERIN TO A CHILD WITH THE CHICKENPOX, as Rye's syndrome may result. The chickenpox is highly contagious and after exposure to someone who has chickenpox, there is an 85% chance that the child will get it. The incubation period is from 11-21 days; however, most children come down with chickenpox between the 14 and 15th day after exposure.

CONSTIPATION

Constipation is a change in the regular pattern of bowel movements toward infrequent stools of firmer consistency and passed with difficulty. It is caused by a change in diet, too little water intake, a change in activity level, or intestinal problems. Treatment includes dietary changes, the use or oral agents that act in the intestine to relieve constipation or to use an infant glycerin suppository or an enema to produce a stool. In breast-fed infants, constipation is rare. Specific treatment for bottle-fed infants is the addition of 1 tablespoon of Karo syrup to each bottle. Karo acts in the gut to draw water into the bowel and keep stools lose.

CRADLE CAP

Dirty-appearing, crusty or oily patches on the scalp are known as cradle cap. Washing the scalp daily with soap and water will clear up most cases. Applying oil to the scalp will clog the pores and make the condition worsen. Applying oil before shampooing will loosen the patches and help the condition. Cradle cap seldom lasts beyond the first few months.

CROUP

A viral infection of the upper airway that causes inflammation in the area around and below the vocal cores is known as croup. This inflammation causes difficulty inhaling air into the lungs. Croup causes a child to have a hoarse or barky cough, often called a "croupy cough". It can even sound like a seal bark. Croup can be treated by a cool-mist vaporize and drinking a lot of clear fluids.

DIARRHEA

Diarrhea is an increase in the number of bowel movements that are looser than usual and may contain large amounts of water. It is one of the most common illnesses during infancy. Diarrhea is usually caused by an infection and viruses cause a large portion of diarrhea. Diarrhea is a serious condition for infants as dehydration can occur. Diarrhea should be treated by feeding the infant generous amounts of clear liquids such as a solution of sugar and electrolytes such as the name brands Pedialyte or Lytren. A doctor should also be consulted.

DIPHTHERIA

Diphtheria develops in the throat. Early symptoms include sore throat, a slight fever, and chills. If left untreated, the disease can interfere with the passage of air, causing suffocation. The bacteria may produce a poison which results in pneumonia and heart failure.

FLU

Influenza, more commonly known as "the flu", is caused by a specific group of viruses. The illness comes on suddenly, accompanied by fever, chills, muscle aches, fatigue, and weakness. In contrast to the common cold, there is a dry nose, dry cough, and red eyes. Influenza vaccines have been developed for persons at high risk such as pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Influenza is spread by infectious virus particles that have been coughed or sneezed into the air. Once the out-break has begun children should avoid crowded places. Rest, fluids and doses of acetaminophen are part of typical treatment for the flu. If the child has a persistent fever or worsening of symptoms, a doctor should be consulted, as the onset of pneumonia may occur.

HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus called HBV (Hepatitis B Virus). This viral infection may occur in two phases. The first phase is the acute phase. The acute phase may cause mild flu-like symptoms, diminished appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain, an enlarged liver, jaundice, dark-colored urine, light-colored bowel movements, mild fever or diarrhea. It may take 28-160 days after exposure for these symptoms to become apparent. Over half of the people who become infected with HBV never become sick, but may later have long-term liver disease from the infection. Some people will recover from the acute phase; others will go into the chronic phase and remain infected for the rest of their lives. They will become "chronic carriers". The virus remains in their liver and blood and they can spread the infection to others throughout their lifetime. They can develop long-term liver disease such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis B is spread through blood, semen and vaginal fluids. High risk activities include having sex, sharing needles, and sharing personal care items (razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers) with an infected person. It can also be spread from an infected mother to her unborn baby. It is important to note that the virus can remain alive even in dried blood for up to 30 days.

HIB

HIB disease is caused by bacteria called Haemophilus influenza type b-or HIB. It attacks one out of every 200 children in the United States before the age of five. HIB causes over half of all cases of meningitis in children (a disease that attacks the area around the brain and spinal cored). About 5% of children who develop HIB meningitis may die, regardless of the treatment they receive. For those who survive, many have permanent damage that can include physical disabilities, mental retardation, and hearing loss. There is another life-threatening disease often caused by Hie. It is "epiglottitis", an infection that causes swelling of the epiglottis (a small flap at the back of the throat that prevents food from going down the windpipe). If not treated immediately, this swelling could block the windpipe and cause death. HIB infection can also cause other serious medical problems such as infections of the joints, bones, lungs, and the skin tissue.

IMPETIGO

This usually starts as a small red pimple that develops a watery head and quickly ruptures to leave a weepy raw area that spreads. A scab soon forms, giving the sore a "honey-crusted" appearance. It is commonly found near the corner of the mouth or nostril but can be found anywhere on the body. It is also frequently found in the diaper area. It should be treated with a local washing and the application of an antibiotic ointment, such as Spectrocin, Bacitracin, or Polysporin.

INFECTION

An invasion of micro-organisms in the body which cause disease is called an infection. Examples are upper respiratory infections (colds) and ear infections.

MEASLES

Measles is the most serious of the common childhood illnesses. It is caused by a virus and begins with several days of unexplained high fever before the onset of the typical rash. The child is likely to have a cough, runny nose, and watery eyes. The illness lasts one to two weeks. About one out of every 1000 children who gets measles will develop encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain. This can lead to convulsions, permanent deafness, and mental retardation. Routine immunization has nearly eliminated measles in the United States. A primary dosage is given at 15 months of age.

MUMPS

Mumps virus is spread by person to person contact and may result in fever, headache, earaches, and painfully swollen glands on the face and neck. The disease can cause deafness, diabetes, and brain damage, but disabling complication are rare. The testicles and ovaries, pancreas, and breasts are glands that also can become inflamed during the illness. Mumps encephalitis and meningitis can also occur, and permanent deafness is a recognized complication. In teenage and adult males, mumps can cause sterility. A primary dosage is given at 15 months of age.

PERTUSSIS

Pertussis or whooping cough is caused by bacteria found in the mouth, nose and throat of an infected person. At first, the disease resembles a common cold, accompanied by an irritating cough. The cough increases in intensity and occurs in violent and prolonged spasms with high-pitched sounds between spasms. Severe cases result in convulsions, collapse of the lungs, pneumonia, and brain damage.

POLIO

Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis) is a viral disease that often cripples and sometimes kills. When symptoms are present, they include fever, sore throats, nausea, headache, stomach ache, and pain and stiffness in the neck, back and legs. There is no specific treatment for polio, and the degree of recovery varies from patient to patient.

ROSEOLA

Roseola is a common childhood illness with a fever, followed by a rash, occurring most often between six months to three years of age. The symptoms are the onset of a high fever, sometimes as high as 104 F. The fever lasts about three days. After the three days, there is a sudden drop in the fever to normal or below normal and a faint ink pinpoint rash will appear. The rash is mainly on the torso and is usually gone within 24 hours. No specific treatment is needed because by the time the rash appears, the child is essentially well. As always, the fever should be treated by drinking large quantities of clear fluids and taking acetaminophen.

RUBELLA

Rubella is also called German measles; rubella symptoms include a slight fever and perhaps a rash. Recovery is usually speedy and complete. However, rubella can have serious effects on a pregnant woman who may catch the disease from a child. Rubella can cause a miscarriage or lead to birth defects in the baby.

SCABIES

Scabies is an itchy skin infection caused by an insect mite that burrows into the skin and lays her eggs. Scabies classically causes little bumps with raised lines where the mites burrow in. The sores are found mostly on the wrists, ankles, between the fingers, in the armpits, behind the knees, in the crease on the elbow, and in the groin area. They are very itchy, especially at night and when it is warm. The sores and surrounding areas may be scabbed over due to scratching. In infants scabies may look different. Burrows may be absent, and the itchy bumps may be present on the face, scalp, palms, and soles of the feet. These sites are uncommon in older children. A physician should diagnose scabies, and they will usually prescribe Kwell cream or lotion for treatment.

SORE THROATS

Sore throats are the most common infection in childhood. Infections of bacteria or viruses cause sore throats. Bacterial sore throats are identified as "Strep" throat infections and should be treated with antibiotics to prevent spreading and complications which include rheumatic fever. Viral sore throats usually are cured in a few days without any treatment. 90% of sore throats that children get are upper respiratory viral infections.

STREP THROAT

Strep throat is a bacterial virus that must be treated with an antibiotic. A throat culture must be taken to diagnose strep throat. Symptoms include a mild to severe sore throat, with white patches on the tonsils, tiny red dots at the back of the roof of the mouth, foul breath, lymph nodes in the neck are often enlarged and tender, a fever and headache, a stomach ache, vomiting, and a runny nose. A child should receive an antibiotic such as penicillin.

TETANUS

Tetanus, commonly called lockjaw, occurs in children and adults with about the same frequency. The bacteria, most commonly found in the soil, generally enter the body through deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Disease symptoms include headache, irritability and muscular stiffness. The jaw, neck, and limbs become locked in spasm. Convulsions may cause heart failure or suffocation.

THRUSH/MONILIA

Yeast are germs that live naturally in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina in balance with other organisms. When the growth of yeast gets out of balance with the other germs, a yeast infection occurs. Thrush and monilia are types of yeast infections. They are most likely to occur after the treatment of an antibiotic. Because yeast is so prevalent, nearly every infant develops a yeast infection either in the mouth or diaper area. Yeast grows best in a moist environment, making the mouth and diaper area and skin creases, such as the neck and armpit, extremely susceptible. Yeast in the mouth is known as thrush. It causes white patches on the inside of the cheeks and lips, the tongue, and the roof of the mouth. It is treated with a prescribed medication given by a dropper into the mouth. Yeast in the diaper area is known as monilia and it is very red with little bumps, especially at the edge of the rash. This type of yeast infection is treated with a prescribed cream applied to the infected area.

VIRUS

A virus is a microscopic germ that invades the tissues or cells of the body and grow and multiply rapidly. They interfere with the normal functions of the cells and cause some cells in the body to be destroyed. For example, Polio causes some cells in the body to be destroyed. Diphtheria or a cold releases poisons into the body. To help prevent an infant from catching a virus, keep them clean and away from other people who have a virus.

IMMUNIZATIONS

Immunizations are important to the health and well-being of children. Vaccines help to prevent serious diseases in young children. In the past, diseases like polio, mumps, measles, whooping cough and diphtheria were responsible for many illnesses, permanent disabilities and even death. Today we rarely hear about these diseases due to the vaccines now available

Immunizations are available through any physician or pediatrician. The cost is often covered by health insurance. For families who do not have health insurance, or whose health insurance does not cover immunizations, county health departments make the vaccinations available. The health department will administer the vaccinations at a minimal cost, or for people who are unable to pay, they will be administered free of charge.

The immunizations necessary for children to receive include:

  • POLIO:
  • There are two types of polio vaccines. Most physicians recommend the live oral polio vaccine, which is called OPV. "Live" means that the polio virus used in the vaccine is still alive, but has been made very weak. This type of vaccine is given as drops in the mouth. The other vaccine is called IPV (inactivated polio vaccine). "Inactivated" means that the polio virus used in the vaccine has been killed. This type of vaccine is given as a shot. The best way to be protected against polio is to get four doses of polio vaccine. Most babies should get two doses by four months of age and a third dose at 15-18 months of age. The fourth dose is given at 4-6 years of age.
  • OPT:
  • This is a three-in--one vaccine. Vaccinations against three different diseases: diphtheria, Pertussis (Whooping Cough) and Tetanus, are combined and given as one shot. This vaccination is usually given 5 times before a child reaches 7 years of age. Three of the shots are given before the child reaches 6 months of age. A child who is older than 7 years of age or an adult is usually given the Td vaccine (tetanus and diphtheria).
  • MMR:
  • This is another type of three-in-one vaccine. It protects against measles, mumps and rubella. Usually, it is given two times, first at 15 months of age and again before school entry (4-6 years-of-age).
  • HIB:
  • Hib vaccinations should be given at 2,4,6 and 15 months of age for optimum protection
  • HEPATITIS B:
    Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is passed from one person to another in blood or body secretions. It is highly contagious and the disease may become chronic. Three vaccinations, given on three different occasions (at least one month apart) are needed for full protection. A newborn baby may receive the first vaccinations before leaving the hospital following birth.

Click on the link belowed labeled, "Immunization Information," and read the information presented.

Immunization Information

HEALTHY MEALS AND SNACKS
Learning to eat nutritious food begins in the early years. Emphasizing good nutrition at an early age will help get children on the track of a healthy lifestyle. Snacks and/or meals should be healthy and appealing. Following are some helpful hints in making children's snacks and meals nutritious, healthy, and fun tool.

  1. Have children eat snacks or meals together in small groups. This helps the children to learn table manners such as taking turns, waiting until everyone has been served before eating, etc.
  2. Make eating time pleasant. Create a positive atmosphere and encourage pleasant conversation.
  3. Plan snacks or meals at appropriate times. Make sure children are rested. Over-tired children will not eat much. Make sure children are fairly calm. Over active children are not interested in eating. Forcing children to eat when they are tired or not interested in eating can create negative feelings toward food and snack or meal time.
  4. Plan snacks or meals that the children can help prepare. Children are more interested in food they have helped to prepare. It is also a good time to emphasize many skills:
  5. a. pre-math, as the children measure, cut, put together, and take apart.
    b. pre-reading, as the children read or look at a recipe to find the ingredients and the amount of each ingredient.
    c. social, as the children interact with a teacher/caregiver and take turns with other children.
    d. language, as the children communicate feelings, thoughts, and ideas as well as the what, how, and whys of the product they are preparing.
  6. Limit distractions. Keep toys and other distractions away from the snack or meal table. Too many distractions make the children forget about eating.
  7. Introduce one new type of food at a time. Do not make a big deal about serving a new food. Give small portions of unfamiliar foods at a time.
  8. Serve interesting colors, shapes and sizes. Fix tasty-looking food. It is surprising how creating a face, animal, or some kind of design out of carrots, a pineapple ring, raisins, and cottage cheese can entice a child who otherwise does not like those foods to suddenly eat and enjoy the foods.
  9. Simplify eating; serve finger foods and bite-sized pieces.
  10. Children prefer mildly seasoned foods, so use herbs, spices, salt and pepper lightly.
  11. Food should not be used as a reward or punishment. Do not force a child to eat a food because of misbehavior or offer treats for good behavior. Do not encourage eating for emotional satisfaction when children are happy or sad. This can begin a lifetime habit of overeating or not eating, due to emotional stresses.
  12. Serve snacks that are nutritious and healthy. Stay away from foods high in sugar, fat, and additives. Chocolate should be avoided. Provide fresh fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, etc. There are many children's food recipe books on the market that are available in store or online.

(Once you have read through all of the materials presented, go to the assignment area and complete the assignment that corresponds with this lesson.)

08.01 Electrical Work(PrinTech2)

Electrical Work Lesson 2.3
Work is done when there is a movement in the mechanical system just like fluid work, there is electrical work. When there is a voltage change then there is work done because something moves. Work in an electrical system might be the radio playing or the TV turning on, the computer running, a light turning on, etc.

The definition for work is voltage difference in an electrical system and the way that you calculate this is the following formula:

Electrical Charge… What is it?
In the previous units, we have talked about two kinds of electrical charge. One charge is called positive charge and is carried by the protons and the other is called negative charge and is carried by the electrons. When the atom gives up electrons, and the electrons move from one atom to another, this movement or flow of electrical charge is called current. This happens when the negative plate is charged with extra electrons and the positive plate has a deficiency or lack of electrons. The way this works is the negative terminal in a battery has a lot of extra electrons and the positive terminal doesn’t have enough electrons so when you connect the negative terminal to the positive terminal the electrons move from one place to another. This movement is what we call current. Electrical charge is measured by units called Coulombs. A coulomb of charge is equal to 6.25 x 10. One coulomb of charge is also equal to one ampere- sec.

1 Coulomb = 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons

This figure shows how many extra electrons are present when there is 1 coulomb of charge.

What is electrical current?
The electrical current is the flow that the charge moves through the conductor. The formula for current is below:

Current = Charge / Time

I = q / t

Current can be measured as units of volt-coulombs or joules. Refer to the mechanical section in which we learned that one Newton-meter = one joule. It’s the same in the electrical unit… one volt-coulomb = one joule.

Batteries are not measured in coulombs but rather in ampere- hours. The measurement of one ampere-hour would be 3600 coulombs.

The formula to figure this would be the formula below:

q = I x T

q= in coulombs
I= in amperes
t= in seconds
1 coulomb= 1 ampere-secound

A light bulb lighting is a good example of what happens when electricity is used. The bulb becomes light. With a motor, the electricity will cause the motor to run or a heater to heat. Everywhere we go, we can see signs of electricity.

Now that you have coverd the information for this lesson, go the the assignment section and complete the assignment for this lesson.

After completing the assignment, go the next lesson in this unit.

08.01 Ethics in Journalism links (Journalism)

08.01 Evolution of the Legislative Branch (NavajoGovt)

Initially the Legislative branch was created by the federal government to deal with oil reserves on the Navajo reservation.

Use the web resources below along with your own research to learn about the evolution of the Navajo Business Council in 1922 to the legislative branch as it existed at the time of the Title II Amendments.

When you feel you have sufficient understanding of this transitory period, proceed to the assignment.

08.01 Evolution of the Legislative Branch links (NavajoGovt)

08.01 Exploration of Mars Internet Link(Astronomy1)

08.01 Expository Writing (English 9)

Wikimedia Commons, Dcrjsr, CC Attribution 3.0 UnportedWikimedia Commons, Dcrjsr, CC Attribution 3.0 UnportedExposition is writing that describes something, explains, or informs. Expository writing should examine, explain, and communicate ideas, processes, concepts and information clearly and accurately. Expository writing includes

  • technical writing like the manuals that come with games or software
  • "how-to" writing like magazine articles about how to fly fish, build a greenhouse, or make artisan bread
  • descriptive writing like a travel book, an article about the latest fashions, or information about a house for sale on a real estate website
  • scientific journal articles describing an experiment or study, and reporting the results
  • news reports about a current event
  • ...and many other forms

By now you may have noticed that the three types of writing (argument, narrative and exposition) sometimes overlap, and that many pieces of writing include aspects of two (or all three). When you aren't sure how to classify a particular writing, ask yourself what the main purpose is--to argue, to tell a story, or to inform? Novels, short stories, and biographies are usually narrative though they are likely to include sections of exposition. Arguments are also likely to contain some exposition, and sometimes some narrative. In the same way, expository writing may include some elements of narration or argument, but its main purpose is to inform.

Read the short examples of description of place, using the links below. (You might also want to refer back to the readings in 05.06.2: Short readings in diction and connotation.)

08.01 Final paper: Editorial (English 11)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 90 minutes

Choose a topic of significance to you personally. Think of something for which you have strong feelings that could be sent to a newspaper for publication on their editorial page. Begin the piece with "Dear Editor." Write at least 2 pages, typed and double-spaced. Be persuasive and don’t hesitate to do a bit of research to support your position. Consider everything from a 4-day school week to a skateboard park for your community. Your ORGANIZATION should include: a paragraph stating your position, 3 reasons supporting your position (stated in three separate paragraphs), and a conclusion where you tie your thoughts together. Sign your name.

08.01 Final project (Health)

Create a health-related service learning project that will allow you to provide six or more hours of service to an individual, group, or community.

As you finish this class, you will plan and carry out a service learning project to benefit others in your community.

08.01 Final project: community health service project (Health II)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 420 minutes

Create a health-related service learning project that will allow you to provide six or more hours of service to an individual, group, or community. Your service learning project must relate to a topic you have studied in this health course. You must be able to relate how your project improved the mental, physical, social, environmental and/or spiritual health of the individual(s) you served. It must be a project that you wouldn’t normally do and must be one that you’re not already doing for another class or project (i.e. an Eagle Scout project, helping around the house like you should already be doing, and a service project that you have already done for another class are not acceptable for this project). Note that while you are working on this project (before you finish), you may also complete the last two assignments in the class. Projects might include, but are not limited to:

Food bank collections Service to people with chronic illnesses Service to the elderly or young Service, or care, to the environment Service to school and/or students Service to family, neighborhood, or community.

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

************************************************************************************

PART I: Complete the following planning chart. (You must type this out and answer each of the questions, 3 points per question, except questions 2 and 7 are worth 5 points…25 points total).

1) Identify need or issue.

2) Specify core learning objective (how does this project relate to your health course?)

3) What do you need to do to prepare for the project?

4) What materials do you need?

5) Do you need any training to complete the project?

6) What will you be doing?

7) How will you measure your success? **************************************************************************************************

PART II: Upon completion of your project, WRITE A REFLECTION PAPER (an essay, not just a simple question and answer, but a thoughtful paper in paragraph form, at least 450 words, worth 25 points) including the following information.

Why did you pick the project that you did? How does your project benefit the social, mental, physical or spiritual well being of others? Explain your project (what did you do?) Share three positive outcomes of your project. If you were to do the project again, what might you do differently? If you had more time, and/or resources how might you better meet the needs of the people you served?

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Graphing (PreAlgebra)

Graphing Equations and Inequalities
The purpose of this section will be to help you understand how to graph equations and inequalities.

Solving Equations and Graphing on a Numberline

Some problems might require a solution followed by graphing the solution on numberline. This allows to see where the coordinate is and its relationship from the point 0.

Solving and Graphing Inequalities

In drivers education it is heavily emphasized that when you exceed the speed limit your chances of receiving a citation goes up as well.

This can be shown by a graph. Anything = or > greater than the speed limit can be grounds for a citation. Anything = or < than the posted limit will reduce your risk. Of course going too slow can also reward you with a citation.

Ordered Pairs

The system of grids have been in place for a long time. This is system of locating points in this grid. It is a simple program as long as the rules are followed.

Sometimes, maps are prepared using the coordinate system.

Coordinate System

The Cartesian Coordinate System is made up of dividing up a plane into x and y axis. The X moves left and right first and the y moves up and down. It is in the pattern of (X,Y).

A = (-3,-4) - 3rd quadrant

B = (2,-3) - 4th quadrant

C = (-5,3) - 2nd quadrant

D = (3,4) - 1st quadrant

Most locations on a map use a similar form of the quadrant system.

Solving Equations with Two Variables

Solving equations with two variables can result in more than one unique solution. As one variable changes, the one will change as long as it meets the requirements of the solution.

Solving and Graphing Equations with 2 variables

After the solutions are determined for an equation they can be easily graphed. Since there are multiple solutions for equations they will usually create a straight line if the equation is in the form of
y = mx + b

Slope

With the equation y = mx + b there are several pieces of information available.

m = slope of the line with is the differences in the y values divided by the differences of the x values.

The numerical values of the slope of a line can be either positive of negative. This will change the direction of the line.

Intercepts
In addition to the slope that can be determined from the equation of y = mx + b, we can also determine the x and y intercepts. These are the locations where the line crosses the x and y axis'.

For the line y = x + 2

To find the y-intercept let x = 0
So y = 0 + 2
y = 2 so the y-intercept is (0,2)

To find the x-intercept let y = 0
So 0 = x + 2
then -2 = x (subtracting 2 from each side)
Therefore the x-intercept is (-2,0)

System of Equations

The solution of two equations can be determined by graphing. The point at which the two lines intersect is the solution. After the point of intersection is determined then that point can be substituted back into both equations to verify the solution. That point must satisfy both equations.

Graphing Inequalities

Graphing inequalities is done in much the same manner as graphing any line. Here are a couple of simple rules to follow.

1. Graph the equation of the line and replace the < or > with an = sign and solve the equation.

2. Graph the line as usual. The line of the graph will be dashed if it is strictly greater than or less than. It will be solid if it is greather than or equal to or less than or equal to.

3. Select a point on either side of the line and put it in the inequality and see if makes the statement true. If it does then that is the correct solution. That area in which that point is found should be shaded in.

08.01 Housing Needs(IntDes3)

HOUSING NEEDS

The latest buzzword in interior design is “programming”. Do you have any idea what that term means? Programming is helping a family find a house that fits their particular needs. No matter where one lives there are certain needs a person has, regarding his/her living space. Can you identify some of these needs (privacy, cleanliness, protection, beauty, etc)? There are many influences for selecting a place to live: 1. What are the employment opportunities? 2. Are the roads and highways finished and usable? 3. Is public transportation available? 4. How are the schools? 5. What is the crime rate? 6. How is the climate? 7. What is the cost of living relative to income potential? It is a challenge to discuss the specific needs of people because we so often incorrectly stereotype personalities and circumstances. For example, many high-strung athletes enjoy doing handwork, such as counted cross-stitch and many frail-looking women drive school buses. In our discussion today, remember that we are discussing society’s perceptions of the average family or person. However, keep clear in your mind that each person is an individual, and only he/she knows the individual needs most important to him/her. Discuss the typical advantages and disadvantages of the various types of living conditions, but remember there will be exceptions to all of them. POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES and POTENTIAL DISADVANTAGES (these are shown in parenthesis) CITY Cultural opportunities (slum areas) Ethnic diversity (crime) Job opportunities (pollution) Broad range of services (limited number of parks) Range of housing prices (no sense of community) SUBURBS Lower land costs (overcrowding) Proximity to city jobs (traffic congestion) Cultural/recreational facilities (travel time to work) Less congestion (monotonous layout) Opportunity to own a house (inconvenient) EXURBIA Larger houses and lots (few services) Lower pollution (dependent upon automobiles) Open outdoor spaces (few cultural, recreational, and shopping opportunities) RURAL Least populated (fewer entertainment facilities) Less noise (little shopping) Less expensive land (fewer organized recreational facilities) Lower taxes Close sense of community Additional considerations: COMMUNITY SERVICES Schools Police protection Fire protection Sanitation Water and power supplies Transportation Medical facilities Recreational facilities Other services (shopping, worship, convalescent homes, community/social-service agencies, opportunities for volunteer work) THE NEIGHBORHOOD General age of neighbors Income levels Professional levels How well is the neighborhood established? Noise level SELECTING A DWELLING SITE View Privacy Lot size and shape Exposure Topography (flat, level, sloping) Soil composition (rock, clay, sand) LEGAL REGULATIONS Zoning Board Zoning (how the land can be used) regulations are enforced by a group of local citizens known as the Zoning Board. The Zoning Board has the power to make exceptions to the zoning laws on a case-by-case basis (this is called variance and the special use is referred to as non-conforming). Zoning laws mandate the Kinds of buildings that can be built Size of lots Minimum size of dwelling Minimum number of rooms in a dwelling Kinds of businesses that may be allowed Setbacks How close to other buildings a new building may stand How far from the street and other boundaries a building must be Building Code Building codes contain rules about building construction. They specify such things as the width, height, and number of doors a building must have; the kind of electrical wiring that may be used; and the fire safety rating of insulation materials that is acceptable. They are designed to ensure that health and safety standards are met throughout a community. Housing codes also regulate housing that is already constructed. These laws require certain minimum facilities and equipment such as good heating systems, adequate lighting, and complete bathrooms. These codes also attempt to limit the number of persons or families that can reside in each living unit. The primary reason for having housing codes is to ensure safe and d sanitary housing conditions for the residents of a community.

08.01 Intro to -er verbs using "aimer" (FrenchI)

Click the link in the URL's to go to this lesson.

08.01 Intro to -er verbs using "aimer" links (FrenchI)

08.01 Intro to present tense -re verbs (FrenchII)

Le lien dans l'URL vous portera à la leçon.

08.01 Intro to present tense -re verbs links (FrenchII)

08.01 Introductory Information (TeenLiving)

Introductory Information

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Facts:
- Relationship problems affect every one involved, including other family members.
- Relationship problems usually involve the desire for some kind of change on the part of a least one person.
- Usually the dispute is a complaint by one person concerning some aspect of another person's behavior.
- Both parties must have an open attitude for possible behavior change in response to the request for change.
- One mark of a successful relationship is the ability to resolve disputes smoothly and in a way that is satisfying to both parties. This requires practice, maturity, desire for harmony, and patience.
- Constructive conflict resolution is a specialized activity:
it is not like other conversations (natural, relaxing, enjoyable),
it can be rewarding because it brings people closer together and creates warm feelings
it enhances communication and understanding of each others feelings,
it is difficult to do at first, but becomes easier with practice.
- Most people don't think rationally or logically when they are emotionally upset.

08.01 Katakana Symbols 1 (Japanese I)

teacher-scored 15 points possible 60 minutes

Write the first fifteen katakana symbols (A, I, U, E, O, KA, KI, KU, KE, KO, SA SHI, SU, SE, SO). Write the sound (for example-KI) and then the katakana symbol.

You will use the paint program on your computer, download the free Open Office program to use the drawing program, or create a Google account and use its drawing program.

In the paint program on your computer you will need to save the document and create the symbols then email it to the teacher at japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

Open Office Instructions
Use the link below download the Open Office program.
In the Open Office program you will select the drawing program and then on the buttom select the pencil and select the freeform line to draw your symbols. You will save the document and email it to japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

Google Drawing Instructions
Click on the link below and create an gmail account.
Click on documents and click on create then select drawing. Click on insert then select the scribble option you can now draw the symbols. Once you have completed the assignment then you will click on the untitled drawing and give the document a title. Then you click on file and select Share which will bring up a window and in the add people box enter the teachers email address japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

08.01 Lesson 2: ISSUES FOR THE FUTURE.

Heroes for our future will have to present solutions for the issues and challenges of the next millennium. For this exercise I’d like you to look at the future from a problem/solution perspective.

In the next two assignments you will be required to do the following:

  1. Identify an issue, problem or challenge we will face in the upcoming century
  2. Research that issue to identify its main characteristics.
      Consider:
    • Why is it a problem? Why should it be solved?
    • How did this become a problem?
    • What are possible solutions?
  3. Craft a works cited page which lists the sources you pulled information from.
  4. Choose one of the writing projects to present your ideas.

For this activity,then,follow these four steps:

  1. List three or four of the most challenging issues or problems you see for the future and explain why you feel they are important issues to resolve.
  2. Begin your research--find some information on each of the issues you listed.
  3. Choose the one issue you find most interesting.
  4. Continue to research the issue.

You will need to identify, access and evaluate a minimum of five credible resources in regards to your issue. Since some of your sources will likely come from information on the Internet, be mindful of issues of website credibility. Given the nature of your topic--something on which many have strong opinions--you will want to evaluate your sources carefully.

Remember:

  • Evaluate the reliability of the source.
  • Look for bias that can’t be backed up by reasonable evidence
  • Examine the author’s intellectual or academic credentials

Use the “website credibility” link for additional help with this.

There are some great sources listed below, and you may want to revisit "bigthink." You may also find Pioneer, Utah's Online Library to be very useful in your research. (You will find the link and the password on the EHS site home page.) Here you can find articles in local, national, and international newspapers as well as scholarly articles about a host of social issues. Given the nature of this assignment, the SIRS Knowledge Source may prove especially useful.

Your research, however, doesn’t need to be limited to the internet, try to access books magazines as well. Conduct your own interview or research if you can. The idea is to get a good grasp of the problem and to start formulating solutions for it.

To begin to prepare for the main writing assignment for this quarter, I'd like you to identify an issue, problem or challenge we will face in the upcoming century and then begin to research that issue to identify its main characteristics.

For this assignment, I'd like you to conduct an exercise often called an "I-Search."  Read through and carefully follow the 4 steps below:

A.  List four or five of the most challenging issues or problems you see for the future and explain why you feel they are important issues to resolve.   Watch the news, peruse news/opinion sites like bigthink.com or use some of the links below to help you determine which issues seem most challenging and important to you.  For each issue consider: Why is it a problem? Why should it be solved? How did this become a problem? What are possible solutions?

B.   Choose the one issue you find most interesting.  Write a paragraph explaining what you know about this issue and why you feel it is significant.

C.  Research that issue* and construct an annotated bibliography including at least 4 sources.  You will find Pioneer Library, Utah's Online Library, to be very useful in your research. (You will find the link below.  Please contact me if you need the username/password to log in.) Here you can find articles in local, national, and international newspapers as well as scholarly articles about a host of social issues. Given the nature of this assignment, the EBSCO and SIRS sections of Pioneer Library may prove especially useful. Your research, however, doesn’t need to be limited to the internet, try to access books and magazines as well. Conduct your own interview or research if you can. The idea is to get a good grasp of the problem and to start formulating solutions for it. 

*Since some of your sources will likely come from information on the Internet, be mindful of issues of website credibility. Given the nature of your topic--something on which many have strong opinions--you will want to evaluate your sources carefully.

Remember to:

Evaluate the reliability of the source.
Look for bias that can’t be backed up by reasonable evidence
Examine the author’s intellectual or academic credentials

(Use the “website credibility” link for additional help with this.)

An annotated bibliography includes the complete source citation (using MLA format) and an annotation--a paragraph that summarizes the content of the source. See the links below for more instruction on creating an annotated bibliography.

A typical annotated citation, using “MLA documentation” would look something like the following example:

Doe, J. T. and Williams, W. R. "Parental supervision of television viewing and aggressive behavior in children", Journal of Television and Violence, 51 (1996): 534-540.  

The authors, researchers at Western State College, collected data from a group of 8 year olds to test their hypothesis that the amount of violence children saw on television relates to the aggressiveness of their behavior. They found that children who were allowed to watch evening police dramas and "made for TV" specials with abusive situations demonstrated increased aggressive behavior over children who were not permitted to watch these programs. The researchers did not find a connection between aggression in children and television violence as displayed in cartoons and news programs. Another study, conducted by Smith and Wesson, showed that the amount of television violence viewed by children does correlate with aggressive behavior. Smith and Wesson, however, do not consider the type of program viewed. The article by Doe and Williams is one of the few studies that examines aggressive behavior as it relates to different types of television programs.

For further help with annotated bibliographies and citing sources in MLA format, use the links listed below.

D.  In two-three paragraphs, compare what you originally thought about your subject with what you have learned. Include personal commentary and draw conclusions. You should use the information you found in your research, and you should include at least two textual references in your discussion.

08.01 Lesson 8A: Rules for Word Stress and Accents (Spanish I)

 

Lesson 8A
Rules for Word Stress and Accents

[A copy of this lesson is available in a PDF file!! If you prefer to use this type of document, just click on the following link to complete this lesson: SpI_Lesson8A]

 

           At the beginning of each unit during this Spanish I course, we have discussed the Spanish alphabet, along with the correct pronunciation of the vowels and consonants. Knowing how each letter is pronounced is a very important skill in being able to speak Spanish, but there is another important piece. In order to read and speak correctly, we need to know which syllable of a word should be stressed, pronounced the loudest.

           Unlike the English language, words in Spanish are usually spelled exactly the way they are pronounced!! Isn’t that a wonderful idea??!! The Spanish language has only two rules to govern which syllable should be stressed in a word and we will discuss both of them in this lesson. Any word that wants to break the rules has to carry an accent to show which syllable is stressed. Many students don’t like “accents” just because it is something new, but as students learning Spanish, accents are really very helpful. We should consider them to be our friends!!

           This link shows you how two words can be spelled exactly the same but the meaning can be completely different if stress is placed on different syllables. Listen to the oral exercises so that you can not only see but hear how the words are different!!

           Rules for Word Stress: There are only two rules that dictate which syllable is stressed in a Spanish word. The stress is either on the “last” or “next to last” syllable, depending on the last letter of the word. Words that follow these two rules normally do not need an accent!

           It is Professor Jason … Back Again!! This is a great place to show you this video that was made by Professor Jason. It not only reviews the two stress rules that we discussed above, but introduces the next concept … using accents on words that are exceptions to the stress rules!! At the very end, he gives a “shout out” to one of his online students … so sweet!! Maybe one of our students can get recognized in one of his future videos!!??

See video

 

           Rules for Accents: There are also two rules that dictate when an accent is needed in a Spanish word. Accents are used in Spanish words to help in pronunciation and to indicate a different meaning in words that are spelled the same.

           Video Clip on Spanish Accents: Here is a short video clip that reviews how accent marks are used in Spanish. It only takes a minute or so but has some very important information. Enjoy!!

See video

 

           Summary of Lesson: You should now understand a bit better about word stress and accents. Accents are a very important part of the Spanish language so if they are not included, it could completely change the meaning or pronunciation of a word!! They really are so helpful that this is another area where the English language would be better and easier if it included something like this!! Remember, you can always go back and listen again, as many times as you want!! The better you are at learning these rules, the easier it will be for you to read and speak Spanish correctly!!

           Practice Exercises: Use the links below to review your knowledge of the Spanish accents and word stress!!

08.01 Literary Devices (English 11)

Students will review and learn about various techniques and literary devices used by writers and will then apply them in the remainder of the course.

Literary Devices

View the attached PowerPoint* and visit the links below to review and learn various literary devices. Then take the quiz to evaluate your understanding.

The literary devices listed here will be used throughout the course in writing activities and other assignments.

*Let me know if you can't view the PowerPoint, and I will send it to you in another format

The quiz will cover the following terms:

Allusion
Byzantine mosaic: the bird in the cage is a metaphor for the human soul trapped inside the body: Ken and Nyetta photo, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic license via Wikimedia CommonsByzantine mosaic: the bird in the cage is a metaphor for the human soul trapped inside the body: Ken and Nyetta photo, CC Attribution 2.0 Generic license via Wikimedia Commons Apostrophe
Euphemism
Onomatopoeia
Personification
Symbol
Colloquialism
Hyperbole
Repetition
Alliteration
Oxymoron
Paradox
Irony
Simile
Metaphor

 

08.01 Mars exploration and inhabiting other planets (Astronomy1)

teacher-scored 100 points possible 60 minutes

Exploration of Mars - Research Assignment
Mars has always fascinated us from down here on planet Earth. Fanciful legends, stories, books and even radio broadcasts have speculated on the possibility of life on Mars. Today we have given up the belief that there is, or ever has been, intelligent life or civilizations of aliens living on our "Red Planet" neighbor. But quite certainly there will be intelligent life on Mars in the future - perhaps even within your life time. Plans are well developed to someday send an expeditionary team to set up a work base and scientific community on Mars.

From the interactive internet link provided, search through the complexities of setting up a base on Mars. Submit a synopsis of the information that you learned. As the instructor I will be looking for evidence that you spent a meaningful amount of time in the discovery process and have an understanding of the tremendous obstacles and scientific problems that must be solved to inhabit such a distant and hostile place. This is a high school credit course and I expect a minimum of one (1) page of research written in your own words. Any evidence of plagiarism or violation of copyright laws will warrant dismissal from this course.

08.01 Medieval Europe Journal Assignment(WorldCiv2)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 15 minutes

Medieval peasants (serfs) at work, ca. 1400, France: Wikimedia Commons, Pietro de Crescenzi, public domainMedieval peasants (serfs) at work, ca. 1400, France: Wikimedia Commons, Pietro de Crescenzi, public domain "History, to be above evasion or dispute, must stand on documents, not on opinions." (Lord Acton 64) Acton, Lord. "INAUGURAL LECTURE ON THE STUDY OF HISTORY*." Online Library of Liberty. The Online Library of Liberty, 2012. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. Assignment 8.1: Journal Entry: How important is it to honor contractual agreements? What, in your mind, is a valid contract? Is it when you give your word or sign a written document? When are contracts invalid? Edit and submit your journal entry to your instructor.

 
5- Accomplished
3- Satisfactory
2-Developing
1-Beginning
Context Contains fresh, original ideas. Solid content is backed up with examples, illustrations and a variety of support for ideas. All questions are answered. Good ideas and content backed up with generalized examples. Accurate wording is apparent. Support for ideas is all of the same type. Some of the questions are answered but not well backed up. Stale ideas. Worn-out. Content is not well supported. The writer is beginning to define the topic, even through development is still basic or general. No real ideas. Content is murky or unsupported. No awareness of audience is apparent. As yet, the journal entry has no clear purpose or central theme. Not all the questions are answered. To extract meaning from the text, the reader must make inferences based on sketchy or missing details.
Conventions The writer demonstrates a strong grasp of conventions by using punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage and paragraphing in a way that enhances the message of the paper. There are no spelling or punctuation errors. The writer demonstrates a good grasp of standard writing conventions: spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, paragraphing. Writer uses conventions effectively to enhance readability. Less than three spelling or punctuation errors present. Writer shows a reasonable control over a limited range of standard writing conventions. Conventions are sometimes handled well and enhance readability; at other times, errors are distracting and impair readability. Three to six spelling or punctuation errors present. Errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, and grammar and/or paragraphing repeatedly distract the reader and make the text difficult to read. Sixteen or more spelling or punctuation errors present.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Mission Statements (Psychology)

For this final lesson you will be provided websites to read through to help you compile the information you need to create your own personal “Healthy Living Portfolio”. The websites you need for this lesson are all listed below. Do your best work and make your Healthy Living Portfolio something you can be proud of. The specific instructions for this assignment are outlined below. Have fun!

08.01 New Inventions

08.01 Phrases and clauses indicating cause and effect (English 9)

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

Sunset shadow: Atmospheric optical effect caused by the shadow of Mount Rainier at sunset: Draxfelton, Wikimedia Commons, released into public domain by authorSunset shadow: Atmospheric optical effect caused by the shadow of Mount Rainier at sunset: Draxfelton, Wikimedia Commons, released into public domain by author

One common (and useful) function of phrases and clauses is to show a cause-effect relationship between ideas. As you might guess, you will often write about cause and effect in an argument essay.

Here is an example of a sentence involving a cause and effect: Jared was late because of the traffic.
(It could equally well be written Because of the traffic, Jared was late.) Traffic CAUSED Jared to be late. "Because of the traffic" is a prepositional phrase. Since it tells WHY, it is also an adverb phrase.

We could also express a similar idea using a subordinate clause: Because there was so much traffic, Jared was late.
(It could equally well be written Jared was late because there was so much traffic. However, if we wrote Because Jared was late, there was so much traffic, that would mean something different.) "Because there was so much traffic" is an adverb clause (again, because it tells WHY something happened), and it is also a subordinate (dependent) clause.



Notice a punctuation issue here: When the phrase or dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, you need a comma between it and the main clause. However, when the phrase or dependent clause comes at the end of the sentence (after the independent clause), you DON'T need a comma.

Words or phrases that are often used to signal cause-effect relationships include because, cause, since, if, then, so, thus, as a result, due to, therefore, consequently, in order to, hence, when, after, for this reason, which led to, for the purpose of, owing to, accordingly.... Note that SOME of these words are prepositions or subordinating conjunctions (that is, they will introduce a phrase or subordinate clause), but others are conjunctive adverbs (that is, they will introduce an independent clause that either stands alone as a sentence, or follows a semicolon in a compound sentence).

Since, by their nature, phrases or subordinate clauses that identify a cause answer the question "why?", they are adverb phrases or clauses.

08.01 Physical Properties of Metals(Chemistry3)

Physical Properties of Metals

We use metals every day. As you look at the periodic table, take note that the majority of the elements listed are metals. It's no coincidence that metals have similar physical properties. The physical properties of metal are: 1) Metals are strong and hard. 2) Except for Mercury, all metals are in the solid state at room temperature. 3) When metals are polished, they shine. The shine is called luster. Different metals have varying degrees of luster. 4) Metals are great conductors of heat and electricity. To gain a better understanding of metals read the URLs, Metals 1 and Metals 2, listed below. You will see material found in the URLs on the final.

08.01 Power Point Slides (Advertising)

View the PowerPoint Presentation for this chapter.

08.01 Practice with cause and effect sentences (English 9)

teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

Now it's time to apply some of what you learned in this lesson.

You are going to create sentences that use phrases or clauses to explain a cause-effect relationship, following the directions below.

Note that you will need to have read "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," "Letter from a Birmingham Jail," and To Kill a Mockingbird before completing this assignment.

You will be scored both on the required sentence structure, and on accuracy of content for each of the twelve started sentences. It is NOT necessary to use subject matter from the readings for the eight sentences you write completely on your own.

Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work using the assignment submission window for this assignment.

*************************************************************

Part A: Write original sentences OR find sentences in the readings from this quarter that include a prepositional phrase to show a cause-effect relationship. Example: As a result of owning horses, I need money to buy hay. The first three will be started for you. Complete them, and then create two more. Remember that if the phrase is at the beginning of the sentence, you need a comma between it and the rest of the sentence.

1. Due to Sir Gawain accepting the Green Knight's challenge, ...
2. Martin Luther King, Jr wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" as a consequence of ...
3. Because of Atticus shooting the mad dog, ...
4.

5.
 

Part B: Write original complex sentences OR find complex sentences in the readings from this quarter that include a subordinate (dependent) clause, before the main clause, to show a cause-effect relationship. Put the subordinate clause first, and remember to use a comma between it and the main clause. Example: Since George Washington was the first President of the United States, he decided how the President should be addressed. The first three will be started for you. Complete them, and then create two more.

6. If Gawain had refused to accept any gifts from his host's wife, ...
7. "Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, ..." (from "Letter from a Birmingham Jail")
8. "As the Cunninghams had no money to pay a lawyer, ..." (from To Kill a Mockingbird)
9.

10.
 

Part C: Write original complex sentences OR find complex sentences in the readings from this quarter that include a subordinate (dependent) clause, after the main clause, to show a cause-effect relationship. Put the INDEPENDENT clause first, and remember NOT to use a comma between it and the subordinate clause. Example: You can recognize a simile because it uses comparison words such as 'like' or 'as.' The first three will be started for you. Complete them, and then create two more.

11. Sir Gawain left Sir Bernlak's castle because ....
12. Martin Luther King, Jr. was in the Birmingham jail due to the fact that...
13. "I told Atticus I didn’t feel very well and didn’t think I’d go to school any more if..."
14.

15.
 

Part D: Write original compound sentences (OR find compound sentences in the readings from this quarter) that include a conjunctive adverb, after a semicolon, to show a cause-effect relationship. Remember to use a comma after the conjunctive adverb. Example: By definition, an argument gives reasons or evidence to support a position; consequently, the reasons are an integral part of the argument. The first three will be started for you. Complete them, and then create two more.

16. Sir Gawain had promised to let the Green Knight cut off his head; accordingly, ...
17. Martin Luther King, Jr. suggests that blacks have already waited over 340 years for their Constitutional rights; therefore, ...
18. Aunt Alexandra wanted to make Scout into a lady; consequently,
19.

20.
 

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Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Pythagorean Theorem (Math Level 1)

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of a set of data, compare my results to an expected distribution, and interpret results based on different sample sizes.

Something to Ponder

How would you describe the Pythagorean Theorem and how would you explain how and when to use it?

Mathematics Vocabulary

Pythagorean Theorem: in any right triangle the sum of the squared sides is equal to the squared length of the hypotenuse \fn_jvn a^{2} +b^{2}=c^{2}

Learning these concepts

Click the mathematician image to launch the video to help you better understand this "mathematical language."

08.01 Pythagorean Theorem - Explanation Video (Math Level 1)

See video


Preparation
Sample items to consider while viewing the videos and before beginning the worksheet.

Example 1:

Find the value of x in each right triangle. 

a)

b)

Quick Check 1a:

Find the missing sides in each of the right triangles: 

a) 

b) 

c) 

Example 1b:

A baseball diamond is a square with 90-ft. sides. Home plate and second base are at opposite vertices of the square. About how far is home plate from second base? 

 

Optionally: use the link above to view the explanatory math video.

08.01 Pythagorean Theorem - Extra Video (Math Level 1)

I highly recommend that you click on the links above and watch the videos before continuing.

08.01 Pythagorean Theorem - Worksheet (Math Level 1)

teacher-scored 42 points possible 20 minutes

Activity for this lesson

  1. Print the worksheet. Work all the problems showing ALL your steps.
  2. Digitize (scan or take digital photo) and upload your worksheet activity.

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Ratio and Proportion (Geometry)

teacher-scored 34 points possible 40 minutes

Read Section 8.1
Vocabulary
1. ratio
2. proportion
3. extremes
4. means

pgs. 461-464 (3-60 multiples of 3, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74)

Journal Entry
Show how to solve the proportion 10 / (3y-1) = 5 / y. Explain each step of the process.

08.01 Revoked or Suspended License (DriverEd)

Some drivers do not meet acceptable driving standards. The Driver Services Bureau--Driver License Division, is here to help those drivers, if possible, and to take corrective action, if necessary. They also deal with cases of license fraud and alteration.

The various driver control programs are designed to result in improved driver attitude and performance. In most cases, the treatment programs are successful. However, some drivers are unable or unwilling to correct their bad habits. Those drivers can expect revocation, suspension, denial, or disqualification of their driving privileges.

WHEN YOUR PRIVILEGE TO DRIVE MUST BE REVOKED

Your driver license will be revoked if a court finds you guilty of any of the following:

  1. Manslaughter or negligent homicide while driving.
  2. A second or subsequent conviction for driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle or a motorboat while intoxicated or while any measurable controlled substance or metabolite of a controlled substance is in your body (including prescribed medications).
  3. Making a false statement under oath when applying for a driver license.
  4. Using a motor vehicle to commit or facilitate a felony, including automobile homicide.
  5. Failure to stop and give aid if you are involved in a motor vehicle crash resulting in the death of, or personal injury to another.
  6. Two charges of reckless driving or impaired driving in one year. (The court may recommend that your license be suspended for three months on the first conviction.) Reckless driving is defined as operating a vehicle in a willful and/or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property.
  7. Attempting to flee or refusing to stop after receiving a visual or audible signal from a police officer.
  8. Discharging or allowing the discharge of a firearm from a vehicle.
  9. Using, allowing the use of, or causing to be used any explosive, chemical or incendiary device from a vehicle.
  10. Driving with a measurable or detectable amount of alcohol in your system when you have an alcohol-restricted status.
  11. Driving a vehicle without an ignition interlock device installed when you have an ignition interlock restricted status.
  12. You have been convicted of careless driving and a judge has ordered revocation of your driver license.

If you forfeit bail after being arrested for one of the offenses mentioned above, your driver license will be revoked/suspended as if you had appeared in court and been found guilty.

WHEN YOUR PRIVILEGE TO DRIVE MAY BE SUSPENDED

Your driver license may be suspended for as long as one year. Some reasons the Division may suspend your driving privilege are:

  1. You have been convicted of an offense for which mandatory suspension is required.
  2. By reckless or unlawful conduct, you have caused or contributed to a crash in which someone was injured or killed or which resulted in serious property damage.
  3. You are incompetent to drive, or have a mental or physical condition that would make you an unsafe driver.
  4. You have unlawfully or fraudulently used your license or permitted its use by someone else.
  5. You have refused to take or failed to pass a review examination as ordered by the Division.
  6. You have been convicted of sufficient traffic violations to be subject to the Division Point System.
  7. You have been arrested for DUI or been found guilty of any drug offense.
  8. You operated or permitted to be operated a motor vehicle owned by you without the required security.
  9. As a Utah driver, you failed to appear in court for a traffic violation when it occurred in Utah or in a Non-Resident Violator Compact member state, or that you failed to satisfy fees, fines, or restitution to the court on any criminal charge.
  10. Failure to show proof of no-fault insurance or other security as required under the Utah Automobile No-Fault Insurance Act.
  11. Operating a vehicle or allowing a vehicle registered to you to be operated without required insurance or proof of financial responsibility.
  12. Failure to pay child support.
  13. You have been convicted for a texting violation or for stealing gas from a retail establishment and the judge ordered suspension of your license.
  14. You are under the age of 21 and have used false or improper proof of age in order to obtain or consume alcohol, or gain admittance to a bar.
  15. You have been convicted for custodial interference

08.01 Right Triangle Trigonometric Relationships Based on Similar Triangles (Math Level 2)

Identifying the Six Trigonometric Functions

Suppose you want to build a ramp for access to a loading dock that is 4 feet above ground level. You want to be able to easily push a cart on wheels up the ramp, and the angle of elevation should be no more than 20°. How long does the ramp have to be?

If after completing this topic you can state without hesitation that...

  • I can identify the hypotenuse, adjacent side, and opposite side of an acute angle in a right triangle.
  • I can determine the six trigonometric ratios for a given angle in a right triangle.
  • I can recognize the reciprocal relationship between sine/cosecant, cosine/secant, and tangent/cotangent.
  • I can use a calculator to find the value of the six trigonometric functions for any acute angle.
  • I can use a calculator to find the measure of an angle given the value of a trigonometric function.

…you are ready for the assignment.  Otherwise, go back and review the material before moving on.

Each topic is divided into sections that include the following:

  • Warm Up - questions to answer to see if you are ready for the lesson.
  • Presentation - high quality video with excellent illustrations that teaches the topic.
  • Worked Examples - examples that are worked out step-by-step with narration.
  • Practice - quiz problems on the topic covered.
  • Review - practice test to check your knowledge before moving on.

You are not required to complete every section. However, REMEMBER the goal is to MASTER the material.

08.01 Right Triangle Trigonometric Relationships Based on Similar Triangles - Worksheet (Math Level 2)

teacher-scored 40 points possible 60 minutes
Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01 Scratch Programming

Programming is one of the creative processes that can transform ideas into reality. This unit will highlight what can be created by using programming as a tool. The software that will be used is called Scratch. It provides an environment that lends itself to “tinkering”. The drag and drop nature of the blocks moves the focus away from messy syntax and allows for making modifications quickly. Scratch is programming, but it is not used in industry. A few languages that are used in industry are Java, C, and C++. The basic constructs used in Scratch are also used in “industrial strength” languages. Every character in Scratch is called a Sprite. Watch the Introduction to Scratch video. Then view the Scratch Getting Started PDF. Lastly, view the Scratch Introductory Presentation.

08.01 Shapes, Sizes, and Objects (Navajo)

On the right hand side of the class you will find the PowerPoint slide for Unit 8.

08.01 Spreadsheet Unit Grading Sheet

Use this grading sheet as you complete the Spreadsheet Unit. This unit should take approximately three weeks to complete.

08.01 Spreadsheet Unit Grading Sheet (CompTech 2007)

Use this grading sheet as you complete the Spreadsheet Unit. This unit should take 3 to 4 weeks to complete.

08.01 Spreadsheet Unit Grading Sheet (CompTech)

Use this grading sheet as you complete the Spreadsheet Unit. This unit should take 3 to 4 weeks to complete.

08.01 Study Sheet 1: Woher kommen Sie?(German1)

Lernziel 2.8.1 Study Sheet: Die Länder und Sprachen Europas


Woher kommen Sie?
Deutsch Englisch
Wo kommen Sie her? Where are you from (polite)
Woher kommen Sie? Where are you from (polite)
Wo wohnen Sie? Where do you live? (polite)
Sprechen Sie Deutsch? Do you speak German? (polite)
Woher kommst du? Where are you from (informal)
Wo wohnst du? Where do you live? (informal)
Wo kommst du her? Where are you from? (informal)
Sprichst du Englisch? Do you speak Englisch? (informal)
Ich komme aus... I am from ....
Ich wohne in... I live in ....
Meine Muttersprache ist... My native language is....
Ich spreche Italienisch. I speak Italian.
Die Hauptstadt von Deutschland ist Berlin. The capitol of Germany is Berlin.


To print out a copy of this to study click on the link for the pdf at the top.

08.01 Unit 8 (Psychology)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 180 minutes

Remember to use the grading rubric to score yourself on your assignment. Put the score you believe you have earned for the assignment at the top of your assignment. The instructions for this assignment are below. When you are ready to submit your assignment, click on the assignment number link, copy and paste your paper into the text box or upload your file and hit submit.

Please be sure to include all 9 pages AND your scores from the grading rubric in ONE document. The grading rubric is located in "Unit 08.00 Overview" at the beginning of the Unit. Click on the link and download the grading rubric for this assignment. Enjoy!

You will be provided websites to read through to help you compile the information you need to create your own personal “Healthy Living Portfolio”. You are required to have several specific pages:

1. Title Page, Author and Date
2. Your Personal Mission Statement (which should be written LAST!)
3. Your Life Line
4. Your Values
5. Your Stress Levels and What To Do About It
6. Your Coping Skills for Life’s Ups and Downs
7. WHO AM I Page?
8. Your PROBLEM page
9. Your Conclusion Page and Grading Rubric

PAGE 1: Title Page, Author and Date

This should be pretty easy. But you’ll need to be CREATIVE and make sure that the title page says something about you! Put this on a piece of paper:

Healthy Living Portfolio For ___(your name here)___

By ____(your username, High School here)________

Date

PAGE 2: Your Personal Mission Statement

This should be the LAST page you write. Writing all the OTHER pages will help you be able to boil down the information that you will want to make a part of your mission statement. Reading about what it is FIRST though, will help you keep things in the back of your mind as you go. You will need to do ALL of the other pages and activities FIRST before doing this activity. On this page, you will write your personal mission statement. You can illustrate it, put a border on it or just make it plain, whatever you want. But make it look like something you would hang up on your wall for the next 30 years of your life. (Which is what I suggest you do with it when you’re done!!!) What is a Mission Statement? Let’s look at a few first, and see if you can figure out what it is.

MISSION STATEMENT of Maltese Athletics
To enable athletes of all levels of ability to achieve their own aspirations in their chosen athletic activity, exemplifying good moral and sporting values, and thereby promoting in Maltese society the concept of Athletics as a Way of Life

MISSION STATEMENT of St. Paul Building Owners and Managers Association is:
"To provide Leadership to the Commercial Real Estate Industry through Legislative and Regulatory Advocacy, Education, Research and Informational Networking".

MISSION STATEMENT of a School :
We, the Los Amigos School Community, are dedicated, through joint effort to the overall development of academic, social, cultural, and physical excellence of all students. We want to teach each child to appreciate and benefit from diversity, to reach his/her full potential, and to develop problem solving skills leading each student to be a responsible and valuable member of this/her family, community, country, and world.

MISSION STATEMENT of Camp Footprints:
The mission of Camp Footprints is to create and develop life-giving programs for children and adolescents. The key to this process is to create an environment that embodies the following ideals: Love of neighbor; Dignity of all human beings; Formation of character; Service to others in need; and the Belief that all Human beings are created to love and to be loved unconditionally.

There is a good introduction to Mission statements on-line. In the article you read, the author is talking about Career stuff. But as you read it, you will get the information you need about personal mission statements. The link is listed below in a whole set for all the pages.

Now, go on to another article on this site to help you get started on your mission statement (listed as the 2nd link for page 2). Actually DO the ACTIVITES listed! They will help in getting you to THINK.

Now, go put that information aside and go do the other pages. After you have completed all your other pages and activities, write your personal mission statement as described above. If you still feel that you need help, you can go to the Franklin Covey site which walks you through a series of questions to come up with your personal mission statement.

You’ll need to fill in your address and stuff, but that’s OK, just fill it in and go on. Be sure to read the information as you go.

PAGE 3: Your Life Line

This will be an interesting assignment for you. You will need a LARGE piece of paper and pencil. Sit down and draw a long winding line on the page. At the beginning of the line, youll put your birth date. Next, in the middle of this long line, you’ll put TODAYS date and your age. Then, all along the line, you will put important events or feelings or experiences you have had in your life that have made you YOU. You’ll put past events in order on the line before TODAY, and then FUTURE events on the line after today. These are things you hope to accomplish in your life and things you anticipate doing, etc.

Once you have written out your line with all your events on the line, you’ll want to make a neater, concise line so that you can fit it on an 8 X 11 paper with the rest of your portfolio pages. You can color it, leave it plain, or make it as detailed or open as you’d like.

PAGE 4: Your Values

Values are the things that are most important to you. That makes sense doesnt itvalues are what you value! Perhaps your family has a set of values, your friends another, your grandparents yet another. So, have you consciously thought about what YOU value?

A value is a principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable. Values are those standards of goodness, rightness and preference that one believes in. Values are shaped by beliefs. A person’s behavior is influenced by what he or she values. A value clarification exercise helps us rate our values according to how worthwhile or desirable something is. This explains why people behave differently when given the same set of circumstances. Values determine how we spend our time, energy, and money. If you understand what is important in your life, your decisions are easier to make. .Do the values clarification exercise to check out what is important to you. Once you decide what things you value, you might also want to think about who influenced the development of your values. How do your values affect the way you interact with others? Do your values enhance your self-esteem? Are your values in conflict with laws and social norms? Are your values in line with your behavior or are you doing things that you believe to be “wrong?” How does this affect the way you feel about yourself? If you won a million dollars, what would you do with it? If you could only keep one thing, what would it be? Do the values sort exercise to discover your top 5 values. It is a pdf file located at the end of these portfolio instructions, titled "VALUES SORT EXERCISE".

For page 4 of your Healthy Living Portfolio, You’ll describe in a page:

• Your top 5 values
• The answers to the three questions at the bottom of the Value Sort Exercise
• What changes would you like to make based on what you have learned about your values

PAGE 5: Stress

EVERYONE experiences stress. Stress can be GOOD and it can be BAD, but it wrecks havoc on our body nonetheless when we experience stress too consistently and TOO much. So before we even begin, we’ll take a look at your STRESS LEVEL. We’ll take you to a web site to measure your stress. Be sure to jot down your results for the test and what you thought of it. This will become part of your page on stress. You'll also include a paragraph on what you can do to deal with stress better in your life. Include at least 7 items as ways to deal with stress from the article you read. The websites are listed below under page 5.

PAGE 6: Your Coping Skills for Life’s Ups and Downs

Coping skills are the ways in which people respond to the challenges and pressures that they are confronted with. Coping skills and stress management go hand in hand. Stress management is a lifestyle that promotes healthy living so your body and mind are strengthened when specific stressful events occur. Coping skills are what you do at the moment that something stressful occurs, such as a death in the family, personal illness, loss of a boyfriend, loss of a job, etc. You will first do a coping skills test, then read about coping skills on three different websites. When you are finished, you will write a one-page report about YOU and YOUR COPING SKILLS! As you go through this exercise, make it a personal journey. First, take the coping skills test (see webiste listed below).

After you have taken the test, you will notice that you will have a score between 0 and 100 on the different scales. Anything over 50 is OK. If you are below 50 on any of the scales, you may want to consider that area as a possible item for your “Problem” page. On your assignment, you will write your score and what your ‘stressors’ are. Now, to get a good idea of different coping skills, I am going to send you to a few different websited, they are listed below the coping skills test website.

In summary, your one page about coping skills (page 6) will include:

• An essay defining what coping skills are and the results of your Coping skills test.
• A list of 20 coping skills for YOU to use in event of a stressful event in your life
• A paragraph concluding what you learned about yourself from this activity.

PAGE 7: The "WHO AM I?" Page

This will be a fun page to write. First you will think about yourself. There are three different parts to write:
1. Write two paragraphs describing you physically and then describing your personality. ONLY include POSITIVE comments about you!
2. Next, you will go to 4 different people and ask them to do the same: to describe you physically and your personality ONLY using POSITIVE traits! You’ll summarize what they said in an essay. These 4 people are to include:
• 2 really close friends, at least one being your age group.
• A parent or guardian
• A teacher or church leader
3. Finally, write a paragraph about what you discovered!

PAGE 8: Your PROBLEM Page

This will not be a fun page to write. If I were to ask you “What is the one thing you would most like to change about yourself?” What is the first thing that would pop into your mind? Actually, I bet a few things pop into your mind. Your job is to carefully think about these first things that pop into your mind. What were they? Did you want to change something about your physical appearance? Did you want to change something about your relationships with others? Did you want to change how you did in school or past mistakes?

Some things you cannot change. Perhaps it’s time to let go of some old memories or past mistakes. Perhaps it’s time to learn to love yourself as you are. Perhaps, there is a personality trait that you CAN control and need to change. Your job for this page is to come up with ONE and ONLY ONE thing that you would like to change and CAN change. This we will call your ‘problem’. Think about HOW you can change that one thing. Create a plan to change it and start doing it. After two weeks or more of working on this problem, then you will be ready to write this page. On this page, you will write:

• THE Problem
• Your plan to solve the problem
• How things are going in your progress to solve the problem
• A concluding paragraph about what you learned from this experience.

PAGE 9: Your Conclusion Page

Whew! You’ve done A LOT of work for this portfolio. I hope that it has been worth your time and effort as you have come to know yourself better and have learned ways to live a healthier life. On this final page, I would like you to answer the following questions:

1. Who is in charge of your life and happiness?

2. What have you learned from doing this portfolio?

3. Where do you go from here?

You will also grade yourself on this portfolio. Copy and paste the grading rubric into your document, and fill in your score for each of the pages and make it a part of your concluding page.

Submit all your pages in one document by clicking the corresponding assignment number link and uploading your file and hitting submit.

THEN you will be ready to take the quarter 2 final...be sure to submit your 'ready assignment'.

08.01 Unit 8 assignments (Business Law)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

A. Consumer Protection Practices -- NOLO Site

  1. After clicking on the link to the NOLO site, explain what is meant by the term “deceptive pricing.” Give an example.
  2. After looking at this article, when can one offer gifts with a product?
  3. How can price reductions be deceptive? Give an example of one you have seen recently.
  4. John sees an advertisement for a new Blackberry at his local cell phone store for $99. When he gets there, he is told that it is sold out but that the store had plenty of the higher-end Blackberry model for $199. The salesperson pushed John to purchase the more expensive model with its many attractive features. John purchased the product. Did the store engage in unfair consumer practices?
  5. Click on the FTC links and respond to the following questions….

    a. What is the “bait and switch?”
    b. Why is it deceptive and illegal?
    c. Explain why in this particular case (the article link), according to the FTC, the ad was unfair, deceptive, and misleading to the consumer?


  6. According to the website link, what is the “cooling off” period for door-to-door sales? List two exceptions.

  7. a. According to the same link, what act protects the consumer when purchasing a product by telephone?



    B. Consumer Protection Laws -- Click on the link and then respond to the questions below.

    1. Give the names and addresses of two Web sites that provide information about consumer protection.
    2. What is the Bureau of Consumer Protection?
    3. What functions does the Bureau of Consumer Protection perform?
    4. Identify two current consumer issues featured on one of the Web sites you located. What products or services are involved?
    5. What single buying or consumer tip did you personally find most helpful?
    6. What is the name and Web site address of the agency responsible for consumer protection in your home state?

    C. PRACTICAL QUESTIONS

    1. What is one of your most recent purchases and was it a product or service?
    2. Can you think of a product that has not lived up to your expectations? What did you do then?
    3. Name a product that was defective and you returned it successfully. Was the warranty helpful and how?
    4. Have you had an electronics purchase go bad recently (like a phone or an ipod)? Did you have a warranty? Did you get an automatic refund?
    5. Have you ever purchased a product and been deceived? What information would you need to file a complaint with a state or federal agency?

08.01 Unit 8 assignments links (Business Law)

08.01 Unit 8 Learning Log (Horse Mgt)

teacher-scored 25 points possible 60 minutes

As you read all information for this unit, keep a double-entry learning log (topics: at least cover

the normal life cycle of the horse;
care of broodmare, foal & stallion;
basic genetics terms - dominant, recessive, partially dominant, homozygous, heterozygous, gene, chromosome, allele, mutation;
genetics of coat color inheritance and heritable diseases;
advantages and disadvantages of breeding your own horse vs. buying a young horse)
Include in your log the title and author of the books you use, and the url of websites you use (you don't need to give the url of this course when you are using the course material that is part of the course). Remember each learning log should include notes from at least three different sources.

Draw a vertical line from the top of your paper to the bottom, just left of the middle of the page. In the lefthand column, make brief notes of important facts and ideas from your reading. In the righthand column, note your responses, for instance: what personal experiences does this remind you of? what questions do you have? how could you apply this in real life? why do you agree or disagree? what connections do you see to other topics?

The learning log for each unit should include notes on all the main topics in the unit, and should cover your reading from at least three sources: the on-line course material, and at least two other sources.

This may be hand-written or typed.

It is due at the end of the unit, when you take the quiz. Keep the original for your own notebook, and send me a copy.

Your log must be at least three pages in length and show personal response and thought as well as summaries of material

08.01 Unit 8 presentation (Fitness for Life)

Watch the unit 8 presentation (PowerPoint attached, above, or online video version links, below) If you have the optional textbook, also read chapter 17.

When the link opens, click the middle of the viewing area and then the play icon to view the video. It is in two parts so that it will download faster.

08.01 Unit 8 Presentation and reading (Fitness for Life)

Read chapter 17 in your textbook, and watch the unit 8 presentation.

Go to the External URL of this section to view the powerpoint.

This unit provides information about the effects of stress and ways to cope with it when it does occur.

08.01 Unit 8: Special Senses overview (MAP)

View the unit 8 overview slides movie, and study the lecture notes and all attachments.

08.01 Using Software to Create Business Documents

In business we are often required to use different programs (software) to create business documents. Which program we use may depend on our audience, our intent with the message, and other factors, such as our knowledge of computer functions. In this unit, you will be required to create two different documents using publishing software and/or a word processor.

Keyboarding

Voice recognition software is improving, and eventually most people may just 'speak' their 'writing' into a microphone, and the computer will put the words up on the screen. For now, though, most people still need to use keyboards to create their documents. Therefore, 'typing' (keyboarding) skills are valuable in most jobs (not to mention personal lives). Even if you only use e-mail, or social networking sites, being able to keyboard quickly and accurately can save you a lot of time. It takes practice, but you will be glad of the skill.

Software

Software companies are constantly improving and modifying the programs we use to communicate. Types of software often used in business communication include word processors (such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, Pages, or OpenOffice Writer) for most basic writing; presentation programs (like PowerPoint, Impress, or Keynote); spreadsheets (Numbers, Calc, or Excel) for handling and displaying numbers, budgets, and income; and publishing programs (Adobe InDesign, Pagemaker, Quark XPress, or MS Publisher) for more complex projects like newsletters, books, or brochures. Databases organize information like customer mailing lists.

Each brand has its own quirks, but certain features are common to most word processors or publishing programs. There will be formatting options, so you can change the font, use bold or italic, and center or left-justify your text. Other features help you edit; these include spell checkers, grammar checkers, and a thesaurus. The editing tools are very useful, but they are not 'magic bullets' that will catch and correct all errors. Remember, the computer can't read your mind. The spell checker can only look to see whether your words all match the correct spelling of SOME real word; it can't tell whether that was the word you meant. For example, if you mean to say "The meeting has definitely been postponed" but you write "The meeting has defiantly been postponed," the spell checker won't notice a problem. Defiantly and definitely are both real words, and spelled correctly, but they have much different meanings!

Here is how most spell-checkers work:
As you type, the computer may check each word against its built-in 'dictionary' of real words. If you type something that isn't in the computer's list of real words, it underlines that word. That immediately alerts you to the fact that you may have spelled something wrong, and if you know what's wrong, you may fix it immediately.

Alternatively, you may wait till you are finished typing and revising your whole document, then use the Tools menu to run the spelling checker. It will go through your document, and each time it finds a word that doesn't match up to anything on the computer's list of real words, it will stop and ask you what to do. Often, the computer will offer you some choices of words that are spelled sort of like what you typed. If you see the correct spelling of the word you meant, you can just choose it from the list, and the error is fixed. Two cautions are in order here. First, make sure the word you choose is really the word you mean; second, realize that your computer's built-in 'dictionary' doesn't include every possible word, and it doesn't include most proper nouns, like the names of people or places.

Grammar checkers:
As with the spelling checker, you can ask the grammar checker to go through your whole document after you have done some revision on your own. The grammar checker will look for things like punctuation errors, passive voice, or certain cases of words being used as the wrong part of speech in a sentence. It may tell you, in a pop-up window, what it thinks is wrong, or give a suggestion about how to fix it. Always look carefully at your sentence and at the suggested 'fix'. The grammar checker is not ALWAYS right, though it is certainly helpful.

Thesaurus:
If you highlight a word, you can use the Thesaurus tool to suggest other words that may be synonyms. The thesaurus does NOT read either your sentence or your mind; there is no guarantee that the words the thesaurus suggests are better than the one you had to start with. Many 'synonyms' have quite different connotations, or shades of meaning, so DON'T just randomly replace your original words with suggestions from the thesaurus. It is mainly useful if you think a word you used is not quite right, and you're trying to think of the word you really meant.

Most word processors also have a dictionary tool, and if you're not sure about the meaning of a word, use the dictionary to check it.

08.01 Working with photo editing software (Basic Photography)

Students will understand the use of image editing software programs.

If you have access to Photoshop or other photo editing software, there are lots of things you can do to improve or just change images.

It is not a requirement of this class to purchase Photoshop. Photoshop is an expensive professional powerful image editing software which cost $699 it is not required for this class. Watch the videos below to see some of the possibilities. It is fun to explore the creative tools in Photoshop, but the possibilities raise some ethical concerns.

This is a introduction to Photography class. We are working on "in camera" controls, proper exposure, focus and good composition. Straight photography, is what we are looking for in this class. Do not use Photoshop or other image editing software programs on any assignments for this class except to make minor color corrections, or to reduce the size of your files. Explore Photoshop on your own but do not try to “fix” major mistakes with Photoshop. There is an old saying," you can't make a silk purse out of a sow's (pig's) ear" It is better for this class to just redo the assignment. Do not use Photoshop tricks for this class. Please submit color images for this class.

Lots of students will explore and discover the wonderful things that you can do with Photoshop, and then overdo it. Typically if your image shows that you have used Photoshop then you've overdone it. Most of the time you want to have your corrections be very subtle, so the viewer cannot tell that you have used Photoshop. It is fun to experiment, but in this class were looking for very straight photography, normal colors, not overworked images.

There are lots of different types of image editing software available for your computer. Some are free and don't really do very much and some are not. Picasa is free, Photoshop and Photoshop light are not free. Gimp is on-line and is also free. You need to be able to edit, resize (make smaller), and do some minor color correction and tonal adjustment.

Take time to familiarize yourself with the software that you are going to use.

There is also an ethical consideration when using image editing software. Some artist photographers are under the belief that you can take somebody else's image and alter 20% and put your twist on it and now the image is yours. This is far from the truth. If you did not create the image then you are stealing somebody else's ideas and/or intellectual property rights. Which is not only unethical it can get you in a lot of Legal trouble.

Most image editing software have used Photoshop as a starting point for the various commands. They will not be the same, however they might be very similar. It would be best if you watched the "How to reduce an image in Photoshop" first.

08.01.00 - Writing Equations (Math I)

The next class of function we will consider are the exponential functions. You probably already suspect that these functions are related to geometric sequences. We will start our study of these functions by considering problems that need to be solved with exponential functions.

You can download the attached file, or you can read the same content below.

08.01.00 Chapter 8 (C++)

After studying the sections of the tutorial listed below, do the chapter #8 reviews below.

C++ Language Tutorial : Input / Output with Files ( excluding Binary Files)
C++ Language Tutorial : Arrays

08.01.00 Defining Trigonometric Functions (PreCalc)

Tristan and Oliver ride BMX bikes in the gorge by their neighborhood. The course is an elaborate one that BMXers have been building and improving for years. To "earn" the right to ride, each person needs to spend time repairing the ridges and building new terrain. Tristan and Oliver have been riding for a while, and are bored with repairing ridges. They want to design their own section of the terrain.

Tristan figures to start, they should build a 4', two hill jump. They want about 10' between ridges, so there is room to land. Therefore, they need at least 10'. Of course, they need more space than that, since each hill has a base. How much total space do they need?

Oliver realizes that he can solve this problem with trigonometry. While the shape of the jump is curved, it is more or less shaped like a triangle. Problems involving triangles can be solved with trigonometry.

Oliver starts by measuring the heights and bases of the jumps already in the course. He quickly runs into the problem that the base of the hills often overlap each other, making it difficult to measure the bases. Instead, he mentally draws a line from the base at the front of the jump to the ridge, and estimates the angle formed. Tristan writes down his measurements.

After measuring several of the better hills, Tristan and Oliver realize that no matter what the height of the ridge, the angle between base and ridge should be about 45°. With this information Oliver can figure out what the total area for the jump should be.


You can download the attached file or read the same content below.



08.01.00 Lesson One: Statistical Graphs and Tables (Sec Dev Math)

Data helps us make many kinds of decisions. Organizing data into graphs and tables can help us get a clear picture of a situation and can often help us make decisions based on the picture.


NROC Image



In this lesson you will learn to use pictographs, bar graphs, histograms, and pie charts to organize data. You will also use tables and stem and leaf displays. From these tools you will be able to interpret the data gathered.

IF you feel confident you have mastered these skills, skip to Quiz 21. Otherwise, work through the three topics that follow.



08.01.00 Writing Equations (Math I)

Common Core Standards: F-IF.8.b, F-LE.1.c; Standards for Math Practice: 1-8

The next class of function we will consider are the exponential functions. You probably already suspect that these functions are related to geometric sequences. We will start our study of these functions by considering problems that need to be solved with exponential functions.

Please read the attached file.



08.01.01

08.01.01 Journal entry: topic exploration (English 12)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 60 minutes

Below you'll find a variety of broadly defined career paths with a sampling of controversial topics relevant to each path. Note that in order to be controversial, an issue must have at least two opposing viewpoints. Consequently, a topic like "child abuse" isn't controversial, since no one in their right mind would be in favor of it. However, there are issues related to child abuse that are very controversial. For example, if you start talking about the best way to treat child abuse offenders or what constitutes child abuse, then chances are you're getting into controversial territory.

That established, select an issue of interest to you from your chosen career path. (If you're aware of or interested in a controversial topic that is not noted here, please feel free to e-mail me your ideas for inclusion.)

Once you've selected an issue of interest, informally establish what you already know about it, prior to formally researching it. You may want to speculate a bit about why you think the issue is so controversial.

Controversial Issues Related to Career Paths

Arts & Communications


  • Censorship (need to focus on specific issue such as "Harry Potter")
  • Government Funding for the Arts
  • Arts in the Public School Curriculum
  • Flag Burning
  • Violence/Sex on Television and in Movies
  • Violent Video Games
  • File Sharing
  • V-Chip
  • Clear Channel
  • Movie Rating System

Business

  • Privacy in the Workplace
  • Affirmative Action
  • Minimum Wage
  • Flat Tax
  • Outsourcing
  • Child Labor
  • Trade Agreements
  • National Debt
  • Third-World Debt Forgiveness
  • Wal-Mart
  • Privatization of Social Security
  • Drug Testing
  • Lottery/Gambling
  • Health Care Reform
  • Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Farm Subsidies

Government and Human Services

  • Vouchers
  • Charter Schools
  • Sex Education
  • Corporal Punishment
  • High-Stakes Tests
  • School Uniforms
  • Prayer in Public Schools
  • Creationism/Intelligent Design vs. Evolution
  • Death Penalty
  • Drug Legalization
  • Prisoner Rights
  • Gun Control
  • Racial Profiling
  • English as Official Language
  • Electoral College
  • Privatization of Social Security
  • Term Limits
  • Campaign-Finance Reform
  • Affirmative Action
  • Minimum Wage
  • Lottery/Gambling
  • Immigration Policy
  • FDA Reform
  • Homeland Security
  • Patriot Act

Health Services

  • Animal Research
  • Physician-Assisted Suicide
  • Xenotransplantation
  • Monetary Compensation for Organ Dontation
  • Cloning
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Abortion
  • Surrogate Motherhood
  • DNA Screening
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Fluoridation
  • Health Care Reform

Military

  • Landmine Production (Ottawa Convention)
  • Pre-emptive War
  • Military Tribunals
  • Torture in Interrogation
  • Stop Loss Policy
  • National Missile Defence System
  • Gays in the Military
  • Iraqi Withdrawal
  • Prisoner Abuse
  • Base Closings
  • Recruitment Tactics
  • Veteran Benefits

Natural Resources/Agriculture

  • Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH)
  • Cattle Laws
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Potentially Detrimental Effects of Herbicides, Fungicides and Insecticides
  • Organic Farming
  • Farm Subsidies
  • Dams
  • Draining Lake Powell
  • Global Warming
  • Zoos/Aquaria
  • Species Preservation
  • Open Space
  • Deforestation
  • Legacy Highway
  • Nuclear Power
  • Nuclear Waste Storage
  • Drilling for Oil in Alaska
  • Kyoto Treaty
  • Hybrids
  • Forest Service Fire Policy

Science & Technology

  • Life on Mars
  • Manned Spacecraft
  • NASA Funding
  • UFOs and SETI
  • Intellectual Property and Piracy
  • Internet Regulation/Taxation
  • Internet Censorship
  • Spam Regulation
  • Microsoft Monopoly
  • Data Encryption
  • UTOPIA
  • Digital Divide

Evaluation:

Journal entries are an opportunity to explore ideas and develop fluency with language in an informal context. You will be assessed a point value from 1 to 10 points, based on the effort and thoughtfulness demonstrated in your response.

08.01.01 - DNA Testing (Math I)

Forensic science is an evolving and changing field that captures the imagination of mystery writers and fans alike. Basil of Bakerstreet compares the markings on bullets. Pudd'nhead Wilson compares fingerprints. Gil Grissom looks at the developmental stages of maggots. All these forensic techniques are actually used by forensic scientists to solve crimes.

One of the greatest advances in crime solving, both in identifying the perpetrator and in exonerating the wrongfully accused, is the ability to compare DNA samples.

However, while DNA testing has been a viable method of determining whodunnit for more then 20 years, until recently it was not regularly used in criminal cases. Why not?

Much of the DNA left behind at a crime scene is going to be in the form of a few skin cells under the victim's nails or on the victim, a couple strands of hair, or minute amounts of blood. If the forensic team was truly lucky, there would be semen. But most of the time the DNA had the following problems: there was not enough of it, and/or what there was was degraded.

So, let's back up a bit. You need to know something about DNA testing.

First, assuming you have some cells, you can extract the DNA. The DNA extraction can actually be accomplished using stuff you can find in your kitchen. It is a simple lab done in life science and biology classes everywhere.

Next, to look at the DNA, you need to perform electrophoresis. This is a technique where the DNA strands gets straightened out by applying a current through a gel. You can't do this with kitchen items, but your biology teacher can build an electrophoresis kit fairly inexpensively. You may have done electrophoresis in your biology class. Once the strands are nice and straight, by using a bio-stain, you can look at “markers” on the DNA, and compare samples. If enough markers align, you have a match.

The problem is, you need a huge number of good DNA strands in order to make the comparison. In a bit of blood, a few flakes of skin, or a bit of hair, you only have hundreds of DNA strands. You need closer to millions. Because of this, for a long time, even if DNA evidence was available, it was unusable.
Currently, scientists use bacteria to replicate DNA. However, recent advances in technology have made it possible for biologists to replicate parts of a strand of DNA only using enzymes and chains of bases. The grand scheme is amazingly simple. The details are much more complicated, so you will probably not be able to perform DNA replication in high school biology; you may have the opportunity to do this in a college level biology lab.

Anyway, here is the basic scheme. By heating the DNA to a high enough temperature, it will 'melt,' ie., it unzips. The DNA is unzipped in a solution of different enzymes and chains of bases. At the correct temperature, the enzymes will bind with the DNA and the base strands in such a way that they replicate the unzipped DNA. This takes a few minutes if you are replicating a single gene. The process would require a lot more time and work on the part of the scientist to replicate a full DNA strand.

Once enough time has passed, the scientist reheats the DNA to unzip it again, brings it back down to the working temperature (there are usually a couple different temperatures, this discussion is ignoring all the details of the process) and the enzymes replicate those strands. Then you repeat the process until you have enough. Finally you drop the temperature of the whole system to “freeze” the DNA, ie., force it back into a double-stranded configuration.

Now, for our problem, we are only looking at the big picture. If we actually were to plot full double-stranded DNA strands as a function of time, at any given moment in time you would probably have none or few. It would make more sense to plot the number of potential double-stranded DNA as a function of time, and that is a continuous variable. Time is also a continuous variable. Therefore, you can argue that this is more like a sequence than a continuous function, but for our discussion, we are going to treat it like a continuous function.

All right, this is the plan!

Let's look at this problem in a couple different ways. Earlier in the quarter when we needed to solve a problem, we actually had a strong enough math background to just write down the equation that we would use to solve the problem. Those problems were linear, and we could figure these out fairly easily. This problem is not linear, so I am not ready to just write an equation. I want to explore this problem a bit more. Therefore, let's approach the problem from other ways we have to represent a function, and see if that gets us to an equation.

08.01.01 - Perpendicular Bisector (Geometry)

In this class, we have constructed the perpendicular bisector for segments and for the sides of triangles. If you read the proofs in the online reading about the construction of a perpendicular bisector, you may realize that the following theorem must be true.

The points on the perpendicular bisector of a line segment are equidistant from the endpoints.

This proof is assigned in the homework, so I will not be working through it. However, we will be using this theorem. The converse of this theorem is also true. We will prove this. The converse is:

If a point is equidistant from the endpoints of a segment, this point lies on the perpendicular bisector of the segment.

Consider point P which is equidistant from points I and J. We can construct the midpoint of and construct the segment connecting this point and point P. This segment bisects . All we need to do is prove that it is perpendicular to .

Given point P, such that P is equidistant from the endpoints of . Prove P lies on the perpendicular bisector of .






Statements Reasons
  1. P is equidistant from the endpoints of .
  2. Construct segments , and .
  3. Construct the midpoint of , label this point W.
  4. bisects .
  5. PI = PJ
  6. .
  7. .
  8. .
  9. ΔIPW ≅ ΔJPW.
  10. ∠IWP ≅ ∠JWP.
  11. ∠IWP and ∠JWP are right angles.
  12. .
  1. Given
  2. Construct the line segment connecting 2 points.
  3. Construct the perpendicular bisector of .
  4. Definition of a bisector.
  5. Definition of equidistant.
  6. If the measures of 2 segments are equal, the segments are congruent.
  7. Definition of a midpoint.
  8. An object is equal to itself.
  9. SSS
  10. Corresponding angles of congruent triangles are congruent.
  11. Definition of right angles.
  12. Definition of perpendicular.

QED




08.01.01 - Vector Algebra -- Graphically (Physics)

You probably think algebra is that class where you used letters instead of numbers. Nope. Algebra is a list of rules for what you can do mathematically with the system you are working with. So, the class you took would be better named "scalar algebra." Vector algebra is just a list of rules for what you can do mathematically with vectors.

There are two ways of doing algebra with vectors. The first way is graphically, which is where we will begin. So to start, consider an arbitrary vector.
Because vectors have both a magnitude and a direction, they can be represented by an arrow, where the length of the arrow represents the magnitude, and the direction the arrow points represents the direction.

Consider the three vectors A, B, and C.




The length and the direction of the vector are the only two things that matter. Its position in space does not matter. We can move these around, and we will.



08.01.01 Chapter 8 Review 1 - File Streams (C++)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

Do this review and submit it under Topic 3.

1. Write the correct C++ statement that would include the file library.

2. Write the correct C++ statement that would declare and open a C++ input file called fileIn with the external name of dataIn.dat.

3. Write the correct C++ statement that would close a C++ file called fileOut.

4. Write the correct C++ statement that would declare and open a C++ output file called fileOut with the external info.dat for appending.

5. Write what the following C++ stream commands for a file called myData would do.

a) myData.fail( )
b) myData.eof( )

08.01.01 Check Your Typing Speed

teacher-scored 5 points possible 10 minutes

How well do you type?
Typing Speed: Click on the link below. Find the box that reads “Start Typing Test.” Take a typing test and then record the number of words per minute and your accuracy. Do your best on your typing.

08.01.01 DNA Testing (Math I)




Forensic science is an evolving and changing field that captures the imagination of mystery writers and fans alike. Basil of Bakerstreet compares the markings on bullets. Pudd'nhead Wilson compares fingerprints. Gil Grissom looks at the developmental stages of maggots. All these forensic techniques are actually used by forensic scientists to solve crimes.

One of the greatest advances in crime solving, both in identifying the perpetrator and in exonerating the wrongfully accused, is the ability to compare DNA samples.

However, while DNA testing has been a viable method of determining whodunnit for more then 20 years, until recently it was not regularly used in criminal cases. Why not?

Much of the DNA left behind at a crime scene is going to be in the form of a few skin cells under the victim's nails or on the victim, a couple strands of hair, or minute amounts of blood. If the forensic team was truly lucky, there would be semen. But most of the time the DNA had the following problems: there was not enough of it, and/or what there was was degraded.

So, let's back up a bit. You need to know something about DNA testing.

First, assuming you have some cells, you can extract the DNA. The DNA extraction can actually be accomplished using stuff you can find in your kitchen. It is a simple lab done in life science and biology classes everywhere.

Next, to look at the DNA, you need to perform electrophoresis. This is a technique where the DNA strands gets straightened out by applying a current through a gel. You can't do this with kitchen items, but your biology teacher can build an electrophoresis kit fairly inexpensively. You may have done electrophoresis in your biology class. Once the strands are nice and straight, by using a bio-stain, you can look at “markers” on the DNA, and compare samples. If enough markers align, you have a match.

The problem is, you need a huge number of good DNA strands in order to make the comparison. In a bit of blood, a few flakes of skin, or a bit of hair, you only have hundreds of DNA strands. You need closer to millions. Because of this, for a long time, even if DNA evidence was available, it was unusable.

Currently, scientists use bacteria to replicate DNA. However, recent advances in technology have made it possible for biologists to replicate parts of a strand of DNA only using enzymes and chains of bases. The grand scheme is amazingly simple. The details are much more complicated, so you will probably not be able to perform DNA replication in high school biology; you may have the opportunity to do this in a college level biology lab.

Anyway, here is the basic scheme. By heating the DNA to a high enough temperature, it will 'melt' ie. it unzips. The DNA is unzipped in a solution of different enzymes and chains of bases. At the correct temperature, the enzymes will bind with the DNA and the base strands in such a way that they replicate the unzipped DNA. This takes a few minutes if you are replicating a single gene. The process would require a lot more time and work on the part of the scientist to replicate a full DNA strand.

Once enough time has passed, the scientist reheats the DNA to unzip it again, brings it back down to the working temperature (there are usually a couple different temperatures, this discussion is ignoring all the details of the process) and the enzymes replicate those strands. Then you repeat the process until you have enough. Finally you drop the temperature of the whole system to 'freeze' the DNA, ie. force it back into a double-stranded configuration.

Now, for our problem, we are only looking at the big picture. If we actually were to plot full double-stranded DNA strands as a function of time, at any given moment in time you would probably have none or few. It would make more sense to plot the number of potential double-stranded DNA as a function of time, and that is a continuous variable. Time is also a continuous variable. Therefore, you can argue that this is more like a sequence than a continuous function, but for our discussion, we are going to treat it like a continuous function.

All right, this is the plan!

Let's look at this problem in a couple different ways. Earlier in the quarter when we needed to solve a problem, we actually had a strong enough math background to just write down the equation that we would use to solve the problem. Those problems were linear, and we could figure these out fairly easily. This problem is not linear, so I am not ready to just write an equation. I want to explore this problem a bit more. Therefore, let's approach the problem from other ways we have to represent a function, and see if that gets us to an equation.



08.01.01 Electrical Work Assignment(PrinTech2)

teacher-scored 0 points possible

There are two options to submit this assignment:

Option 1: Read the instructions and submit your work to me through the postal service using the following address:

Attn: Keven Kendall
Logan Academy
760 No. 200 We.
Logan, Ut 84321

Option 2: Read the information below and submit it by email at kkendall21@yahoo.com

Assignment 2.3: Electrical Work

Name: ______________________________

1. The displacement like quantity in the electrical work is the charge that moved.
The force like quantity is ___________?
a. The voltage difference
b. The product of the current and time.
c. Measured in joules.
d. Measured in Newton’s

2. Write down the equation for Electrical Work. _______________________

3. What is a Coulomb of electrical charge made up of _______?
a. One ampere.
b. 60 amperes per sec.
c. One ampere-hour.
d. 6.25 x 10 18 electrons

4. If a 1.5-volt battery delivers 6 coulombs of charge. How much work has it
done________?
e. 4 ampere hours
f. 9 joules
g. 4 joules
h. 9 Newton/meters

5. A motor does 800 N*m of work while it uses 1000 joules of electrical
energy. What is the efficiency of this motor_______?
a. 100%
b. 125%
c. 80%
d. None of the above.

6. What is the definition of current________?

a. 8 coulombs
b. 5.5 coulombs
c. 55 coulombs
d. 200 coulombs

7. An electrical motor that runs on 220 Volts draws a current of 40 amperes for
five sec.

How many coulombs of charge are moved_______?

8. Two coulombs of charge is moved by 6-volt battery.
a. Find the electrical work done

9. A motor does 1500 joules of work while moving 50 coulombs of charge.
a. Find the voltage supplied to the motor?

b. Find the number of electrons moved by the battery.

10. 400 joules of work is done by a 6-volt motor.
Find the charge that was moved to do this work?

08.01.01 Exercise 51 Successful Relationships (TL1)

teacher-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

UNIT EIGHT consists of 51 - 57. Paste all exercises for this whole unit into #57.

Exercise 51

A. Finish this tip and write what you think about it: One mark of a successful relationship is __________________________________.

B. Write one full paragraph about each of two successful relationships that you have witnessed.

08.01.01 Eyes matching worksheet (MAP)

teacher-scored 33 points possible 30 minutes

Match the following about EYES
Group A
Viterous Body
Accomodation
Aqueous humor
Cornea
Rods
Retina
Choroid
Cones
1. The vascular, pigmented middle tunic of the eyeball___________________
2.The jellylike material located behind the crystalline lense that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball__________________
3.The innermost coat of the eyeball, the nervous tissue layer that includes the receptors for the sense of vision__________________
4.The vision receptors that are sensitive to color_________________
5.The watery fluid that fills much of the eyeball in front of the crystalline lense____________________
6.The part of the eye that light rays pass through first as they enter the eye______________________
7.The process by which the lens becomes thicker to bend light rays for near vision____________________
8.The vision receptors that function in dim light ________________________

Group B
Conjunctiva
Receptor
Optic disk
Pupil
Sclera
Iris
Ciliary Body
Media
1.The colored part of the eye that regulates the size of the pupil____________________
2.The tranparent refracting parts of the eye________________
3.The muscle that alters the shape of the lense for accommodation____________________
4.The opaque outermost layer of the eyeball made of firm, tough connective tissue_____________________
5.Another name for the blind spot, the region where the optic nerve connects with the eye____________________
6.The central opening in the iris_________________
7.The membrane that lines the eyelids__________________
8.A part of the nervous system that detects a stimulus__________________

Group C
rhodopsin
refraction
extrinsic
lacrimal gland
cataract
intrinsic
ophthalmia neonatorum
trachoma
fovea centralis
1.An opacity of the lens or its capsule________________
2.A serious eye infection of the newborn that can be prevented with a suitable antiseptic____________________
3.Term that describes the muscles of the iris and ciliary body because they are located entirely within the eyeball__________________
4.A structure that produces tears__________________
5.The bending of light rays so that light from a large area can be focused on a small surface________________
6.A chronic eye infection for which antibiotics and proper hygiene have reduced the incidence of reinfection and blindness______________________
7.Term for the muscles located outside the eyeball that are attached to bones of the orbit and to the sclera_______________________
8.The depressed area in the retina that is the point of clearest vision_____________________
9.A pigment needed for vision______________________

Group D
strabismus
hyperopia
sphincter
glaucoma
macular degeneration
astigmatism
myopia
crystalline lens
1.Eye disorder in which materials accumulate on the retina and gradually cause loss of vision_________________
2.The scientific name for nearsightedness, in which the focal point is in front of the retina and distant objects appear blurred________________
3.The part of the eye that is removed in treatment of a cataract_____________________
4.The visual defect caused by irregularity in the curvature of the lens or cornea______________________
5.Condition in which the eyes do not work together because the muscles do not coordinate_________________
6.Condition caused by continued high pressure of the aqueous humor, which may result in destruction of the optic nerve fibers__________________
7.The scientific name for farsightedness, in which light rays are not bent sharply enough to focus on the retina when viewing close objects______________________
8.A circular muscle, such as the muscle of the iris___________________

08.01.01 Legislative timeline (NavajoGovt)

teacher-scored 50 points possible 60 minutes

Assignment 22
1. Create a timeline that shows significant events that happened in the evolution of the legislative branch from its inception in 1922 to 1989.

2. List events that occurred that created the need for the Title II Amendment in 1989.

3. Assume you are one of the delegates dealing with the Indian Reorganization Act prior to the first election held in 1938. Describe the reasons you are opposed to this act and what impact it would have on the Navajo People.

4. Many people refer to the 1950s as the time when the Navajo Nation was born. Defend this statement.

5. In 1962 the tribe's resolutions were codified as the Tribal Code, but no constitution was ratified. In what ways is the Tribal Code inferior to a constitution and in what ways is it superior?

08.01.01 Lesson 8A: Rules for Word Stress and Accents (Spanish I)

computer-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

           **Assignment 08.01.01: Rules for Word Stress and Accents**: Just click on the button below!

08.01.01 Literary Device Activity (English 11)

teacher-scored 15 points possible 30 minutes

Find or write an example that has to do with sound (noise, music, sounds of people, nature, machinery, etc) of each of the literary devices listed below. You can make it up or find it in another media source.

Make sure to review the PowerPoint in the lesson for definitions and examples for help. Obviously, you should not use the examples from there for this assignment.

Copy and paste the material between the asterisk lines into a word-processing document. Complete the requirements for the assignment, then copy and paste it back into the submission box. 

***********************************************************************************

Open Clip Art Library, public domain via Wikimedia CommonsOpen Clip Art Library, public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Example: Here is a phrase that uses the literary device "assonance" (repetition of vowel sounds) and has to do with a sound (the sound of the train whistle):
The wailing of the freight train siren in the night (Notice the repetition of the long "a" sound in wail, freight, and train; and the long "i" sound in siren and night.)

1. Allusion
2. Apostrophe
3. Euphemism
4. Onomatopoeia
5. Symbol (include the symbol and a brief explanation of what it symbolizes)
6. Personification
7. Colloquialism
8. Hyperbole
9. Repetition
10. Alliteration (highlight or underline the words that create alliteration)
11. Oxymoron
12. Paradox
13. Irony
14. Simile
15. Metaphor

************************************************************************************

Scoring Rubric

7.5 Points= one correct example for each literary device has been included

7.5 points = each example has something to do with sound

Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


08.01.01 Measuring Angles in Degrees and Radians (PreCalc)

Previously in this course we have considered many different functions of a variety of variables: distance as a function of time, area as a function of length, BMX jump height as a function of bike weight. Normally we have 2 variables: a dependent variable, y (distance, area, jump height), and an independent variable, x (time, length, bike weight). Each function was then written as an equation with y as a function of x (or ƒ(x) as a function of x).

The trigonometric functions are a bit different than this. The trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, instead of functions of an arbitrary variable. (Obviously you can take trigonometric functions of any variable, and you will do this in calculus. However, unless the variable is an angle, the answer is meaningless. For this reason, applications transform the variable so that they take the trigonometric function of an angle.)

So, before we define the trigonometric functions, we should review the units we use to measure angles.

You probably know that angles measure out a circle. I suspect you are already familiar with measuring angles in degrees. In standard form, angles are measured from the x-axis, therefore the x-axis is measured 0°. Angles are positive if measured clockwise from the x-axis, and negative if measured counter clockwise from the x-axis.

The first image shows the circle divided into 12 equal parts, and the measure of each angle in degrees (measured clockwise from the x-axis). The second image shows the circle divided into 8 equal parts, and the measure of each angle in degrees (also measured clockwise from the x-axis). There are 360° in a complete circle.




Angles can also be measured in radians. Consider the arc length of subtended by any angle. This arc length is going to increase as the angle increases. It is also going to increase as the radius of the circle increases. The arc length is equal to the radius when the angle is 1 radian. As the circumference of a circle is 2 ∏ r, there are 2 ∏ radians in a full circle. If an angle does not have units, you should assume that angle is in radians.




The first image shows the circle divided into 12 equal parts, and the measure of each angle in radians (measured clockwise from the x-axis). The second image shows the circle divided into 8 equal parts, and the measure of each angle in radians (also measured clockwise from the x-axis).

To convert from radians to degrees or from degrees to radians you use the equality

180° = ∏



So, for an arbitrary angle the conversion is






So, here is an example. Convert 32° to radians.

To convert from degrees to radians we multiply by ∏ and divide by 180°. This gives us



Now convert 27 to degrees.

To convert from radians to degrees we multiply by 180° and divide by ∏.



Easy enough?



08.01.01 Persuasive essay: the arts in education (English 9)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

Follow the directions in section 3 to write a persuasive essay about the relative importance of the arts in education. (First read at least two of the articles at the "Arts in Education" links listed in lesson 8.1)

08.01.01 Physical Characteristics of Metals Table(Chemistry3)

teacher-scored 30 points possible 90 minutes

SUMMARY:
If the light bulb illuminates brightly, the object is likely metal. If the bulb illuminates dimly, the object is likely a semi-metal. If the bulb does not illuminate at all, the object is a non-metal.

MAIN CURRICULUM TIE:
Science - Chemistry
Standard 1 Students will understand that all matter in the universe has a common origin and is made of atoms, which have structure and can be systematically arranged on the periodic table.
Objective 3 Correlate atomic structure and the physical and chemical properties of an element to the position of the element on the periodic table.

MATERIALS:

Christmas lights Aluminum foil 9V battery rubbing alcohol

Popsicle/ craft stick or plastic knife

Wire strippers or scissors Tape sugar water
Cups Water Cooking oil salt water


You will test 7 other items. Below you will find examples of other items you may want to test. You are not limited to the items listed below.


  • Iron fillings
  • Graphite (replacement lead for mechanical pencils works well)
  • Paper clips
  • BB's
  • Nails
  • Fishing weights
  • Charcoal
  • Hangers
  • Pie tin
  • Spine of spiral notebook
  • Spring of writing pen
  • Eating utensil that can be spared
  • Soup can or soup can lid
  • Bobby pins or hair clips
  • Old zipper
  • Steel wool


  • INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES:
    ***************************************************************

    REVISION DATE: 8/10/12 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

    PART I: Research and define the following words and use them in your own original sentence.

    1. brittle

    2. ductile

    3. electrolyte

    4. insulator

    5. malleable

    6. luster

    PART II: Research and answer the following questions.

    1. How does luster relate to conductivity?

    2. How does malleability relate to conductivity?

    3. Write a paragraph about the general physical properties of metals and why metals exhibit these properties. Be sure to include pertinent information about bond type.

    PART III: To build the conductivity tester follow the directions found at URL #1. Test the following solutions: normal water, salt water (you decide and document the ratio of salt and water used), sugar water (you decide and document the ratio of sugar and water used), cooking oil, and rubbing alcohol.

    1. Describe how brightly the light bulb illuminated with each solution.

    2. Write a paragraph describing what electrolytes are and how they conduct electricity.

    3. Identify which of the five solutions you tested were electrolytes.

    PART IV: Use the conductivity circuit and test 7 items to identify if they are metal, semi-metal, or non-metal. Complete Physical_Characteristics_of_Metals_Table.doc. This document can be downloaded. It is found at the top of the assignment.

    ***************************************************************

    08.01.01 Playing Doctor(ChildDev2)

    teacher-scored 40 points possible 60 minutes

    Assignment 8.1 - Playing Doctor

    Click on the words "Child Illness" in the format you want to use. For this assignment you will need complete the table presented while observing children.

    08.01.01 Stress Questionnaire (Fitness for Life)

    teacher-scored 50 points possible 45 minutes

    This assignment asks you to complete a questionnaire and learn about your level of stress. Download either version of the attachment, fill out the tables and answer the questions.

    08.01.01 The Points of Housing(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    THE POINTS OF HOUSING 1. Score one point for each person living in your home. 2. Score one point for each pet living at your residence. 3. Score a point if you walk to school. 4. Score one point if your grandparents live in the house you do. 5. Score one point for each type of housing you can list. 6. Score 5 points if you have attended a city council meeting where zoning was discussed. 7. Score 5 points if you have read an article dealing with improving the safety in your home. 8. Score 10 points if you have a fire extinguisher. 9. Score 5 points for each person in your house that must commute more than 5 miles to work. 10. Score 10 points if you know your address TOTAL POINTS _____ Exercise 86: Write down your total points.

    08.01.01 Topic One: Graphing Data (Sec Dev Math)

    Sometimes we represent data as pictures – like the pictograph above. Bar graphs are an alternative way to represent data sets, especially those with large amounts of data or which do not lend themselves well to individual symbols.


    Source: National Geographic, accessed July 2011



    Continuous quantitative data can be graphed using a histogram. A histogram resembles a bar graph, but instead of having categories along the axis, it has numbers listed in order and usually grouped in intervals (such as 0-10, 11-20, and so on).

    If after completing this topic you can state without hesitation that...

    • I can read and interpret data from tables and pictographs.
    • I can read and interpret data from bar graphs and histograms.

    …you are ready for the next topic! Otherwise, go back and review the material before moving on.

    Click on the link below to get started:



    08.01.01 Unit 8 Oral Exam

    teacher-scored 100 points possible 30 minutes

    UNIT EIGHT TEST: This recording is required and is worth 50% of the unit. The second part is a written test worth 50% of the unit score. Both parts have to be submitted for a unit grade.

    Look at the words in yellow above and practice pronouncing them. When you are ready, go to section three of the homepage of the class to do this quiz.

    08.01.01 Vocabulary (English 10)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 25 minutes

    Using the following vocabulary words with the definition given , write one paragraph using all ten words correctly. Underline each word as you use it. Make sure each sentence is complete and punctuated correctly.

    1. Talisman (n) - a charm supposed to have magical power
    2. Tangible (adj) - touchable; objective
    3. Tantalize (v) - to tempt (someone) with something he cannot have
    4. Tawdry ( adj) - cheap and gaudy
    5. Tedious (adj) - tiresome; boring
    6. Temporal (adj) - temporary; worldly
    7. Ulterior (adj) - on the far side; later; beyond what is said
    8. Ultimatum (n) - a nonnegotiable demand
    9. Unassuming (adj) - modest
    10. Uncanny (adj) - strange; weird; eerie, mysterious

    08.01.02

    teacher-scored 8 points possible 90 minutes

    For this activity you will need to turn in the following:

    1) Your original list of issues--and indicate the issue on which you have chosen to focus

    2) At least 3 sources you found with information on the issue you chose. These sources should be written out in MLA format and ready to list on a “works cited” page.

    Assessment Rubric:

    Content Shows the required inquiry and research. /4
    Conventions Citations given correctly--following MLA format. /4

    teacher-scored 16 points possible 60 minutes

    For this assignment, make sure you turn in all 4 steps

    Assessment Rubric:

    Content   Annotated bibliography shows the required research and includes at least 3 sources.   /4  
    Support   Annotations include a solid summary with information that is relevant to the topic.   /4  
    Clarity   Annotations are clear, focused and well organized.   /4  
    Conventions   Citations given correctly--following MLA format.   /4  

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.01.02 - Gene Replication – Data Tables (Math I)

    One way of representing a function is with a data table. Because we understand the process, this is really the best place to start analyzing this function.

    For the purposes of doing math, we need a few constants to describe our process. Assume that we are going to perform the process described in section 1 on a single gene, instead of a full strand. This means that the time it will take for each cycle is a few minutes, say 3 minutes per cycle. Also, we will probably not start with a single copy of the gene. We will probably have used a technique to isolate this gene from a hundred or so cells. Therefore, we will probably start with something like 75 copies of the gene.

    Next, consider the process. When we start, at t = 0, we have 75 copies of the gene. We then heat the mixture, melt the DNA, let it cool, let it sit, and after 3 minutes, we will have 150 copies of the gene.

    We heat the mixture, melt the DNA, let it cool, let it sit, and after another 3 minutes, so at t = 6 min, we have 300 copies of the gene.

    This is not a sequence, because at t = 4.5 min, we will have somewhere between 150 and 300 copies of the gene (especially if we count partial copies). In a sequence, at t = 4.5 min, we would have 150 copies of the gene, then at t = 6 min the number of copies would jump to 300. Do you see how in a process like this, things don't really occur suddenly? Now we are avoiding the complexities of the actual number of copies at t = 4.5 min, and only looking at the big picture. Good scientists can see the big picture.

    Back to the problem. We heat, we cool, we wait; at t = 9 min we have 600 copies of the DNA. Is the process clear enough that we can start filling in a data table? Great!

    We will have two columns: the first column will have the independent variable and the second column will have the dependent variable. Quick quiz – which variable is the independent one, and which is the dependent one?

    The time is always the independent variable. It moves forward at the same rate no matter what else you do. Therefore, the number of gene copies is the dependent variable.

    So, can you say anything about this so far? Well, one thing we might observe is that the numbers are getting bigger faster. The data is not behaving like the lines we are more familiar with. I am going to argue that this is different.

    So, how different? It might be beneficial to visualize the data. How can we do that?

    08.01.02 - Perpendicular Bisectors of a Triangle (Geometry)

    In a triangle, each side has a perpendicular bisector. We constructed the perpendicular bisector of the segments in the last unit in order to find the midsegments. However, we didn't quite finish the construction of the perpendicular bisector of the side of the triangle. We will do that here.

    Consider ΔTLM shown here.

    Construct the perpendicular bisector of . (You should be able to do this so I won't outline the steps. I will just present the results.)




    Now, extend the perpendicular bisector until it meets the other side of the triangle. Erase the section that lies outside of the triangle. This segment is called the perpendicular bisector of this side.




    We can construct a similar bisector for each of the other sides.




    So, the bisectors themselves are not particularly interesting. What is interesting is that all three bisectors appear to intersect at the same point.

    I say "appear" because one example of this intersection is not proof that this will be the case for all triangles. Remember, we can use inductive logic to prove that something is not always true, or to prove that it is sometimes true, but not to prove something is always true, or to prove that something is never true.

    However, we can prove that these three lines will always intersect in one point using the theorem about perpendicular bisectors.

    Consider the problem. If we construct two perpendicular bisectors, these will intersect. All we need to do is prove that this point is also on the perpendicular bisector of the other side. Since every point on the perpendicular bisector is equidistant from the endpoints, all we need to do is prove that the point of intersection for two of the bisectors are equidistant from the vertices of the third side.

    This is the game plan. Consider the following problem:

    Given ΔBNH with the perpendicular bisector of intersecting the perpendicular bisector of at point G. Prove that point G lies on the perpendicular bisector of .






    Statements Reasons
    1. Point G is the intersection of the perpendicular bisector of and .
    2. Construct segments , , and .
    3. NG = BG, BG = HG
    4. NG = HG
    5. G is equidistant from points N and H.
    6. Point G lies on the perpendicular bisector of .
    1. Given
    2. Construct the line segment connecting 2 points.
    3. All points on the perpendicular bisector are equidistant from the endpoints.
    4. If two things equal a third thing, they equal each other.
    5. Definition of equidistant.
    6. If a point is equidistant between the endpoints of a segment this point lies on the perpendicular bisector of this segment.
    • QED




    08.01.02 - Using Vectors: Addition (Physics)

    Vectors can be added together. However, as the direction of the vector is important, vectors cannot be added linearly like scalars are added. Instead, vectors are added graphically.

    To add vectors A and B, you take the tail (the end without the arrow) of vector B and place it on the head ( the end with the arrow) of vector A. The resulting vector is the vector drawn from the tail of A to the head of B, as shown.




    Mathematically this is written as:



    or




    08.01.02 Annotated bibliography (English 12)

    teacher-scored 50 points possible 240 minutes

    As a result of this assignment, the student will:


    • locate resources relevant to a specific controversial issue
    • examine and review sources to determine credibility
    • cite sources using MLA documentation
    • write annotations summarizing the theme, scope, and credibility of sources

    Having selected and informally written about your chosen issue, this assignment requires you to round out your understanding of your controversial issue by conducting and documenting some formal research about it.

    You will need to identify, access, and evaluate a minimum of five credible resources in regards to your issue. (Since some of your sources will likely come from information on the Internet, be mindful of issues of website credibility that have been covered in previous assignments.) Perhaps one of the most useful resources for your research will be Pioneer, Utah's Online Library. Here you can find articles in local, national, and international newspapers as well as scholarly articles about a host of social issues. (Given the nature of this assignment, the SIRS Knowledge Source will prove especially useful.)

    Although access to the resources on the Pioneer Library is free to Utah educators and students, you will need to have the appropriate passwords if you intend to access the materials from home. Although I can not disclose these passwords publicly due to contractual agreements, I will be happy to provide them to you upon request. They are also available from your local school librarian.

    As you seek to identify appropriate resources for your research, make a concerted effort to seek out resources that adequately represent both points of view. Effective argumentation requires an appreciable understanding of both sides of the issue. Consequently, you will need to locate objective resources or at least counterbalance any bias sources with sources that are bias in the other direction. (One good way to approach your research is to determine what organizations are known to be for or against your issue. Organizations like the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), for example, are renown for their positions on many different social issues associated with personal and civil liberties.)

    The results of your research efforts will be cast in the form of an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography, like a conventional bibliography, lists all the sources you have used in your research. In addition to the citation, however, an annotated bibliography has notes or annotations, which begin after the period ending the bibliographic citation. These annotations tell what is important or characteristic about a source. The annotation offers a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

    An annotation, by nature, is fairly brief--approximately 100-150 words. It summarizes the central theme and scope of the reference source. Annotations typically:


    • summarize the content of the source
    • analyze or critically evaluate the source
    • comment on the intended audience
    • compare or contrast this work with other cited works
    • explain how this work relates to your theme or topic
    • point out valuable properties or qualities of the source in addition to the text
    • comment on the author's intellectual/academic credentials
    • identify possible bias or shortcomings in the work

    A typical annotated citation, using MLA documentation would look something like the following example:

    Doe, J. T. and Williams, W. R. "Parental supervision of television viewing and aggressive behavior
    
        in children",  Journal of Television and Violence, 51 (1996): 534-540. The authors, researchers
    
        at Western State College, collected data from a group of 8 year olds to test their hypothesis
    
        that the amount of violence children saw on television relates to the aggressiveness of their
    
        behavior. They found that children who were allowed to watch evening police dramas and
    
        "made for TV" specials with abusive situations demonstrated increased aggressive behavior
    
        over children who were not permitted to watch these programs. The researchers did not find a
    
        connection between aggression in children and television violence as displayed in cartoons and
    
        news programs. Another study, conducted by Smith and Wesson, showed that the amount of
    
        television violence viewed by children does correlate with aggressive behavior. Smith and
    
        Wesson, however, do not consider the type of program viewed. The article by Doe and
    
        Williams is one of the few studies that examines aggressive behavior as it relates to different
    
        types of television programs. 
    

    Additional Notes


    • Center the title of your bibliography at the top of the page. (For example, "An Annotated Bibliography on _____".)
    • Begin each entry flush with the left margin. All subsequent lines, however, should be indented five spaces.
    • Double space all entries and between entries.
    • Format the information in the entry according to the type of entry.
    • Begin annotation immediately after the period that ends the bibliographic citation.
    • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc.
    • If no author is given, start with the title.
    • Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July.
    • If the encyclopedia does not arrange its articles alphabetically, treat the encyclopedia article as if it were a book article. Specific volume and page numbers are cited in the text, not in the list of references.
    • Websites: include the title of the web page, the name of the entire web site, the organization that posted it (this may be the same as the name of the website). Also include the full date the page was created or last updated (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it.
    • Internet Magazine Articles: Include the company that provides the database service and its home webpage; the full date of the article (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it; as well as the library or other organization (and its location) that provided you with access to the service. If you are citing a journal instead of a magazine, include the volume (and issue number) and date as shown under the Journal Style above.

    Evaluation:
    The following criteria will be used to determine your score on the annotated bibliography assignment:

    • Does it contain at least five credible sources?
    • Do the various sources adequately represent multiple points of view?
    • Does it adhere to MLA format?
    • Do annotations adequately summarize the source?
    • Do annotations also evaluate the credibility of the source?
    • Are citations edited and presented professionally?
    • Are citations presented in alphabetical order?

    A useful resource for putting together your bibliographic citations is the Landmark Citation Machine. This online tool enables you to identify the type of reference you need to cite. Then, it provides the necessary fields of information for you to fill in. By merely clicking the "Make Citation" button, the tool provides you with the appropriate citation format, in both MLA and APA formats. You simply need to copy and paste the citation into your text file.

    08.01.02 Annotated bibliography links (English 12)

    08.01.02 Business Bulk Mailing Letter

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

    Business Letter:
    Imagine a product or service you could realistically offer to people in your community. It could be a computer company, health club, pet-sitting, yard service, dance school, a golf course, an all-inclusive resort, a hair salon, an eatery--anything, really. What you need are customers who will support your business by buying your product. You are writing a business letter (your choice--block or modified block style) that is being sent to homes to introduce and 'sell' your product or service to customers that live within a ten-mile radius of your business. This is a letter of information and action, so use the letter to capture an audience’s interest and convince them that they can rely on you or your product. Be sure to write clearly, state your request in the first paragraph, use polite language, and give a clear description of the product/service. Given the product/service you are selling, what tone should your letter take? What information would customers want to know?

    You may click on the link below to remind you of some important components when writing a business letter. View the attached "Letter Examples" document to ensure correct formatting of a business letter.

    When you have written your first draft, look it over, revise it, add details or examples, make sure it is organized in the best order and that you said exactly what you meant. Use the formatting options to highlight or emphasize important parts, but don't go overboard. You want your letter to look professional, so don't get carried away with fancy fonts or formatting. As a general rule, you should never use more than two fonts in a business document.

    Spelling and Grammar: Run a spelling and grammar check on your letter. Carefully examine sentence structure, word usage, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and use of passive vs. active voice. For some help on how to use the spelling and grammar tools, you may click on the links below. After you are finished, re-save your letter and submit it.

    REVISION AND ENHANCEMENT: When we write letters and create other forms, we need to return to these forms and conduct a number of 'checks' to be sure that we have not made any critical mistake and that we have the best product possible. Click on the links above, and study how spelling, grammar, and thesaurus may be used to produce a clean, well-written and organized document.

    08.01.02 Chapter 8 Review 2 - Arrays Introduction (C++)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 40 minutes

    Do this review and submit it under Topic 3.

    1. Write the correct C++ statement to declare a double array with 20 locations call scores.

    2. Write what the following C++ program segment would display if executed.

    myIntAry[0] = 10
    myIntAry[1] = 11
    myIntAry[2] = 17
    myIntAry[3] = 20
    myIntAry[4] = 13

    cout << myIntAry[2] + myIntAry[4] << endl;

    3. Write a "for loop" that would print all the values stored in an integer array of size 100 call myValues.

    08.01.02 Ears matching worksheet (MAP)

    teacher-scored 16 points possible 20 minutes

    Match the following information about the Ear
    Group A:
    Oval Window
    Ossicles
    Perilymph
    Mastoid air cells
    Pinna
    Eustachian Tube
    Typmanic Membrane
    Endolymph
    1.The passageway that connects the middle ear cavity with the throat: ________________________
    2.The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear: _____________________
    3.Another name for the projecting part, or auricle of the ear: ____________________
    4.The scientific name for the eardrum: _________________
    5.The membrane-covered space that conducts sound waves from the stapes to the fluid of the inner ear:__________________
    6.The spaces within the temporal bone that connect with the middle ear cavity through an opening:_____________________
    7.The fluid of the inner ear contained within the bony labyrinth and surrounding the membranous labyrinth: ________________________
    8.The three small bones within the middle ear cavity:_______________________

    Group B
    Endorphin
    oculomotor nerve
    optic nerve
    vestibule
    cochlear duct
    equilibrium
    opthalmic nerve
    cochlear nerve
    1.The entrance area that communicates with the cochlea and that is next to the oval window:__________________
    2.The branch of the 5th cranial nerve that carries impulses of pain, touch and temperature from the eye to the brain:_____________________
    3.A pain reliever naturally released from the brain:_____________________
    4.The location of the organ of hearing: __________________
    5.The largest of the three cranial nerves that carry motor fibers to the eyeball muscles:______________________
    6.The sense that is located in the semicircular canals and the vestibule:______________________
    7.The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing impulses: _________________
    8.The nerve that carries visual impulese from the retina to the brain: ____________________

    08.01.02 Exploration of Mars Exam(Astronomy1)

    computer-scored 0 points possible

    08.01.02 Extra credit: view Born into Brothels and write responses

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 100 minutes

    If you can rent or borrow a copy, watch the Academy award-winning documentary _Born into Brothels_, about children in India learning photography. This documentary is rated R because of two or three very short sections where characters use bad language. Since they are not speaking English, you wouldn't even know it was bad language except that there are subtitles. The children live in an extremely poor slum area of a city in India, and their parents are prostitutes and drug dealers, but that is not the focus of the film. If you or your parents are uncomfortable with this, skip this assignment.
    I would encourage you to watch this film with your parents.
    Follow the directions for the activity in section 3.

    08.01.02 Gene Replication –- Data Tables (Math I)

    One way of representing a function is with a data table. Because we understand the process, this is really the best place to start analyzing this function.

    For the purposes of doing math, we need a few constants to describe our process. Assume that we are going to perform the process described in section 1 on a single gene, instead of a full strand. This means that the time it will take for each cycle is a few minutes, say 3 minutes per cycle. Also, we will probably not start with a single copy of the gene. We will probably have used a technique to isolate this gene from a hundred or so cells. Therefore, we will probably start with something like 75 copies of the gene.

    Next, consider the process. When we start, at t = 0, we have 75 copies of the gene. We then heat the mixture, melt the DNA, let it cool, let it sit, and after 3 minutes, we will have 150 copies of the gene.

    We heat the mixture, melt the DNA, let it cool, let it sit, and after another 3 minutes, so at t = 6 min, we have 300 copies of the gene.

    This is not a sequence, because at t = 4.5 min, we will have somewhere between 150 and 300 copies of the gene (especially if we count partial copies). In a sequence, at t = 4.5 min, we would have 150 copies of the gene, then at t = 6 min the number of copies would jump to 300. Do you see how in a process like this, things don't really occur suddenly? Now we are avoiding the complexities of the actual number of copies at t = 4.5 min, and only looking at the big picture. Good scientists can see the big picture.

    Back to the problem. We heat, we cool, we wait; at t = 9 min we have 600 copies of the DNA. Is the process clear enough that we can start filling in a data table? Great!

    We will have two columns: the first column will have the independent variable and the second column will have the dependent variable. Quick quiz--which variable is the independent one, and which is the dependent one?

    The time is always the independent variable. It moves forward at the same rate no matter what else you do. Therefore, the number of gene copies is the dependent variable.




    So, can you say anything about this so far? Well, one thing we might observe is that the numbers are getting bigger faster. The data is not behaving like the lines we are more familiar with. I am going to argue that this is different.

    So, how different? It might be beneficial to visualize the data. How can we do that?



    08.01.02 Guidelines of Conflict Resolution (TeenLiving)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 15 minutes

    These are the BASIC RULES and/or Guidelines of Conflict Resolution:
    1. Don't attempt to settle disputes at the scene of the crime.
    2. Set aside a time and a place for conflict resolution and problem-solving discussions:
    30 minutes maximum time; same time regularly (weekly, monthly, whatever); without interruptions; with persons involved present (and no others).
    3. Only solve disputes or conflicts during the set time.
    4. Know what you're going to talk about before the meeting begins:
    a. Write it down
    b. Make it brief
    c. Don't try to cover more than two disputes in one session
    5. Consider the other person's feelings and your relationship.
    6. Don't bring in the past! Work in the present!
    7. Examine your motive for bringing up the problem.
    8. Treat each other with respect and dignity; no degrading or putting down!
    9. Don't overelaborate the issue, keep asking why, etc.
    10. Be willing to make compromises and share in the responsibility.
    11. If desired or beneficial, get a small notebook and keep a record of your conflict resolution session. Date them. Record agreements.

    Exercise 52

    Without reviewing the above data, see if you can write the 11 rules without looking. You'll need to have the rules memorized in order to use them. Write them now.

    08.01.02 Investigating residential areas(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 87: Select an area of your city where you might choose to buy a home (this is a hypothetical exercise, of course.) Then, go through all of the above-mentioned items to examine - what to look at in the home and in the neighborhood and list them all.

    08.01.02 Literary Devices Quiz (English 11)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 15 minutes

    Take the quiz on literary devices.  You may take it three times, but you must score over 70%.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.01.02 Relaxation Exercises (Fitness for Life)

    teacher-scored 50 points possible 45 minutes

    This assignment will teach you some ways that you can learn to relax during stressful times.
    Assignment 20 - Relaxation Exercises for Stress Management

    Name: Date:

    Introduction: One of the most effective ways to deal with stress is to perform relaxation exercises. This assignment is designed to help you develop relaxation skills that will enable you to deal with stress more effectively.

    Task: For this assignment, please turn to pages 300-302 in your book (activity 18). This activity is designed so you can practice several relaxation exercises that can help you deal with stress more effectively. Follow the directions below:

    1. Using the relaxation exercises on pages 300-301 of your book, fill in the chart below.
    Exercise Which part of your body was most relaxed after performing this exercise? On a scale of 1 to 10 (10 being the best), how well did you like this exercise?
    Rag Doll (pg. 300)
    Neck Roll (pg. 300)
    Body Board (pg. 301)
    Jaw Stretch (pg. 301)

    2. Which of the above exercises worked best for you?

    3. Which of the exercises (if any) surprised you--in terms of being more effective than you thought they would?

    Next, perform the Contract-Relax Method routine described on page 302. This activity is designed to help you recognize which areas of your body are tense and how you can watch these body parts to ensure that you relax them when you are under stress. This can also help you if you are an athlete. Many top level teams use this technique to help athletes discover which areas of their body are most tense before games so they can relax appropriately beforehand.

    For this activity, it is preferable to work with a partner who can read you the directions for contracting and relaxing your muscles. Your partner should read through each of the 18 steps, guiding you along the way to ensure that you are properly relaxing. If you cannot find a partner to read you this material, make a tape of your own voice. You may use relaxing music in the background.

    After you complete this activity, answer the following questions:

    4. Did you find this technique more or less effective than the others listed above? Please explain.

    5. Which areas of your body were most tense prior to completing the relaxation program?

    6. What areas of you body do you seem to "hold" your stress in?

    7. What strategies (or relaxation techniques) will you use to minimize the effects of stress on those tense body parts?

    8. Were there any areas where you "hold" stress that surprised you? (If so, list them here.)

    Evaluation: This evaluation is worth 50 points. You will be awarded 20 points for completing the table (5 points per exercise), 5 points for answering questions 2-3 (10 total), and 20 points for answering the last 5 questions (4 points per question).

    08.01.02 Root words (English 10)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Choose two root words from each root in the following list. Define the word and write a sentence using it correctly. Make sure you number your sentences, underline the root word, and use correct punctuation. When you are finished, you should have ten definitions and ten sentences.

    1. Acer, acid, acri (bitter, sour, sharp) - acerbic, acidity, acid, acrimony
    2. Acu (sharp) - acute, acupuncture
    3. Ag,agi,ig,act (do, move, go) - agent, agenda, agitate, navigate, ambiguous, action
    4. Ali, allo, alter (other) alias, alibi, alien, alloy, alter
    5. Alt (high, deep) - altimeter, altitude

    08.01.02 Topic One: Graphing Data (Sec Dev Math)



    Each topic is divided into sections that include the following:

    • Warm Up - questions to answer to see if you are ready for the lesson.
    • Presentation - high quality video with excellent illustrations that teaches the topic.
    • Worked Examples - examples that are worked out step-by-step with narration.
    • Practice - quiz problems on the topic covered.
    • Review - practice test to check your knowledge before moving on.

    You are not required to complete every section. However, REMEMBER the goal is to MASTER the material!!



    08.01.02 Trigonometric Functions on a Circle (PreCalc)

    To learn how Oliver solved his problem, we need to learn a bit about the six trigonometric functions. You may already be familiar with some of these from earlier algebra classes. Since angles measure out a circle, this study of trigonometry will begin with a circle.

    We will begin with an arbitrary circle centered at the origin. Remember a circle is the set of points a distance r from the center. This distance is called the radius of the circle, and it is equal to half the diameter.

    If I take this circle and draw any radius I can measure the angle that radius makes with the x-axis. The angle is usually denoted with the symbol θ, which is the Greek letter theta. This angle can take on any value. A positive value of θ indicates that the angle is measured counterclockwise, while a negative value of θ indicates the angle is measured clockwise.




    Now that I have a drawn a radius to this circle at an angle of θ, I can draw a right triangle with the radius as the hypotenuse, as shown. The radius terminates at the point (x, y). The length of the base is x, and the length of the height is y. The values of x, y and r are related by the Pythagorean theorem

    r2 = x2 + y2



    In the triangle drawn, the base is the side adjacent to the angle θ, so it is called the adjacent side. The height is the side opposite the angle θ, so it is called the opposite side.

    If θ is measured from the x-axis, the length of the opposite side will always be x, and the length of the adjacent side will always be y.




    There are six possible ratios one can make with these three sides, and the six trigonometric functions are these six ratios.

    The trigonometric functions are: the sine of θ, sin θ; the cosine of θ, cos θ; the tangent of θ, tan θ; the cotangent of θ, cot θ; the secant of θ, sec θ; and the cosecant of θ, csc θ. These functions are defined as



    Notice that the second three functions are related to the first three functions by the identities



    Another important identity is that tan θ is defined by sin θ and cos θ as follows



    So, we should do an example. You may remember from earlier algebra and geometry classes that only a couple right triangles have lengths of sides that are rational numbers. Consider one such triangle, the 5, 12, 13 triangle.

    Let's find the trigonometric functions of the angle shown.

    In this case, x = 12, y = 5 and r = 13. Therefore





    08.01.02 Unit 8 Written Exam

    computer-scored 100 points possible 30 minutes

    08.01.02 Voltage in Electrical Circuits(PrinTech2)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Activity 2.3: Electrical Work

    Name _____________________________

    Voltage in Electrical Circuits

    http://www.article19.com/shockwave/oz.htm
    (If you go to this sight it might help you with the activity .)
    Part I
    Construct a series circuit with four lamps, a single battery, connecting wires, and a single switch. Draw a schematic diagram of the circuit you built - BE SURE TO USE SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS!
    Schematic:

    Measurements: Voltage
    Place the voltmeter to measure the source voltage from the battery. Record the total voltage below. Move the voltmeter to each lamp and record the voltage drop across each lamp.
    Vs = Total Voltage from the Battery = _______Volts

    Location Voltage (Volts)
    Lamp #1 V 1
    Lamp #2 V 2
    Lamp #3 V 3
    Lamp #4 V 4

    V t = Sum of Voltage drops across each lamp (V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4 ) = Volts

    What is the relationship between the Source Voltage ( Vs ) and the Sum of voltage drops across each lamp ( Vt )? __________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________.

    Do you agree for a series circuit that Vs = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + ……?
    __Yes or No__

    Part II
    Construct a Parallel circuit with four lamps, a single battery, connecting wires, and a single switch. Draw a schematic diagram of the circuit you built - BE SURE TO USE SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS!
    Schematic:

    Measurements: Voltage
    Place the voltmeter to measure the source voltage from the battery. Record the total voltage below. Move the voltmeter to each lamp and record the voltage drop across each lamp.
    Vs = Total Voltage from the Battery is_______Volts

    Location Voltage (Volts)
    Lamp #1 V 1
    Lamp #2 V 2
    Lamp #3 V 3
    Lamp #4 V 4

    V t = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = V 4 = ….

    What is the relationship between the Source Voltage ( Vs ) and the voltage drops across each lamp ( Vt )? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________.

    Do you agree for a series circuit that Vs = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = V 4 + ……?
    __Yes or No__

    How is a voltmeter inserted into a circuit to measure voltage? _______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________.

    How are the voltage measurements different when bulbs are connected in series or in parallel circuits? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________________________.

    Parallel circuits are used in homes to connect lamps. State two reasons why. __________________________________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________.

    08.01.03 - Circumcenter of a Triangle (Geometry)

    The point where the perpendicular bisectors intersect is called the circumcenter. In acute triangles, the circumcenter lies within the triangle. In the homework you will be asked to find the circumcenter of a few triangles. Based on these exercises, you should be able to determine the location of the circumcenter of a right or an obtuse triangle.

    If you took quarter 1, you may remember that I always wrote the word "center" in parenthesis. This is because there are many points that can claim to be the center of a figure. The circumcenter is one such point.

    Circum is a prefix meaning around. What would happen if we drew a circle around the circumcenter of a triangle? Try it!

    In the previous proof, each of the segments connecting the circumcenter with the vertex had the same length. This, then, is a logical length to use for the radius of our circle.

    Again, consider ΔTLM. A circle with a radius equal to the distance from the circumcenter to a vertex, centered at the circumcenter, perfectly circumscribes ΔTLM.




    Ahh! so this is why we call this point the circumcenter.



    08.01.03 - Gene Replication – Graphs (Math I)

    The easiest way to visualize data is with a graph. Since we have a data table, it will be fairly straightforward to make a graph.

    Start with graph paper. Next, we need to decide where to draw the axes. Time takes on the values from 0 to infinity. The number of gene copies takes the values from 75 to infinity. Of course, the values do not really go to infinity, but they could potentially approach infinity. Therefore, the most logical place to put the origin would be in the lower left corner.

    The next step is to choose a scale. The independent variable goes along the x-axis. We have already determined that time is the independent variable. In our data table, time has a domain of 0 to 21 minutes. It is reasonable to let every tick mark be equal to one minute and label every 5th tick mark. The dependent variable goes along the y-axis. The number of copies of the gene is the dependent variable. On our data table, gene copies has a range of 75 to 9600. If we have something like 25 grid lines, and we divide these evenly into 9600, this gives us every tick mark is equal to 384 genes. That spacing seems a bit too wide for our needs. If we stop at 18 minutes, we only have 4800 copies of the gene. Dividing that by 25 gives us each tick mark equal to 192 genes. That seems a bit more workable, but the number is really weird. Let's go with each tick mark is equal to 200 genes. That is a good spacing for this problem. Again, label every 5th tick mark.

    Next, we need to label the graph. We want a clear and concise title, like “Gene Copies vs. Time.” We want to label the x-axis something like “time, in minutes.” We want to label the y-axis something like “number of copies of genes.”

    Now we can plot the points. In the first quarter we learned how to plot a line with only two points, or even just one point and the slope. This function is NOT linear (not a straight line). Therefore, we really want to plot every point in our data table. Finally, we wish to draw a smooth line through the points.

    This is not a line! Then what function is it? Can we figure it out?

    08.01.03 - Using Vectors: Multiplication (Physics)

    There are actually 3 ways to multiply vectors.

    I - Multiplication by a Scalar

    The simplest way to multiply a vector is to multiply it by a scalar. This will change the magnitude of the vector, but not the direction.

    A vector multiplied by a scalar remains a vector.

    For example: If I multiply vector C by 2, the result is a vector in the same direction as C, but with 2 times the magnitude.





    Mathematically this is:



    Another interesting number to multiply is by negative 1. This will reverse the direction of the vector but the magnitude doesn't change.





    Mathematically this is written:




    II - Dot Product

    The second type of multiplication is called the dot product. The dot product is a way of multiplying 2 vectors. This is also called the scalar product, because the result of a dot product is a scalar.

    You find the dot product by multiplying the magnitude of each vector together and then multiplying this by the cosine of the angle between them. The dot product is written:



    where |A| is the magnitude of A, |B| is the magnitude of B, and θ is the angle between them.

    A couple interesting values occur because of the nature of the cosine function.

    If I take the dot product of a vector with itself, the angle between the vector and itself is zero. The cosine of zero is 1, and the equation becomes:



    Kinetic Energy is an important example of a physical quality that is found by taking a dot product of a vector with itself.

    The other unusual result is if the vectors are perpendicular to each other. Then the angle between them is 90 degrees, and the cosine of 90 degrees is zero. So, the dot product of 2 perpendicular vectors is zero.



    III - Cross Product

    This is another method of multiplying 2 vectors. Because a cross product results in another vector, the cross product is also called the vector product.

    The magnitude of the cross product of 2 vectors is found by taking the magnitude of each vector, multiplying them by each other, and by the sine of the angle between them. That is to say:



    where |A| is the magnitude of A, |B| is the magnitude of B, and θ is the angle between them.

    The sine function has a different behavior from the cosine. The sine is a maximum when the angle is 90 degrees and a minimum at zero. Therefore, the cross product of a vector with itself is zero, while the cross product with a vector that is perpendicular is maximum.

    Cross products are used extensively to describe circular motion, among other things.



    08.01.03 Business Brochure

    teacher-scored 25 points possible 45 minutes

    CREATING A BROCHURE (USING WORD OR PUBLISHER):
    (Note: the directions are for Microsoft products. Other word processors or publishing software are likely to have similar features, but you will need to use "help" or tutorials for that product for detailed instructions.)

    Go to Microsoft Word or Microsoft Publisher. Click on “New.” Scroll to “Brochures.” Select a template from those that are available and that fit the requirements of this project. Remember that you are taking some of your ideas from the letter, and converting it to this brochure. In other words, design a brochure advertising your product or service to potential customers. How could your brochure capture an audience’s interest and convince them that they can rely on you or your product? Given the product/service you are advertising, what tone should your brochure take? What information would customers want to know? The links can help you design an attractive brochure using Publisher or Word. Below is an outline format that you might use to create an attractive, informative and persuasive brochure. After you have completed the project, revised it, and edited it, using the spell checker, thesaurus and grammar checker to help you, save it and send it to me as an attachment.

    FRONT PANEL

    • Catchy slogan:
    • Product, service, or cause and its intended audience:
    • Eye-catching visual elements: (use at least one graphic)
    • Necessary contact information:
    • Actions readers should take:
    • Include sections that sell the primary idea:
    • Section heading that contains one idea:

    INSIDE PANEL

    • Visual emphasis:
    • Section heading that contains one idea:
    • Facts, statistics, concrete evidence (Insert these using a graph or a chart):

    MIDDLE PANEL

    • Continue drawing your readers’ attention.
    • Additional eye-catching graphics (use pictures or other clip art):
    • More information:

    BACK PANEL

    • Necessary contact information:
    • Actions readers should take:

    08.01.03 Chapter 8 Review 3 - Array Parameters (C++)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Do this review and submit it under Topic 3.

    1. Write what the following C++ program would display if executed.

    #include <iostream>
    using namespace std;
    void mF1(int myValue )
      {
        myValue = 7;
      }

    int main( )
      {
        int thisAry[ ] = { 21, 23, 25, 27, 29};
        mF1(thisAry[2] );
        for (int index = 0; index < 5; index++)
            cout << thisAry[index] << " ";
        system("pause");
        return 0;
      }

    2. Write what the following C++ program would display if executed.

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;
    void mF2(int myAry[ ] )
      {
        myAry [ 2 ] = 80;
      }

    int main( )
      {
        int thisAry[ ] = { 21, 23, 25, 27, 29};
        mF2(thisAry );
        for (int index = 0; index < 5; index++)
            cout << thisAry[index] << " ";
        system("pause");
        return 0;
      }

    3. Write what would happen if one tried to compile the following C++ program.

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;
    void mF3(const int myAry[ ] )
      {
        myAry [ 2 ] = 80;
      }
    int main( )
      {
        int thisAry[ ] = { 21, 23, 25, 27, 29};
        mF3(thisAry );
        for (int index = 0; index < 5; index++)
            cout << thisAry[index] << " ";
        system("pause");
        return 0;
      }

    08.01.03 Consider it(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    88: Do the "Consider It" exercise below.
    08.1.3 Consider it(IntDes3)08.1.3 Consider it(IntDes3)

    08.01.03 Create a conflict resolution plan (TeenLiving)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 15 minutes

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLAN

    Exercise 53

    What I want you to do in this assignment is to read all of the communication methods described below and then try to recreate the list from memory. It's a fabulous process and I want you to memorize the steps and know how to do it. So, read it, study it and then rewrite it for me in your own words, trying to do so from memory--but, if you need to look at the lesson to fill in or correct something, that is fine. You can also use an imaginary or real problem and pretend how you would work it out with someone if that makes it easier. I just want you to KNOW this process and be able to write it down for me.

    Part 1: Define the problem. (This is done by party no. 1) It is very critical how this is stated. Write down or state the problem in specific terms, using these four components:

    A. Begin with something positive; an expression of appreciation; a compliment. If possible, relate it to the conflict or complaint, but don't be phony. For example: "I appreciate your help with the housework yesterday."

    B. Describe the specific behavior that is bothering you. Don't be general or vague. (Avoid using absolute terms such as always, never, nothing, etc., you statements, and name-calling.) Talk about behaviors, NOT personal qualities. A good example is: "Lately I feel ignored when I talk about my day." (specific)

    C. Express your feelings; don't assume that your feelings are obvious to the other person (and don't try to make them obvious). For example: "I have the feeling you aren't interested in what I do when you don't ask me how my day was."

    D. Admit to your role in the problem (if applicable). Recognize that you are at fault too, and if you are, to what degree. Both parties must accept responsibility in conflict resolution rather than casting blame. If both parties work together, it isn't necessary to accept responsibility falsely. For example: "Maybe I've been too preoccupied with my new computer and haven't been available for conversation." Be brief when defining the conflict/dispute/problem--get to the point without over elaborating. Talking about the problem by counting the number of times, looking for the cause, or asking "why" questions doesn't solve it. These things are not solutions and don't bring solutions. Both parties must be careful not to shift the discussion to the cause of the behavior in order to shift blame or have an excuse. Avoid sidetracking (changing the subject to something that may or may not be related) during the definition! This puts the focus on something else and doesn't solve the current conflict. Stick with the issue at hand! An example of sidetracking: "I would like you to be nicer to your brother." "Since when was he nice to me?"

    Part 2: Verbally summarize the feelings for clarification. (This is done by party 2) State the problem the way you understand it and ask if this is accurate, what the other person meant, etc. Be careful not to try to read minds during this part. Remain neutral rather than negative in your reply and avoid using any threats, insults, or commands.

    Part 3: Look for solutions. (This is done by both parties together.) Negotiate for a win-win solution by:

    a. considering all possible solutions
    b. picking all solutions apart for consequences, and
    c. offering to change some aspect of your own behavior for a compromise
    d. offering to help the other part (or requesting his/her help)
    e. both partners being involved in the change or solution

    Behavior change should include mutual agreement and compromise. The best solutions involve some change in both parties (there's more willingness to cooperate if it is not a one-person deal). Party no. 1 should offer his/her help or assistance to party no. 2 for change.

    Record solutions in writing; write out agreed-upon behaviors, changes, who will do what, etc. This helps the agreement become a commitment.

    Part 4: End with an expression of love for each other. (This is done by both parties, and initiated by party no. 1.) This is an important part and should not be left out. Even if your feelings have been hurt, accepting some responsibility for your part of the conflict/problem/dispute will provide the means whereby the relationship can continue to grow. Whatever you say, say it with love and sincerity!

    Note: If a resolution has not been achieved within a short period (30 minutes or less), put things on hold for a set period of time. Then readdress the problem at a later time. Sessions that go too long have very little chance of mutual resolution.

    Learn the above data, and see if you can write the "Plan" without looking. You'll need to have this plan memorized in order to use it, and you'll find many future times when you desperately need to use it - call it human nature! Write all details of the plan now.

    08.01.03 Gene Replication –- Graphs (Math I)

    The easiest way to visualize data is with a graph. Since we have a data table, it will be fairly straightforward to make a graph.

    Start with graph paper. Next, we need to decide where to draw the axes. Time takes on the values from 0 to infinity. The number of gene copies takes the values from 75 to infinity. Of course, the values do not really go to infinity, but they could potentially approach infinity. Therefore, the most logical place to put the origin would be in the lower left corner.

    The next step is to choose a scale. The independent variable goes along the x-axis. We have already determined that time is the independent variable. In our data table, time has a domain of 0 to 21 minutes. It is reasonable to let every tick mark be equal to one minute and label every 5th tick mark. The dependent variable goes along the y-axis. The number of copies of the gene is the dependent variable. On our data table, gene copies has a range of 75 to 9600. If we have something like 25 grid lines, and we divide these evenly into 9600, this gives us every tick mark is equal to 384 genes. That spacing seems a bit too wide for our needs. If we stop at 18 minutes, we only have 4800 copies of the gene. Dividing that by 25 gives us each tick mark equal to 192 genes. That seems a bit more workable, but the number is really weird. Let's go with each tick mark is equal to 200 genes. That is a good spacing for this problem. Again, label every 5th tick mark.

    Next, we need to label the graph. We want a clear and concise title, like “Gene Copies vs. Time.” We want to label the x-axis something like “time, in minutes.” We want to label the y-axis something like “number of copies of genes.”

    Now we can plot the points. In the first quarter we learned how to plot a line with only two points, or even just one point and the slope. This function is NOT linear (not a straight line). Therefore, we really want to plot every point in our data table. Finally, we wish to draw a smooth line through the points.




    This is not a line! Then what function is it? Can we figure it out?



    08.01.03 Journal entry: Exploring both sides (English 12)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 60 minutes

    We've all heard the old phrase "There are two sides to every coin." In regards to issues that are controversial the phrase is particularly apt, since most such issues are controversial because there are compelling arguments on both sides.

    Based on what you're learned thus far, what do you see as the major arguments for both sides of the issue? Informally detail what, in your opinion, are the major arguments and sub-arguments for both sides. Refrain from making judgments about which side's arguments are correct or most sound. Right now, just delineate the parameters of the issue.

    If you feel your understanding of the issue is inadequate to adequately characterize both sides, seek to augment your understanding with additional research. It might be a good idea to chat with your interview subject from the previous unit to ask them about the topic.

    Evaluation:
    Journal entries are an opportunity to explore ideas and develop fluency with language in an informal context. You will be assessed a point value from 1 to 10 points, based on the effort and thoughtfulness demonstrated in your response.

    08.01.03 Journal writing (English 10)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Write at least 250 words discussing some of myth that you believed as a child. How did you feel when you found out that they were just stories? Why did you feel this way? Do you still feel this way? Do you wish that you had been told the truth all along? Are you glad that you had a time when you could believe in myths?

    08.01.03 Labeling parts of the eye and ear (MAP)

    teacher-scored 25 points possible 20 minutes

    Download the two attached diagrams.

    Label the following structures of the EYE
    1._____________________ 2._____________________ 3._____________________ 4._____________________ 5._____________________ 6._____________________ 7._____________________ 8._____________________ 9._____________________ 10.____________________ 11.____________________ 12.____________________ 13.____________________

    Label the following structures of the EAR
    1.________________
    2.________________
    3.________________
    4.________________
    5.________________
    6.________________
    7.________________
    8.________________
    9.________________
    10._______________
    11._______________
    12._______________

    08.01.03 The Unit Circle (PreCalc)

    You may remember from your geometry class the concept of similar triangles. If you have two right triangles with an acute angle that is the same, these are similar triangles. This means that the sides are proportional. If the sides are proportional, the ratios of the sides will be equal.

    So what? Well, this means that the trigonometric functions are the same, no matter what the size of the circle. So, we may as well use a circle with radius r = 1.

    Clearly choosing a radius of 1 will simplify the equations for the trigonometric functions.

    On the unit circle, the trigonometric functions reduce to



    The following images show the values of the x and y coordinates for several points around the unit circle. Using these values, you should be able to read the trigonometric functions of these angles off the graphs.

    These graphs show the (x, y) coordinates for the unit circle divided into 12 and 8 sections respectively. Do you remember the measure of each of these angles? (If not you can look at the graphs in lesson 1.1.) These are special angles because the values of these coordinates are known exactly. This is not the case for most of the points. Using the coordinates on the unit circle, find the 6 trigonometric functions for the angle θ = 120°. If you don't remember, 120° is the angle made by the radius that terminates at the point .

    This means that x = -12 = -0.5 and . So the trigonometric functions are



    Now find the 6 trigonometric functions for the angle θ = 5∏4. If you don't remember, 5∏4 is the angle made by the radius that terminates at the point . This means that both x and y equal . So the trigonometric functions are



    Did you follow that? You should be able to do this for any of these angles.

    Angles that terminate on the x or y-axis are called quadrantal angles. Either the x or y coordinate for these angles will be zero. This implies that not all the trigonometric functions are defined for the quadrantal angles.

    Consider the angle θ = 90°. This is a quadrantal angle because it terminates on the y-axis, so its terminal coordinate on the unit circle is (0, 1). What are the six trigonometric functions of this angle?

    sin 90° = y = 1

    cos 90° = x = 0

    tan 90° = yx = 10

    csc 90° = 1y = 1

    sec 90° = 1x = 10 which is undefined.

    cot 90° = xy = 0



    What about the other quadrantal angles? Will the same functions be undefined for all of them? Why or why not?



    08.01.03 Topic Two: Other Types of Graphs (Sec Dev Math)

    Different graphs tell different stories. While a bar graph might be appropriate for comparing some types of data, there are a number of other types of graphs that can present data in a different way. You might see them in news stories or reports, so it’s helpful to know how to read and interpret them.

    Sometimes you will see categorical data presented in a circle graph, or pie chart. Circle graphs often show the relationship of each piece to the whole using percentages, as in the next example.




    Unlike circle graphs, line graphs are usually used to relate data over a period of time. In a line graph, the data is shown as individual points on a grid; a trend line connects all data points.

    A stem-and-leaf plot provides yet another way to visualize quantitative data. They retain the original data (unlike pictographs), and allow easy identification of the largest and smallest values, clusters, and gaps.

    If after completing this topic you can state without hesitation that...

    • I can read and interpret data from circle graphs (pie charts).
    • I can read and interpret data from simple line graphs.
    • I can read and interpret data from stem and leaf displays.

    ……you have completed Lesson One and are ready for Quiz 21! Otherwise, go back and review the material before moving on.

    Click on the link below to get started:



    08.01.04 Persuasive Essay on Career Choice

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 60 minutes

    People choose to pursue certain careers for many reasons: to earn a high salary, for social status, to carry on a family tradition, to impress friends or family, to follow a personal interest, to help others, for job security, to become famous, to have more time for friends or family, or even to leave a legacy.

    Write a persuasive essay of at least 350 words on the best way to approach the process of career choice. Address your essay to students who are concerned about choosing careers; suggest thoughts for them to keep in mind as they select what they want to do for a living. Remember, this is a PERSUASIVE essay. You need to take a position on the issue and support your position. Your essay should be at least four paragraphs. The first paragraph will be the introduction, and should include a thesis statement that clearly states your main position. The last paragraph will be a conclusion.

    The middle paragraphs in your essay should contain specific details and examples, not just vague generalities. You may need to do some research to find facts that will support your ideas.

    After you have written the first draft, set it aside at least overnight. Then go back over it (reading it aloud will help) to make sure it says exactly what you mean. Get the ideas into a logical order, with strong transitions. Add details or examples where needed.

    When you have revised it, the next step is to edit:

    Spelling and Grammar: Run a spelling and grammar check on your essay. Carefully examine sentence structure, word usage, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and use of passive vs. active voice. For some help on how to use the spelling and grammar tools, you may refer to the links for previous activities. After you are finished, re-save your essay. Your essay will be scored on the six traits.

    08.01.04 - Angle Bisector (Geometry)

    There is a similar theorem for angle bisectors as for perpendicular bisectors. Again, if you read the proofs for the construction, you probably realize this must be true. The theorem is:

    The points on the angle bisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle.

    In order to understand this theorem, we have to discuss what we mean when we say the distance from a point to a line. Consider the point and line shown.




    We can draw infinitely many line segments connecting this point and line. There are infinitely many lengths of the segments connecting the point to the line. However, there is only one shortest length, and it is this shortest length that we mean when we say the distance between a point and a line.

    Is it clear that the shortest length is the length of the segment that is perpendicular to line l? See if you can convince yourself of this. (We can prove it, but we have so many more interesting things to prove. We don't have time to prove everything.)

    Notice we aren't saying that we can find two segments connecting a point on the angle bisector to the sides of the angle that are the same length. That would be true for any ray that lies within the angle. Rather, we specifically mean that the perpendicular distance to the sides are equal.

    How would you prove this?

    Given point K lies on the angle bisector of ∠FBR. Prove that K is equidistant from and .






    Statements Reasons
    1. Point K lies on the angle bisector of ∠FBR.
    2. Construct and , such that and .
    3. ∠BSK and ∠BWK are right angles.
    4. ∠BSK ≅ ∠BWK.
    5. ∠SBK ≅ ∠WBK.
    6. .
    7. ΔBSK ≅ ΔBWK
    8. .
    9. KS = KW
    10. K is equidistant from and .
    1. Given
    2. Construct the perpendicular to a line through a point not on the line.
    3. Definition of perpendicular.
    4. All right angles are congruent.
    5. Definition of angle bisector.
    6. Something is congruent to itself.
    7. ASA
    8. Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent.
    9. If two things are congruent, their measures are equal.
    10. Definition of the distance between a point and a line.
    • QED



    The converse of this is also true.

    If a point is equidistant from the sides of an angle, this point lies on the angle bisector.

    How would you prove this theorem?



    08.01.04 - Gene Replication – Guessing a Solution (Math I)

    Yes, I am serious. We are going to guess the equation that describes this problem. Why? How?

    Believe it or not, this is actually a valid way of figuring out an answer. We have a problem, we know a little bit about the problem, but we do not know what the equation is, nor how to derive it. Yes, we know a procedure for finding points in this equation. If this was a line, that would be enough to determine the equation. However, this is not a line, so we just don't know enough about this problem to write an equation. Therefore, we will be guessing at an equation, then fine tuning it to get an equation that fits the data.

    What do we know? When we discussed the procedure for finding certain points on the graph, did it remind you of a problem we had seen before? Maybe a geometric sequence? Maybe the Grand Vizier's Chess problem? Just a little bit.

    In the Grand Vizier's Chess problem, the Grand Vizier requested a single grain of wheat for the first square on the chess board, twice that for the second, twice that for the third, etc.

    In this problem, at time t = 0 min, we have 75 copies of the gene; at time t = 3 min, we have twice that many; at time t = 6 min, we have twice that many, etc.

    The problems are very similar in the way we calculate the points. Therefore, we should expect that the equation we want will be similar to the equation that describes a geometric sequence. The equation for a geometric sequence in general is

    n = 1 r (n –1) (eq. 1)

    where n is an arbitrary term in the sequence, 1 is the first term in the sequence, r is the ratio between terms, and n is the position in the sequence.

    For our problem, we want an equation relating the number of copies of genes and the time. Let the number of copies of genes be ; this is the dependent variable. The independent variable is time, and we have been calling this t; we will continue using that notation. How are and t related to equation 1? n is the dependent variable and n is the independent variable. Therefore, for a first approximation, we have the equation

    = 1 r t. (eq. 2)

    Notice I dropped the “– 1” part of the equation. This was needed for the sequence, because we started counting at n = 1. This is no longer necessary because we start this process at t = 0. But even if we did not know that, we would want to drop the “– 1” part, because it over-complicates the problem. We want to start with the simplest form we can. We will add our own complications as we refine equation 2. If we need to add or subtract a constant later, we will do this.

    So far we have replaced the variables in the geometric sequence with the variables in our problem. Next, we need to replace the constants in the geometric sequence with the constants in our problem. We know that at t = 0 we have 75 copies of the gene. This corresponds to the term 1. We also know that we double every 3 minutes, so like we did with the Grand Vizier problem, we will let r = 2. Making these changes gives us

    = (75 genes) 2 t. (eq. 3)

    We have already implied that t has units of minutes, we will keep that for the units of t.

    (At this point, some of you may see a problem. Some of you might not. If you see the problem, keep it in the back of your mind, and be impressed with yourself later. If you do not see the problem, it is okay. I will point it out later. It is subtle.)

    This is as far we can go with the “guessing” part of the equation. Now we need to “check” the equation, and see how far off we are. We will check this equation by creating a data table and graphing the data on the same axes as the actual data for the problem.

    Using the same values of t as we used before, we get

    As you can see, already, we are pretty far off. The first point is good, the rest, less so. But let's graph this and see how far off we are.

    The graph of this is on the following page. As you can see, the shape is pretty good. We expected this to be more or less like a geometric sequence, so the form is okay. But, the “guessed” equation is clearly too steep! How can we change the steepness of this graph? Take a second and think about this.

    What would happen if we changed the constant coefficient? Will that help? What about subtracting a constant? Would that help?

    Actually, neither of these things will improve the problem, and both of these things will cause us to lose the one correct point we already have. If you want to try either of those suggestions, go ahead. You will see that while you may be able to shift the graph, neither of these changes will change the steepness of the graph – and that is the real problem.

    One thing we could attempt is to choose a smaller value of r. We know from our experience with geometric sequences that this will make the graph less steep. From our experiences with geometric sequences, we know that r > 1; therefore, a good second approximation might be to let r = 1.5.

    Another thing we could do is to change the exponent. What if instead of the exponent being t, it was t divided by a constant? That might help. What constant? How about 3 min? Why? Well, that is the time given in the problem. It is at least as good a guess as any.

    Question: why wouldn't subtracting a constant from t help? Think about your geometric sequences.

    Okay, I actually want to try both of these. If we change the value of r from 2 to 1.5, equation 3 becomes

    = (75 genes)(1.5) t (eq. 4)

    If we change the exponent to t divided by 3 min, we get

    (eq. 5)

    We will check these in the same way as we did before: let's pick a few points, make a table and plot the points.

    From the points, I suspect you can see that the equation 5 matches the data, and equation 4 does not. (However, equation 4 is a bit better than equation 3. Maybe we shouldn't give up on that quite yet.) Again, just to verify, here is the graph of these equations compared to the original data set.

    For now, we will stop with equation 5, and call it good. Notice that equation 5 has the advantage that not only does it align with the data, but all the constants are from the problem. The value of r is given in the problem: it is how much this increases in a certain amount of time. The constant coefficient is given in the problem: this is how many genes we started with. Finally, the time we divided t by is also given: it is the amount of time in which the number of genes double.

    Equation 5 is a good equation, in that we are able to see the how the problem relates to the equation.

    All right, let's talk for a second about what is “wrong” with equation 3 (and 4 actually). What does it mean for something to be raised to an exponent? On the most fundamental level, it means that we multiply that value by itself that many times. In other words

    1 = (eq. 6)
    2 = × (eq. 7)
    3 = × × (eq. 8)

    etc.

    Therefore, whatever is in the exponent needs to be unitless, not a measurement. How can you raise 2 to the 3 minutes? It is meaningless. By dividing t by 3 min, the term is unitless, and we can raise 2 to that power.

    08.01.04 - Using Vectors: Subtraction (Physics)

    You may have learned in your regular algebra class that to subtract one number from the other, you multiply by a negative 1, and then add.

    This is true for vectors as well. Since we can multiply by a negative 1, we can then use the previous technique of adding.

    For example:



    First multiply C by (-1) then take the tail of -C place it at the head of B and draw the resulting vector.




    Or:




    08.01.04 Behavior of the Sine, Cosine and Tangent Around the Unit Circle (PreCalc)

    Since sin θ = y and cos θ = x, we can determine a lot about the behavior of these functions by considering how the (x, y) coordinates change as we go around the unit circle. Also, it is useful to consider the ratio of these coordinates, in particular tan θ, which is the ratio of the y coordinate to the x coordinate.

    So, start at the angle θ = 0°. The (x, y) coordinate for this angle is (1, 0). This means sin 0° = 0, cos 0° = 1, and tan 0° = 0. For a unit circle, since the radius is equal to 1, 1 is the maximum value either coordinate can have. Therefore cos θ is maximum at θ = 0°.

    If we rotate counterclockwise into the first quadrant, both the x and y coordinates are positive. Therefore sin θ, cos θ, and tan θ will all be positive. Also as we rotate, the value of the x coordinate decreases, while the value of the y coordinate increases. So the function sin θ is increasing and the function cos θ is decreasing.




    At the angle θ = 90°, the (x, y) coordinate is (0, 1). So cos 90° = 0, and sin 90° = 1. By the same argument as previously, we see that sin θ is a maximum at θ = 90°. However, since tan θ = yx, tan θ is undefined at θ = 90°.

    Continuing to rotate counterclockwise around the unit circle puts us into the second quadrant. Here both the values of the x coordinate and the y coordinate are decreasing. So the both the functions sin θ and cos θ are decreasing. Of course, the x coordinate is decreasing from zero, so it is negative. The y coordinate is positive. This means that sin θ is positive in this quadrant, but cos θ is negative. Since tan θ is the ratio of these coordinates, it is also negative in this quadrant.

    At the next quadrantal angle, θ = 180°, the (x, y) coordinate is (-1, 0). This gives us cos 180° = -1, sin 180° = 0 and tan 180° = 0. Again, the coordinates around the unit circle are not going to be less than -1, so cos θ is at a minimum here.

    Rotating counterclockwise puts us in the third quadrant, where both the x and y coordinates are negative. Clearly, cos θ and sin θ are both going to be negative. However, because a negative number divided by a negative number is a positive number, tan θ is positive. As for the behaviors of the sin θ and cos θ, since cos θ reached its minimum at θ = 180°, the cos θ is now increasing. The sin θ was 0 at θ = 180°, it is now negative, so it is decreasing.

    We come next to the quadrantal angle θ = 270°. Here the (x, y) coordinate is (0, -1). This means that cos 270° = 0, sin 270° = -1, and tan θ is again undefined. Clearly, sin θ is at a minimum here.

    Continuing the counterclockwise rotation puts us in the fourth quadrant. In this quadrant, the x coordinate is positive, but the y coordinate is negative. So sin θ is negative, and cos θ is positive. The function tan θ is also negative. Also, both the functions sin θ and cos θ are increasing.

    This brings us back to the x-axis, but the quadrantal angle is now θ = 360°. Clearly, since the (x, y) coordinate is (1, 0), sin 360° = 0 and cos 360° = 1. These are the same values as sin 0° and cos 0°. If we continue our counterclockwise rotation we will go through all the same (x, y) coordinates as we did previously. So, the next set of angles will all terminate at the same points as the previous set of angles. When two angles terminate at the same (x, y) coordinate, these angles are called coterminal. In general angles θ and θ' are coterminal if

    θ' = θ + 360° = θ + 2 ∏



    Also, since the (x, y) coordinates are the same for coterminal angles on the unit circle, the values for the sine and cosine will be the same. Which leads us to another important definition.

    sin θ = sin (θ + 360°) = sin (θ + 2 ∏)

    cos θ = cos (θ + 360°) = cos (θ + 2 ∏)



    Since the remainder of the trigonometric functions can be defined by the sine and cosine functions, this relationship is true for all the trigonometric functions.



    08.01.04 Cardio Post-Assessment (Fitness for Life)

    teacher-scored 50 points possible 90 minutes

    This assignment asks you to repeat your mile and a half run. You are asked to re-do the assessments from assignment #1 and then compare them to see what progress you have made throughout the class. Download either version of the attachment for instructions.

    08.01.04 Chapter 8 Review 4 - Array Programs (C++)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Do this review and submit it under Topic 3.

    1. Define what is meant by a partially filled array.

    2. Write a C++ function call nameSearch that will search a string array called names for a searchName that is the only parameter of the function. Assume that the array is declared globally and has been filled with maxNames ( a global constant) number of names. The function should return the position of the first occurrence of the name or if it is not in the array, it should return -1.

    3. Write what the following C++ program segment would display if executed.

    int a[ ] = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14};
    int temp, m, n;
    for (m = 4; m > 0; m--)
      {
        n = m -1;
        temp = a[ m ];
        a[ m ] = a[ n ];
        a[ n ] = temp;
      }
    for ( int index = 0; index < 5; index++)
        cout << a[index] << " ";

    4. Study the Selection Sort at http://www.cprogramming.com/tutorial/computersciencetheory/sorting2.html to answer the following.

    In an ascending selection sort, if the original list contained the following names, in what order would the names be in after 3 passes through the sorting process?

    0 Mel
    1 Kevin
    2 Al
    3 Dale
    4 Brenda

    08.01.04 Dialogue of ideas (English 12)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

    Let two voices, A and B, discuss or argue your controversial issue. Set this down in dialogue form without stage directions.

    The main purpose of this is to produce as many ideas about the subject as possible, to explore all sides of an issue without feeling compelled to build up a single case that avoids contradictions. The very process of question-answer, parry-thrust, statement-response compels you, as the writer, to consider different sides of the issue.

    Be careful not to let A and B repeat themselves in circular fashion, or have a monologue in which B is too stupid or acquiescent to hold up his end

    Evaluation:
    This assignment will be evaluated based on the degree to which you demonstrate your understanding of the issue from divergent perspectives. Your ability to develop a meaningful and coherent dialogue will also be considered.

    08.01.04 Exercise 54 Sidetracking (TL1)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 20 minutes

    Exercise 54

    Write a short definition of what sidetracking is:

    Write a fictitious paragraph about a couple using sidetracking.

    08.01.04 Gene Replication –- Guessing a Solution (Math I)

    Yes, I am serious. We are going to guess the equation that describes this problem. Why? How?

    Believe it or not, this is actually a valid way of figuring out an answer. We have a problem, we know a little bit about the problem, but we do not know what the equation is, nor how to derive it. Yes, we know a procedure for finding points in this equation. If this was a line, that would be enough to determine the equation. However, this is not a line, so we just don't know enough about this problem to write an equation. Therefore, we will be guessing at an equation, then fine tuning it to get an equation that fits the data.

    What do we know? When we discussed the procedure for finding certain points on the graph, did it remind you of a problem we had seen before? Maybe a geometric sequence? Maybe the Grand Vizier's Chess problem? Just a little bit.

    In the Grand Vizier's Chess problem, the Grand Vizier requested a single grain of wheat for the first square on the chess board, twice that for the second, twice that for the third, etc.

    In this problem, at time t = 0 min, we have 75 copies of the gene; at time t = 3 min, we have twice that many; at time t = 6 min, we have twice that many, etc.

    The problems are very similar in the way we calculate the points. Therefore, we should expect that the equation we want will be similar to the equation that describes a geometric sequence. The equation for a geometric sequence in general is

    an = a1r(n-1) (eq. 1)



    where an is an arbitrary term in the sequence, a1 is the first term in the sequence, r is the ratio between terms, and n is the position in the sequence.

    For our problem, we want an equation relating the number of copies of genes and the time. Let the number of copies of genes be g; this is the dependent variable. The independent variable is time, and we have been calling this t; we will continue using that notation. How are g and t related to equation 1?

    an is the independent variable. Therefore, for a first approximation, we have the equation

    g = a1r. (eq. 2)



    Notice I dropped the “– 1” part of the equation. This was needed for the sequence, because we started counting at n = 1. This is no longer necessary because we start this process at t = 0. But even if we did not know that, we would want to drop the “– 1” part, because it over-complicates the problem. We want to start with the simplest form we can. We will add our own complications as we refine equation 2. If we need to add or subtract a constant later, we will do this.

    So far we have replaced the variables in the geometric sequence with the variables in our problem. Next, we need to replace the constants in the geometric sequence with the constants in our problem. We know that at t = 0 we have 75 copies of the gene. This corresponds to the term a1. We also know that we double every 3 minutes, so like we did with the Grand Vizier problem, we will let r = 2. Making these changes gives us

    = (75 genes) 2 t. (eq. 3)



    We have already implied that t has units of minutes, we will keep that for the units of t.

    (At this point, some of you may see a problem. Some of you might not. If you see the problem, keep it in the back of your mind, and be impressed with yourself later. If you do not see the problem, it is okay. I will point it out later. It is subtle.)

    This is as far we can go with the 'guessing' part of the equation. Now we need to 'check' the equation, and see how far off we are. We will check this equation by creating a data table and graphing the data on the same axes as the actual data for the problem.

    Using the same values of t as we used before, we get




    As you can see, already, we are pretty far off. The first point is good, the rest, less so. But let's graph this and see how far off we are.

    The graph of this is on the following page. As you can see, the shape is pretty good. We expected this to be more or less like a geometric sequence, so the form is okay. But, the 'guessed' equation is clearly too steep! How can we change the steepness of this graph? Take a second and think about this.

    What would happen if we changed the constant coefficient? Will that help? What about subtracting a constant? Would that help?

    Actually, neither of these things will improve the problem, and both of these things will cause us to lose the one correct point we already have. If you want to try either of those suggestions, go ahead. You will see that while you may be able to shift the graph, neither of these changes will change the steepness of the graph--and that is the real problem.

    One thing we could attempt is to choose a smaller value of r. We know from our experience with geometric sequences that this will make the graph less steep. From our experiences with geometric sequences, we know that r > 1; therefore, a good second approximation might be to let r = 1.5.

    Another thing we could do is to change the exponent. What if instead of the exponent being t, it was t divided by a constant? That might help. What constant? How about 3 min? Why? Well, that is the time given in the problem. It is at least as good a guess as any.

    Question: why wouldn't subtracting a constant from t help? Think about your geometric sequences.




    Okay, I actually want to try both of these. If we change the value of r from 2 to 1.5, equation 3 becomes

    g = (75 genes)(1.5) t (eq. 4)



    If we change the exponent to t divided by 3 min, we get

    (eq. 5)



    We will check these in the same way as we did before: let's pick a few points, make a table and plot the points.




    From the points, I suspect you can see that the equation 5 matches the data, and equation 4 does not. (However, equation 4 is a bit better than equation 3. Maybe we shouldn't give up on that quite yet.) Again, just to verify, here is the graph of these equations compared to the original data set.




    For now, we will stop with equation 5, and call it good. Notice that equation 5 has the advantage that not only does it align with the data, but all the constants are from the problem. The value of r is given in the problem: it is how much this increases in a certain amount of time. The constant coefficient is given in the problem: this is how many genes we started with. Finally, the time we divided t by is also given: it is the amount of time in which the number of genes double.

    Equation 5 is a good equation, in that we are able to see the how the problem relates to the equation.

    All right, let's talk for a second about what is 'wrong' with equation 3 (and 4 actually). What does it mean for something to be raised to an exponent? On the most fundamental level, it means that we multiply that value by itself that many times. In other words,

    1 = (eq. 6)


    2 = × (eq. 7)
    3 = × × (eq. 8)



    etc.

    Therefore, whatever is in the exponent needs to be unitless, not a measurement. How can you raise 2 to the 3 minutes? It is meaningless. By dividing t by 3 min, the term is unitless, and we can raise 2 to that power.



    08.01.04 Housing case studies(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 89: Then do the Housing Case Studies exercise below.
    08.1.4 Housing case studies(IntDes3)08.1.4 Housing case studies(IntDes3)

    08.01.04 Lab: More Fun with Water(Chemistry3)

    teacher-scored 35 points possible 90 minutes

    SUMMARY:
    Most of the Earth is covered by water. It is not only found on the surface, but also in the ground and in the air. Most organisms can't live in it, and can't live without it. It's clear, colorless, odorless and tasteless. It freezes at 0°C (32°F)and boils at 100°C (212°F). The chemical formula for water is H2O. This means that there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Water is amazing!

    MATERIALS:

    Wax paper
    Toothpick
    Detergent (dishwashing soap, hand soap, shampoo, etc.)
    Medicine dropper
    Penny
    Coffee straw
    Normal drink straw
    Large drinking straw
    Ice cubes
    Two Thermometers
    A few people who want to play a game
    Paper clips

    INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES:
    ***************************************************************

    REVISION DATE: 8/10/12 (Copy everything between the asterisks.)

    PART I:
    Tear off a small piece of wax paper and place it on the table. Suck up some water with a medicine dropper. Place a couple of drops on the wax paper. Place a couple of drops of water on a glass surface.

    1. What do the drops look like on the wax paper? What do the drops look like on the glass surface? What do you think accounts for this difference? Take a toothpick and dip the end in a small amount of detergent. Slowly touch the detergent end of the toothpick into the drop of water on the wax paper.

    2. What happens to the drop of water? Why do you think this result happened?

    PART II:
    Get some game-loving people together and let the competition begin. You will need a penny and medicine dropper for this game. The goal of this game is to put the most drops of water on top of the penny without the water running off the penny onto the table. Before you start, have each person guess how many drops of water each penny will hold. The person who can put the most drops on the penny wins.

    1. What were the predictions about how many drops of water the penny could hold?

    2. How many drops of water was the winning person able to fit on the penny?

    3. What did the penny look like right before it leaked onto the table? Repeat the same game, but now cover the surface of the penny with a thin layer of detergent before starting the game. Before you start, predict what will happen.

    4. What were the predictions about how many drops of water the penny could hold with detergent on the surface of the penny?

    5. How many drops of water was the winning person able to fit on the penny?

    6. How do you explain the difference between the penny without detergent and the penny with detergent?

    PART III:
    Take the same game-loving people and give each of them a cup of water that is filled about three-quarters full of water. Everyone should take some paper clips as well. The goal of this game is to be the first person to get a paper clip to float on water. The paper clip should not be bent of poked through the cup or any other clever manipulations. Resist the temptation to use other objects as well. If no one is successful, the very bottom of this sheet will contain suggestions to help you get your paper clip to float.

    1. How did the winning person get their paper clip to float?

    2. When the paper clip floats, look at the surface of the water and describe what it looks like?

    3. Is a paper clip more or less dense than water? How do you know?

    4. Why do you think the paper clip floats?

    PART IV:
    Take your three different sized straws. With a ruler measure and record the diameter of each straw. Dip each straw in a glass of water. Do not put your finger over the top of the straw. With a ruler measure the distance that water has naturally traveled up the straw.

    1. Show your data with the diameter size of each straw as well as the distance that water traveled up the straw.

    2. Did the distance water traveled have anything to do with the diameter of the straw. What did you find?

    PART V:
    Design an experiment to show which is denser: ice or water (solid or liquid.)

    1. Describe your experiment.

    2. What are the results of your experiment?

    3. Why do you think you got the results that you did?

    4. Research and write a 25 word or more explanation of: water surface tension, hydrogen bonds, water polarity, water boiling point, and water cohesion. Make sure you list all of your sources.

    PART VI:
    POST-ACTIVITY QUESTIONS

    1. Describe polarity in water.

    2. Why are hydrogen bonds formed?

    3. Why does water have a higher boiling point that other liquids?

    4. Why does water cling to itself? What could you guess about wax paper and why water clings to it more than a glass surface?

    5. What effect does detergent have on water? Why does this happen?

    6. Describe why surface tension occurs in water?

    7. Why does water tend to travel up thin tubes? 28. Why does water expand when it freezes?

    8. Briefly describe a few ways that you benefit from the unique characteristics of water.

    ***************************************************************

    08.01.04 Original myth (English 10)

    teacher-scored 50 points possible 60 minutes

    USE YOUR IMAGINATION After reading the section on writing sentences (073-101) in Writer’s Inc., write an original myth.
    Remember that myths were told to explain natural phenomena. Choose something in nature and develop a story to explain why.
    Use the information you learn about sentence construction to aid you in writing a smooth moving and descriptive myth. Examples may be: Why does a skunk have a white stripe down its back? Why does a pig have a curly tail? Why does it snow? Why are there seasons? Why do trees lose their leaves? Why so snakes lose their skin?

    Go to Topic 3 (assignments, quizzes and tests) to submit your work, and see any additional instructions from your teacher.

    08.01.04 Topic Two: Other Types of Graphs (Sec Dev Math)



    Each topic is divided into sections that include the following:

    • Warm Up - questions to answer to see if you are ready for the lesson.
    • Presentation - high quality video with excellent illustrations that teaches the topic.
    • Worked Examples - examples that are worked out step-by-step with narration.
    • Practice - quiz problems on the topic covered.
    • Review - practice test to check your knowledge before moving on.

    You are not required to complete every section. However, REMEMBER the goal is to MASTER the material!!



    08.01.04 Unit 8 test (MAP)

    computer-scored 63 points possible 60 minutes

    Take the unit 8 test.

    08.01.05 - Angle Bisectors of a Triangle (Geometry)

    In a triangle, each angle has a bisector. You may remember constructing these in first quarter when we were looking for axes of symmetry. The angle bisector is a slightly more complicated construction than the perpendicular bisector, but it isn't that bad, and you should be able to do it.

    However, I haven't walked you through this construction yet this quarter, so just as a reminder....

    Consider ΔTLM from before. Construct the angle bisector for ∠T. Start by placing the stationary end of your compass at point T. Open it to an arbitrary span, but less than the shortest adjacent side. Construct an arc that intersects both adjacent sides, as shown. Then move the stationary end of your compass to one of these intersections. It doesn't matter if you change the span. Construct an arc that goes through the middle of the triangle.




    Now, without changing the span, move the stationary end of the compass to the other intersection and construct the arc that intersects the previous one. Finally, draw the line connecting the vertex with this intersection.




    This line is the perpendicular bisector of ∠T.

    Extend the line until it intersects and erase any parts that lie outside of ΔTLM.




    We can repeat these steps for each of the angles. I will not go through the construction again, but I will show the steps.




    Note: the inside of this triangle is very cluttered. You may easily forget which arc is which. When performing this construction, you may wish to use a different colored pencil for each angle, so you don't get mixed up.

    All right, that is weird. We take an arbitrarily shaped triangle, draw three lines and they all intersect in one point. We take the same arbitrary triangle, draw three different lines, and these all intersect in the same point.

    Either there is something special about triangles in general, or this isn't really an arbitrary triangle. None of the sides are the same, none of the angles are the same. It doesn't look special....

    I don't think this is a special triangle. Rather, it is the point that is special. We can prove that these lines all meet in one point. Like we did before with the circumcenter, all we need to do to prove that all three angle bisectors meet in one point is to prove that the intersection of 2 angle bisectors lies on the angle bisector of the third angle.

    Given ΔBNH with the bisectors of ∠B and ∠N intersecting at point P as shown. Prove that point P lies on the bisector of ∠H.






    Statements Reasons
    1. Point P is the intersection of the bisectors of ∠B and ∠N.
    2. Construct segments , , and .
    3. PS = PE, PS = PL
    4. PL = PE
    5. P is equidistant from NH and BH.
    6. Point P lies on the bisector of ∠H.
    1. Given
    2. Construct the perpendicular to a line through a point not on the line.
    3. All points on the angle bisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle.
    4. If two things equal a third thing, they equal each other.
    5. Definition of distance between a point and a line.
    6. If a point is equidistant between 2 sides of an angle, the point lies on the bisector of this angle.
    • QED



    Yeah! It is special point, not a special triangle.



    08.01.05 - Exponential Equations (Math I)

    In the previous sections, we were able to take a set of rules for how a problem changes with time, convert it to a set of data, graph this data, and guess at an equation to model the problem. Finally, we arrived at the equation

    (eq. 5)

    We would like to convert this to a more general equation. So, consider the parts: is the dependent variable, so in general we would call this y. 75 genes are the initial conditions, a constant given in the problem, therefore we could replace this with any constant, such as . 2 is the ratio, and this is also given in the problem, therefore we wish to replace it with a constant, such as b. t is the independent variable, in general we would call this x. (Actually, you are more likely to see this left as t, because most exponential equations are functions of time. But for now, let's let it be x.) Finally, 3 minutes is also a constant given in the problem, so we could just call this c. Making these substitutions we get a general exponential equation that looks like

    (eq. 9)

    Of course, as this is a function of x, we could also write

    (eq. 10)

    This is a good enough general form for many problems involving exponential functions. The variables are y and x, like we expect. The constant is the initial conditions, and should be given in the problem. The constant b<?em> is the ratio: the function doubles, the function halves, the function triples, the function increases by 1.5 times, whatever. The constant c is how long it takes the function to do b: how long does it take to double? how long does it take to triple? how long does it take to increase or decrease by however many times?

    Later, you may see more complex expressions, but for now, equation 10 is about as complicated as we wish to get.

    The next thing we want to do is to practice using our new and exciting general equation to generate problem specific equations, so consider the following problem.

    One of the classic problems that can be modeled with an exponential equation is the growth of bacteria in an ideal situation. As the bacteria has nothing to limit its growth, each bacteria will split into 2 bacteria in a certain amount of time. If the conditions are ideal, each of those bacteria will survive, and after maturing each of these bacteria will also split into 2 bacteria. This problem is similar to the DNA problem we considered earlier.

    A certain type of bacteria doubles every 4 days. Assume we started with 600 individual cells. Write an equation that models the growth of this bacteria.

    We have the general form of this equation, we just need to figure out what terms go where. Let b equal the number of bacteria we have after a certain amount of time; this is the dependent variable. Let t be the time, in days; this is the independent variable. 600 bacteria is the initial conditions. The ratio is 2, because the bacteria is doubling, and the amount of time this takes to occur is 4 days. Therefore, our initial equation is

    (eq. 11)

    We can use this equation to find the number of bacteria after 1 week, 12 days, or any other amount of time we wish to consider. How about 7 days? To do this, we simply replace t with 7 days.

    (eq. 12)


    (eq. 12a)


    b = (600 bacteria) 2 1.75 (eq. 12b)


    b = (600 bacteria)(3.363585661….) (eq. 12c)


    b ≈ 2018 bacteria (eq. 12d)

    If we wished to find the number of bacteria after 12 days, we would replace t with 12 days, etc.

    Of course, the ideal situation that we used to generate this exponential growth does not last forever-- the nutrients get depleted, the waste accumulates. These combine to stop the growth, and cause the population to die off, also at an exponential rate. Consider the following problem:

    A certain population of bacteria has exceeded the number of bacteria that can survive in the nutrient solution provided. In this situation, the population will reduce by a third every 5 days. At the population peak there were 150 million (150 000 000) individual cells. Write an equation that models the decline of this population.

    We will solve this in the same way as before. The dependent variable is still the number of bacteria after a certain amount of time, b. The independent variable is the time, t, again in days. The initial number of bacteria is 150 000 000 cells. The population is declining at a rate of every 5 days. Entering these constants and variables into our general equation we get

    (eq. 13)

    If we wish to find out how many bacteria are still alive after 2 weeks, we would replace t in this equation with 14 days. This will give us

    (eq. 14)


    (eq. 14a)


    (eq. 14b)


    b = (150 000 000 bacteria)(0.0461381829….) (eq. 14c)


    b ≈ 6 920 727 bacteria (eq. 14d)

    So, you get the general idea? Great.

    08.01.05 - Using Vectors: Division (Physics)

    Division isn't really something you do with vectors. The only possible operation would be division by a scalar. However, this is simply multiplication by a fraction.

    Example:



    This is a vector that is in the same direction as B, but with half the magnitude.





    08.01.05 Defining Trigonometric Functions - Links (PreCalc)



    Use these links to review angles if you need the review. They can also be used for supplemental instruction and additional practice.



    08.01.05 Exercises 55 - 57/Unit Submission (TL1)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

    GOSSIP

    Confessions of a Teenage Gossip

    I knew it might be a lie. And if it were true, I knew she wouldn't want anybody to know. But I lived for gossip, and I spread it faster than the six o'clock news. I couldn't control myself. Here's what happened.

    By chance, I ended up at Gail's house one Saturday night with a small "in" group. I didn't know her well, but a couple of guys invited me along. I was surprised to see Seth, the "big man on campus" there without his girlfriend Lorita. Lorita was Gail's best friend. I was even more surprised to see how Seth and Gail seemed to flirt when they thought nobody was watching. Or was I imagining things? I couldn't tell for sure, but later when they disappeared for awhile, I was convinced I had my scoop!

    SPREADING THE WORD

    I was as excited as a runner at the starting block. Next morning, I called my networks. I reached three friends. (I planned to call Lorita and warn her about Seth's cheating as a finale.) First, I casually dropped the fact that I'd been at Gail's small party the night before. (Instantly, I rose a notch in their estimation.) Then, in a confidential tone, as if delivering the most shocking secret of all time, said, "Did you know about Gail and Seth?" Now, before I go on, I want to ask you, what's wrong with a little juicy gossip? It's as old as history itself. In fact, the Greek writer Hesiod called gossip "a kind of divinity," both because it's so powerful, and because people seem to worship it (no more than yours truly). After all, if a friend called you up and said, "I have some great dirt. Want to know?", could you say "no"?

    Exercise 55

    Do you know anyone who gossips? How does it usually work out?

    WHAT IS GOSSIP?

    Now you might be wondering, what is gossip anyway? "Gossip is a piece of information shared by two people about a third party who isn't there," says Gary Alan Fine, a sociology professor and gossip expert at the University of Minnesota. Usually the information is of a personal nature.

    False gossip is obviously worse than true gossip. But the person who hears gossip often doesn't know the difference. (After all, the one person who knows for sure isn't there!) What makes gossip so effective is whether it's believable, Fine says. For instance, the first friends I called to tell about Gail and Seth, replied, "You're crazy. I don't know Gail, but she doesn't seem the type." (I was so annoyed at this reaction I considered spreading gossip about this friend)

    WHY WE GOSSIP

    Gossip can be one of the most powerful weapons with which we can hurt someone. "Gossip is often about our vices or things we don't want others to know about us." Fine says. (Wouldn't you rather die than have the whole school know your deepest secrets?) That's why I wasn't too surprised when the second friend I gossiped to about Gail and Seth cautioned me, "If this gets around, you could wreck Seth and Lorita's relationship. And Gail and Lorita's friendship." Does this mean that gossip is always vicious or harmful? No. "Gossip has a bum rap and doesn't deserve it," says Jack Levin, a sociology professor at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. Gossip that is both true and does not hurt someone has very important functions, he says. What are they?

    Gossip helps to connect us to a social group.
    "Through gossip we define the people we care about, who we like and who we don't like," says Levin. For example, he says, two teens who gossip together are really saying to one another: "I feel comfortable enough with you to gossip. We're part of the same group."

    Gossip helps us decide what is acceptable behavior in our social group, Fine adds. For example, in a group of close friends, each member's conduct is under "a kind of constant review," notes British anthropologist Max Gluckman.

    If someone goes too far in his or her actions, people react with gossip, which is a way of saying, "Our group doesn't like your behavior. If you're not careful, we'll give you a bad reputation and exclude you from the group." So, if my gossip about Gail and Seth were true, for instance, it might alert people to the fact that these two are unreliable friends. Gossip can be a form of idle entertainment, or as one sociologist called it, "intellectual chewing gum." What's more relaxing to an avid gossip than chatting on the phone or thumbing magazines such as People? However, what often makes gossip so powerful is its more negative aspects--as only I know too well!

    AIMING TO HURT

    When is gossip harmful? Negative gossip has a hostile aim, says Levin. The person who spreads it wants to hurt the object in some way, even if the person is unaware of his own aim.

    MORE CONFESSIONS OF THE TEENAGE GOSSIP

    So when I gossiped about Gail and Seth, the truth is I wanted to put them down. Why? I was jealous of them for being so popular, and because they seemed to have it all. Of course, I also gossiped about them because I thought they were important, and wished they were my friends. Finally, I wanted to show my group that I was "in the know."

    Negative gossip is double-edged. It allows people to enjoy the not-very-nice aspects of human nature by talking about them, and at the same time condemns them. In other words, I can spread a rumor about Gail and Seth's behavior and pass judgment on them at the same time. It's like having my cake and eating it, too.

    The trouble is, gossip is double-edged in another way. It can hurt the person who gossips as much as, or more than, the targets--especially when the gossip is false. Gossip places the person who spreads it at the center of attention, and makes him/her feel important, but not for long. "A person who gossips too much may lose status in his friends' eyes," Levin says. "He/she becomes defined as a big-mouth who can't be trusted."

    Get the picture? When I gossiped about Gail and Seth to my third friend, who loves to dish the dirt as well as anyone, she said, "Wait 'til I tell Marc, Leah, and Nathan!" But my friend didn't just stop with them. Oh no. My friend went right back and told Gail!

    Two days later she stormed up to me at school and chewed me out in front of one million people 'til I wanted to crawl into a locker. "First of all, I didn't invite you to my house. Second, Seth and I are best friends and that's it. Your gossip is nothing but lies! And third, the next time you think about spreading rumors, just remember, nobody will believe you. Because everybody in this school knows what a big-mouth you are!"

    As if that wasn't enough, I think everyone I'd ever gossiped about stood and cheered her on! Yes, I found out the hard way. For teens, gossip is like dynamite. As Levin says, "Rumor that means little to a 26-year old can be devastating to a 16-year-old." Teens are beginning to create and figure out a social life for themselves. And gossip really can help make or break reputations. After all, my reputation was finished.

    Exercise 56

    Write about someone you know who was badly hurt by gossip.

    HOW TO HANDLE GOSSIP ABOUT YOURSELF AND OTHERS

    If you or a friend is the object of false gossip, what should you do? A lot of people think the best way to handle negative gossip is to remain silent. But, according to Jack Levin, the sociology professor from Boston, silence only makes matters worse. It allows the gossip to spread without any answer, so people are more likely to believe it.

    HERE'S WHAT YOU DO!

    "Confront gossip you hear quickly and directly," Levin says. Let the person who spreads the gossip know it's a lie. If you find out the source of the rumor, tell that person, too. Use friends to support you. "Find people who are reputable--the person everyone can believe--and use them as allies,"
    Levin says. "Make sure they let everyone know the gossip is a lie.

    Remember that gossip goes stale very quickly. The hot news today in school is tomorrow's memory - often replaced by new gossip.

    What if the gossip is true? " "Don't try to duck a true rumor," Levin says. "It's better to fess up." But, of course that's up to you.

    Exercise 57

    Answer the following questions:
    CONFESSIONS OF A TEENAGE GOSSIP WORK SHEET
    1. What did the Greek writer, Hesiod, call gossip?
    2. What is gossip?
    3. _____gossip is obviously _______than true gossip. The problem is the person who hears gossip often doesn't know the _________.
    4. What makes gossip effective is whether or not it's ________.
    5. Why do we gossip?
    a. __________________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________________
    c. __________________________________________________________
    6. Is gossip always vicious and harmful? ____Why? Or Why not?
    a. __________________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________________
    c. __________________________________________________________
    7. When is gossip harmful?
    8. What is double-edged gossip?
    9. Why is negative gossip double-edged?
    a. __________________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________________
    c. __________________________________________________________
    10. Teen gossip can be like_______________.
    11. How can you handle gossip about yourself and others in a healthy way?
    a. __________________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________________
    c. __________________________________________________________
    d. __________________________________________________________
    12. The next time you think about spreading gossip, just remember?___________.

    Exercise 58

    Part A:
    Write a two-page paper, single spaced about what you learned in Teen Living One. Choose any of the principles presented in the course and relate it to your life and tell how that concept has helped you or changed your life for the better in some way.

    Part B:
    Write a brief paragraph about your impressions of the teacher. Talk about what you liked and if you have ideas for improvement, please share those also. Also include your counselor's name and email address here. :)

    08.01.05 Exponential Equations (Math I)

    In the previous sections, we were able to take a set of rules for how a problem changes with time, convert it to a set of data, graph this data, and guess at an equation to model the problem. Finally, we arrived at the equation

    (eq. 5)



    We would like to convert this to a more general equation. So, consider the parts: g is the dependent variable, so in general we would call this y. 75 genes are the initial conditions, a constant given in the problem, therefore we could replace this with any constant, such as a. 2 is the ratio, and this is also given in the problem, therefore we wish to replace it with a constant, such as b. t is the independent variable, in general we would call this x. (Actually, you are more likely to see this left as t, because most exponential equations are functions of time. But for now, let's let it be x.) Finally, 3 minutes is also a constant given in the problem, so we could just call this c. Making these substitutions we get a general exponential equation that looks like

    (eq. 9)



    Of course, as this is a function of x, we could also write

    (eq. 10)



    This is a good enough general form for many problems involving exponential functions. The variables are y and x, like we expect. The constant a is the initial conditions, and should be given in the problem. The constant b is the ratio: the function doubles, the function halves, the function triples, the function increases by 1.5 times, whatever. The constant c is how long it takes the function to do b: how long does it take to double? how long does it take to triple? how long does it take to increase or decrease by however many times?

    Later, you may see more complex expressions, but for now, equation 10 is about as complicated as we wish to get.

    The next thing we want to do is to practice using our new and exciting general equation to generate problem specific equations, so consider the following problem.

    One of the classic problems that can be modeled with an exponential equation is the growth of bacteria in an ideal situation. As the bacteria has nothing to limit its growth, each bacteria will split into 2 bacteria in a certain amount of time. If the conditions are ideal, each of those bacteria will survive, and after maturing each of these bacteria will also split into 2 bacteria. This problem is similar to the DNA problem we considered earlier.

    A certain type of bacteria doubles every 4 days. Assume we started with 600 individual cells. Write an equation that models the growth of this bacteria.

    We have the general form of this equation, we just need to figure out what terms go where. Let b equal the number of bacteria we have after a certain amount of time; this is the dependent variable. Let t be the time, in days; this is the independent variable. 600 bacteria is the initial conditions. The ratio is 2, because the bacteria is doubling, and the amount of time this takes to occur is 4 days. Therefore, our initial equation is

    (eq. 11)



    We can use this equation to find the number of bacteria after 1 week, 12 days, or any other amount of time we wish to consider. How about 7 days? To do this, we simply replace t with 7 days.

    (eq. 12)

    (eq. 12a)

    b = (600 bacteria) 2 1.75 (eq. 12b)

    b = (600 bacteria)(3.363585661….) (eq. 12c)

    b ≈ 2018 bacteria (eq. 12d)



    If we wished to find the number of bacteria after 12 days, we would replace t with 12 days, etc.

    Of course, the ideal situation that we used to generate this exponential growth does not last forever - the nutrients get depleted, the waste accumulates. These combine to stop the growth, and cause the population to die off, also at an exponential rate. Consider the following problem.

    A certain population of bacteria has exceeded the number of bacteria that can survive in the nutrient solution provided. In this situation, the population will reduce by a third every 5 days. At the population peak there were 150 million (150 000 000) individual cells. Write an equation that models the decline of this population.

    We will solve this in the same way as before. The dependent variable is still the number of bacteria after a certain amount of time, b. The independent variable is the time, t, again in days. The initial number of bacteria is 150 000 000 cells. The population is declining at a rate of every 5 days. Entering these constants and variables into our general equation we get

    (eq. 13)



    If we wish to find out how many bacteria are still alive after 2 weeks, we would replace t in this equation with 14 days. This will give us

    (eq. 14)

    (eq. 14a)

    (eq. 14b)


    b = (150 000 000 bacteria)(0.0461381829….) (eq. 14c)

    b ≈ 6 920 727 bacteria (eq. 14d)



    So, you get the general idea? Great.



    08.01.05 Housing Interviews(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 90: Do an interview with someone using the "Housing Interview Form."
    08.1.5 Housing Interviews(IntDes3)08.1.5 Housing Interviews(IntDes3)
    08.1.7 Wall Paper(IntDes3)08.1.7 Wall Paper(IntDes3)

    08.01.05 Journal entry: Formulating a position (English 12)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 60 minutes

    Now that you're firmly grounded in both sides of the issue, you need to start formulating your position. No fence-sitting here--based on your thorough understanding of both viewpoints, where do you stand?

    Informally justify your stance with specific reasons and evidence. What do you concede are the most compelling arguments for the opposing viewpoint? Why do you feel your reasons are superior?

    Evaluation:
    Journal entries are an opportunity to explore ideas and develop fluency with language in an informal context. You will be assessed a point value from 1 to 10 points, based on the effort and thoughtfulness demonstrated in your response.

    08.01.05 Quiz 21 (Sec Dev Math)

    computer-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Now that you have completed the NROC's Lesson on Statistical Graphs and Tables you should be prepared for Quiz 21.
     

    08.01.05 Unit 8 Test (Fitness for Life)

    computer-scored 80 points possible 45 minutes

    Take the unit 8 test. This will not be an open book test and it will be timed.

    08.01.05 Words derived from mythology (English 10)

    teacher-scored 52 points possible 90 minutes

    Write the meaning of each of the following words listed and the god, goddess or mythical character from which the word is derived.

    1. Cereal
    2. Herculean
    3. Bacchic
    4. Tantalize
    5. Panic
    6. June
    7. Morphine
    8. Sypher
    9. Chaotic
    10. Titanic
    11. Helium
    12. Martial
    13. Iridescent
    14. Vulcanization
    15. Nectar
    16. Siren
    17. Boreal
    18. Auroral
    19. Hypnosis
    20. Narcissistic
    21. Aphrodisiac
    22. Music
    23. Aegis
    24. Vestal
    25. Hymn
    26. Insomnia

    08.01.05 Words derived from mythology links (English 10)

    08.01.06 - Reporting Numbers (Math I)

    One of our major mathematical goals in this class is to recognize that math is merely a tool you use to solve real problems. Real problems come from measurements that we make. We briefly discussed earlier in the quarter that when we make a measurement, we need units. In these problems we have had units of minutes, days, number of genes, and number of cells of bacteria.

    Also, when making measurements, the numbers get rounded off. By how much? well, it depends on the tool you are using to make the measurement. If you are measuring the width of your table, you might round it off to the nearest quarter inch. If you are measuring the length of your driveway, you may wish to round it off to the nearest yard. If you are measuring the number of bacteria in your petri dish, you may wish to round it off to the nearest 100 cells. If you are measuring the number of genes in your solution, you may wish to round it off to the nearest 25 genes.

    When you make calculations with your measured value, you don't magically know more about the problem than you did when you originally made the measurements. Consider our problems above. I rounded the answers off to whole numbers of bacteria, because clearly we do not have fractions of cells (as least not living ones). However, even rounding off to whole numbers is really not enough. Do you or I or our biology teacher actually believe that if we started with 150 million bacteria, a number we rounded off to the nearest 10 million, 2 weeks ago that we can say with any certainty that today we have six million, nine hundred twenty thousand, seven hundred twenty seven bacteria today? Not very likely!
    How many should we say? There are actually very detailed rules for how precisely you need to report your answer. These rules all go back to the fundamental question: how well do you really know this measurement?

    One way we have figured things out in this class is with inductive reasoning. In inductive reasoning, you look at many examples, then use that to determine a general truth. This is different from deductive reasoning, where you start with a general truth, and apply this to specific examples. Using deductive reasoning, you can prove that something is true in general. Using inductive reasoning, you can only prove that something is not true in general. However, it is a good way to start solving a problem, or looking for a general solution.

    Rather than getting into the rules for how to know how to report your answer, which can seem very arbitrary unless you really understand what you mean when you make a measurement, we will look at several examples. See if you can't use inductive reasoning to determine how to know how precise an answer you should report.

    Consider the bacterial growth problem. Let's make a table with a set of data for the number of bacteria vs. the number of days and compare this to the number of bacteria we can reasonably report.

    All right, without any extra input from me on this matter, can you find a reason for reporting these values? What is the difference between the third and fourth column? That is a judgment call. What is wrong with the fifth column? Would it be okay to just report the second column? Why not?

    Next, consider the problem with the decaying bacteria. Again, let's look at the numbers we calculate vs the numbers we should report, or should not report.

    All right, what general statements can you make about this set of numbers. Did you notice any trends? Did you see anything that changed as the numbers get smaller?

    In this data set, as well as the previous one, I sometimes rounded off later than normal. For example, instead of rounding off 96 659 102 to 97 000 000, I rounded it to 96 500 000. That is a judgment call. It would probably also been okay to round that off to 97 000 000. Can you think of any reason why I would round it off to 96 500 000 instead? Sometimes in your homework you will be asked to report your answer to “enough” decimal places. How do you know what that is?

    In sciences and economics and statistics, the precision that you report an answer is very important. Again, we are not going into the tedious rules about how to know what precision to report your answer to, but I will give you a few rules of thumb that people working in these fields have expressed to me.

    • If in doubt, report numbers to more precision than you really think you know. Never report your numbers to less precision.
    • NEVER report calculator spew.

    In choosing to report 96 500 000 instead of 97 000 000, I was obeying the first of these rules. The fourth column in both data sets represents reporting to more precision than you really should. If you are unsure of exactly the precision to report your answer, it is better to err on the side of just a bit more precise than you think you should report. More than that would have been unreasonable.

    In both the previous sets of data, the fifth column is the wrong answer. It is not precise enough. If you graph this data, it will not begin to resemble the curve we know the data should have. This is also following the first rule, never report a number to less precision than you know.

    So, what is calculator spew? The second column in both of these examples is calculator spew. The second data set is a bit better, as I rounded to the nearest bacteria. But both data sets are calculator spew! You do not know the number of bacteria to fractions of bacteria. You do not know them to the individual bacteria. These are all examples of calculator spew, and is a very, very, very, bad habit to get into.

    Consider the following additional example. Say I have a textbook with a width of 16.5 cm, a height of 24.3 cm, and a depth of 3.2 cm. The volume of this book would be the width times the height times the depth or

    V = w h d (eq. 15)
    V = (16.7 cm)(25.3 cm)(3.2 cm) (eq. 16)

    If I enter these numbers into my calculator, I find that the volume of my book is 1352.032 cm3. That is calculator spew! I do not know the volume of my book to the thousandths place. I only measured it to the tenths place. I certainly did not magically measure it better because I used those measurements to make a calculation. In this case, my best answer would probably be

    V = 1350 cm3 (eq. 16a)

    Why?

    If you are not yet comfortable with reporting answers to the correct precision, it is okay. We will come back to this topic again in the class.

    08.01.06 - The Center of a Triangle, part 1 -- External Links (Geometry)

    The first link is Euclid's circumcenter and incenter constructions. The remaining links are a more modern take on the problem.



    08.01.06 - Using Vectors: Vector Components (Physics)

    As mere mortals, it is easier for us to take the components of vectors and treat the components separately. do you remember I claimed that perpendicular vectors do not interact with each other? Do you remember from the first quarter that I claimed you really only need three directions to identify all space, that any other direction was just a combination of the three ordinal directions (we called these "x", "y" and "z")? We are going to make use of that now.

    If I take some vector A and place it on an "x", "y" grid, so that the tail is at the origin, the ordered pair that describes the location of the head of the vector make up the components of the vector. Example:




    The ordered pair that defines the head of vector A is (-3.3,2.3). So the "x" component of A is -3.3, written



    and the "y" component of A is 2.3, written



    For any real vector, these values would also have units, meters for a displacement, meters/second for velocity, Newtons for force, etc.

    The most straight forward way of describing vector A is in component form. This requires the use of unit vectors.



    08.01.06 Activity logs 10-12 (Fitness for Life)

    teacher-scored 150 points possible 270 minutes

    Send in activity logs 10-12 to your instructor by regular mail.

    08.01.06 Argumentative essay (English 12)

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 210 minutes

    As a result of this assignment, the student will:


    • formulate and defend an opinion on a controversial issue
    • learn to write persuasively
    • learn how to structure an effective argumentative essay

    Based on your research and consideration of both sides of the controversial issue in question, you will now need to formulate a statement that effectively captures your personal stance on the issue. This statement will serve as the thesis statement for the argumentative essay you will then write. Your objective will be to defend the validity of your position by anticipating the opposing side's arguments, conceding their legitimacy where appropriate, countering with your own superior arguments, and offering a viable conclusion. I like to refer to this strategy as "The Four C's of Argumentation":

    1. Context: This refers to the introductory portion of your essay where you provide any necessary background material for your audience to have an appreciable understanding of the basic nature of the issue. Consider giving examples, quoting authorities, or simply explaining the issue. If the issue might strike readers as unimportant, state explicitly why you think it is important and why, in your view, they should think so too. Somewhere in the introductory section of your essay, you need to clearly state your thesis (i.e., of the various sides to the issue, where do you stand?). You may want to consider qualifying your thesis to account for exceptions to your arguments. (You may find the resource entitled "Writing introductions to argumentative essays" helpful for getting your essay started.)

  • Concede: Consider making concessions to the opposing viewpoint. Try to find common ground with opponents by acknowledging the legitimacy of their concerns. Show them where you share their values, interests, and assumptions. Note that this does not mean you're "giving in." Acknowledging the legitimacy of certain aspects of opposing viewpoints has the duel advantage of lessening the psychological distance between you and your opposition and mitigating the impact of that prospective argument when it is used against your position.
  • Counter: Having anticipated opposing arguments and made concessions where appropriate, you will need to refute opposing viewpoints and buttress your position with your own compelling arguments. Avoid attacking your opponents. Instead, provide solid evidence--quotes from authorities, case studies, facts and statistics from reputable sources--to convince your readers that you can objectively demonstrate the superiority of your position.
  • Conclude: In your concluding remarks, you may want to recap important points. Additionally, you could state a course of action or a direction the issue should take. You can restate a stronger point of view, more clarified than your original view of the issue, or you can propose a compromise. (You may find the resource entitled "Writing conclusions to argumentative essays" helpful for concluding your essay.)

    Remember, your essay should be an outgrowth of your previous work in this unit. You need to deal with the substance of the issue that you have discovered in the course of your research and exploration. Be careful to avoid the use of logical fallacies that cloud your logic and hamper your ability to effectively persuade your audience and make sure to provide lots of solid evidence to substantiate your claims.
  • Evaluation:
    This essay will be assessed using the Six-Trait evaluation rubric developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. It is based on the idea that each piece of writing may be evaluated in six distinct areas: ideas/content, organization, sentence fluency, word choice, voice, and conventions. Each of these components are ranked on a scale of 1-5 (1 representing poor and 5 excellent). The sum of the values of the six components could represent a maximum score of 30 points.

    08.01.06 Argumentative essay links (English 12)

    08.01.06 Defining Trigonometric Functions - Links (PreCalc)



    Use these links for supplemental instruction and additional practice.



    08.01.06 Dream House exercise(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 92: Do the "Dream House" exercise.
    08.1.6 Dream House exercise(IntDes3)08.1.6 Dream House exercise(IntDes3)

    08.01.06 Reporting Numbers (Math I)

    One of our major mathematical goals in this class is to recognize that math is merely a tool you use to solve real problems. Real problems come from measurements that we make. We briefly discussed earlier in the quarter that when we make a measurement, we need units. In these problems we have had units of minutes, days, number of genes, and number of cells of bacteria.

    Also, when making measurements, the numbers get rounded off. By how much? well, it depends on the tool you are using to make the measurement. If you are measuring the width of your table, you might round it off to the nearest quarter inch. If you are measuring the length of your driveway, you may wish to round it off to the nearest yard. If you are measuring the number of bacteria in your petri dish, you may wish to round it off to the nearest 100 cells. If you are measuring the number of genes in your solution, you may wish to round it off to the nearest 25 genes.

    When you make calculations with your measured value, you don't magically know more about the problem than you did when you originally made the measurements. Consider our problems above. I rounded the answers off to whole numbers of bacteria, because clearly we do not have fractions of cells (as least not living ones). However, even rounding off to whole numbers is really not enough. Do you or I or our biology teacher actually believe that if we started with 150 million bacteria, a number we rounded off to the nearest 10 million, 2 weeks ago that we can say with any certainty that today we have six million, nine hundred twenty thousand, seven hundred twenty seven bacteria today? Not very likely!

    How many should we say? There are actually very detailed rules for how precisely you need to report your answer. These rules all go back to the fundamental question: how well do you really know this measurement?

    One way we have figured things out in this class is with inductive reasoning. In inductive reasoning, you look at many examples, then use that to determine a general truth. This is different from deductive reasoning, where you start with a general truth, and apply this to specific examples. Using deductive reasoning, you can prove that something is true in general. Using inductive reasoning, you can only prove that something is not true in general. However, it is a good way to start solving a problem, or looking for a general solution.

    Rather than getting into the rules for how to know how to report your answer, which can seem very arbitrary unless you really understand what you mean when you make a measurement, we will look at several examples. See if you can't use inductive reasoning to determine how to know how precise an answer you should report.

    Consider the bacterial growth problem. Let's make a table with a set of data for the number of bacteria vs. the number of days and compare this to the number of bacteria we can reasonably report.




    All right, without any extra input from me on this matter, can you find a reason for reporting these values? What is the difference between the third and fourth column? That is a judgment call. What is wrong with the fifth column? Would it be okay to just report the second column? Why not?

    Next, consider the problem with the decaying bacteria. Again, let's look at the numbers we calculate vs the numbers we should report, or should not report.





    All right, what general statements can you make about this set of numbers. Did you notice any trends? Did you see anything that changed as the numbers get smaller?

    In this data set, as well as the previous one, I sometimes rounded off later than normal. For example, instead of rounding off 96 659 102 to 97 000 000, I rounded it to 96 500 000. That is a judgment call. It would probably also been okay to round that off to 97 000 000. Can you think of any reason why I would round it off to 96 500 000 instead? Sometimes in your homework you will be asked to report your answer to “enough” decimal places. How do you know what that is?

    In sciences and economics and statistics, the precision that you report an answer is very important. Again, we are not going into the tedious rules about how to know what precision to report your answer to, but I will give you a few rules of thumb that people working in these fields have expressed to me.

    • If in doubt, report numbers to more precision than you really think you know. Never report your numbers to less precision.
    • NEVER report calculator spew.



    In choosing to report 96 500 000 instead of 97 000 000, I was obeying the first of these rules. The fourth column in both data sets represents reporting to more precision than you really should. If you are unsure of exactly the precision to report your answer, it is better to err on the side of just a bit more precise than you think you should report. More than that would have been unreasonable.

    In both the previous sets of data, the fifth column is the wrong answer. It is not precise enough. If you graph this data, it will not begin to resemble the curve we know the data should have. This is also following the first rule, never report a number to less precision than you know.

    So, what is calculator spew? The second column in both of these examples is calculator spew. The second data set is a bit better, as I rounded to the nearest bacteria. But both data sets are calculator spew! You do not know the number of bacteria to fractions of bacteria. You do not know them to the individual bacteria. These are all examples of calculator spew, and is a very, very, very, bad habit to get into.

    Consider the following additional example. Say I have a textbook with a width of 16.5 cm, a height of 24.3 cm, and a depth of 3.2 cm. The volume of this book would be the width times the height times the depth or

    V = w h d (eq. 15)

    V = (16.7 cm)(25.3 cm)(3.2 cm) (eq. 16)



    If I enter these numbers into my calculator, I find that the volume of my book is 1352.032 cm3. That is calculator spew! I do not know the volume of my book to the thousandths place. I only measured it to the tenths place. I certainly did not magically measure it better because I used those measurements to make a calculation. In this case, my best answer would probably be

    V = 1350 cm3 (eq. 16a)



    Why?

    If you are not yet comfortable with reporting answers to the correct precision, it is okay. We will come back to this topic again in the class.



    08.01.06 Two page paper (Teen Living)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 90 minutes

    Two-Page Paper
    Write a two-page, single-spaced paper on a topic relating to the subject matter of this quarter. An essential part of the paper is saying how this topic affected you or changed your behavior. You must have at least three resources on the topic.

    08.01.07 - More Triangle Relations -- Practice (Geometry)

    self-scored (no gradebook points) 0 points possible 30 minutes

    Practice the material covered in these lessons using the interactive web sites below.

    Perpendicular Bisector: Use this applet for a visual explanation of the proof about bisectors in the homework.

    Hospital Locator: This activity uses the perpendicular bisector and the circumcircle to find the location of a hospital that is equally convenient to three cities. What shapes of triangles does it actually make sense to try a to locate the hospital this way? What shape of triangle is it stupid to locate the hospital this way?

    Triangles, Bisectors and Circumcircles: This activity allows you to change the shape of a triangle, shows how the perpendicular bisectors change, and lets you determine how to circumscribe a circle from these lines. Use these sites for hints on the homework questions.

    Half Angle: This activity allows you to see how the incenter and inscribed circle changes as the triangle changes. How does the shape of the triangle change the location of the incenter?



    08.01.07 - Using Vectors: Unit Vectors (Physics)

    A unit vector is a vector with a magnitude of 1 in the direction desired. Therefore, there is a unit vector for every arbitrary direction you are interested in. However, we are only interested in the unit vectors in the "x", "y", and "z" directions. Later we will consider different sets of three ordinal directions.

    The three Cartesian unit vectors are , , and , in the "x", "y", and "z" directions respectively. For convenience sake, we will mostly use i, j, and k. But you should be familiar with the hat notation. If you take additional physics and higher level math classes, you will be expected to recognize that a hat indicates a unit vector, no matter what it is named.

    There are also unit vectors to describe cylindrical and spherical polar coordinate systems, or, for that matter, any system you may wish to use. However, for this class, we will mostly stick to i, j, and k.

    This illustration is of the right hand rule for determining directions. The x-axis is in the same direction as your right thumb, the y-axis is in the same direction as your index finger, and the z-axis is in the same direction as your middle finger when you hold your hand as shown in the illustration.





    08.01.07 Exponential Functions -- Assignment 1 (Math I)

    teacher-scored 70 points possible 60 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 08 Exponential Functions -- Assignment 1
    Writing Equations

    Print out the attached assignment and complete the assignment in the space provided and complete the graphs on graph paper or with an appropriate graphing program. You may use additional paper if needed. Once you have completed the assignment, scan it into the computer and convert it to an image file such as .pdf or .jpg. You may need to practice scanning pencil drawings so that you produce a clear, easily readable image. Finally, upload the image using the assignment submission window for this assignment. Alternately, you may wish to type the answers into a word processing document, convert this to an .rtf file, and upload this. If you do this, be sure to include the questions as well as the answers.

    This assignment is worth 70 points.

    Complete this assignment after reading Lesson 1.

    teacher-scored 70 points possible 60 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 8 Exponential Functions -- Assignment 1
    Writing Equations

    Print out the attached assignment and complete the assignment in the space provided and complete the graphs on graph paper or with an appropriate graphing program. You may use additional paper if needed. Once you have completed the assignment, scan it into the computer and convert it to an image file such as .pdf or .jpg. You may need to practice scanning pencil drawings so that you produce a clear, easily readable image. Finally, upload the image using the assignment submission window. Alternately, you may wish to type the answers into a word-processing document, convert it to an .rtf file, and upload it. If you do this, be sure to include the questions as well as the answers.

    This assignment is worth 70 points.

    Complete this assignment after reading Lesson 1.



    08.01.07 Journal entry: A Modest Proposal (English 12)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 90 minutes

    Besides arguing in a straightforward way, logically making concessions and counterarguments, there are other ways to write persuasively. One such way is through the use of satire. Satire is a manner of writing that mixes a critical attitude with wit and humor in an effort to improve mankind and human institutions.

    Ridicule, irony, exaggeration, and several other techniques are almost always present in satire. The satirist may insert serious statements of value or desired behavior, but most often he or she relies on an implicit moral code, understood by his audience and paid lip service by them. The satirist's goal is to point out the hypocrisy of his target in the hope that either the target or the audience will return to a real following of the code.

    A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of the Poor People in Ireland from being a Burden to their Parents or Country (usually known simply as "A Modest Proposal") is a classic example of satire. The essay, which is a masterpiece of bitterness and irony, was written by English author Jonathon Swift in 1729. Swift, considered a hero in Ireland, rallied British public opinion for the cause of Irish economic and political independence.

    The essay, which is a masterpiece of bitterness and irony, reveals the terrible suffering in Ireland at the time by making the mocking suggestion that the poor should devote themselves to rearing children to be killed and sold for eating.

    For this journal entry, please read "A Modest Proposal" and record your answers to the following questions.


    1. "A Modest Proposal" is an ironic essay: the author deliberately writes what he does not mean. What is the real thesis?
    2. A clear difference exists between Swift and the persona who makes this proposal. Characterize the proposer.
    3. Look closely at paragraphs 4, 6, and 7, and study how the appeals to logic are put in mathematical and economic terms. Identify words and phrases that help achieve this effect.
    4. Give the three main plans of the persona's proposal.
    5. What, according to the persona, are the advantages of his solution? (more than 6)
    6. Make a list of the social problems in Ireland that Swift exposes through his satire.
    7. Swift does offer "serious" solutions to the problems of life in Ireland near the end of his essay. List the three that you think are the most important.

    Evaluation:
    This journal entry will be awarded a score of 1-15 points based on the thoroughness with which you address the various questions posed.

    08.01.07 Journal entry: A Modest Proposal links (English 12)

    08.01.07 Trigonometric Functions -- Assignment 1 (PreCalc)

    computer-scored 25 points possible 30 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 08 -- Trigonometric Functions -- Assignment 1
    Measuring Angles in Degrees and Radians

    Work on this quiz/assignment at the link below this lesson. The assignment is computer graded, which should make it easier to do the assignment, and provides immediate feedback.

    Complete this assignment after you finish reading lesson 1.

    _______________________________________________

    Measuring Angles in Degrees and Radians

    In this assignment you will be asked to convert angles from degrees to radians, and from radians to degrees.

    You will be allowed 3 attempts and multiple submissions. You will be penalized for each incorrect submission. You will not be penalized for a correct submission. This means you will score better by carefully considering each question before answering. But it also means you will score better by submitting answers until you have a correct answer, instead of closing the quiz without checking your work.

    Please complete this assignment after reading Lesson 1.



    08.01.07 Wall Paper(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 93: Do the "Wall Paper" exercise.
    08.1.7 Wall Paper(IntDes3)08.1.7 Wall Paper(IntDes3)

    08.01.08 - More Triangle Relations -- Practice (Geometry)

    These links allow you to practice the concepts in the course material. Your assignment for each link is described above.



    08.01.08 - Using Vectors: Component Form (Physics)

    We can now write vector A in its component form.



    Because the unit vectors i, j and k are perpendicular to one another, the components of A can be treated separately. This allows us to use the same type of math we were able to use at the end of the first quarter.

    The advantage of this is, I can add vectors A = -3.3 i + 2.3 j and vector G = 4.0 i + 1.1 j as if they were just an algebraic expression. So:



    Check this graphically. First draw vector G.




    Now place vector A at the origin, and move vector G so that the tail of G is at the head of A. Finally find the resultant vector.




    The resultant vector should have components .7 i and 3.4 j You can see by inspection that this is the case.

    While this method may not immediately appear simpler, it will become so, as we begin doing more complicated things with vectors.



    08.01.08 Personal Programming(IntDes3)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    Exercise 94: Do the "Personal Programming" exercise.
    8.1.8 Personal Programming(IntDes3)8.1.8 Personal Programming(IntDes3)

    08.01.08 Trigonometric Functions -- Assignment 2 (PreCalc)

    both teacher- and computer-scored 55 points possible 60 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 08 -- Trigonometric Functions -- Assignment 2
    Defining Trigonometric Functions

    Work on this quiz/assignment at the link below this lesson. The assignment is computer graded, which should make it easier to do the assignment, and provides immediate feedback.

    Complete this assignment after you finish reading lesson 1.

    ______________________________________________

    Defining Trigonometric Functions

    In this assignment you will be asked to define the 6 trigonometric functions for given angles.

    You will be allowed 3 attempts and multiple submissions. You will be penalized for each incorrect submission. You will not be penalized for a correct submission. This means you will score better by carefully considering each question before answering. But it also means you will score better by submitting answers until you have a correct answer, instead of closing the quiz without checking your work.

    NOTE: since there are teacher-scored questions on this test, when you first finish the test, the computer will calculate your score as if you had zeros on those questions. Don't panic! After I score the essay-type questions, your score should be higher.

    Please complete this assignment after reading Lesson 1.



    08.01.09 - More Triangle Relations --Assignment 1 (Geometry)

    teacher-scored 60 points possible 90 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 08 -- More Triangle Relations -- Assignment 1
    Bisectors, Centers and Circles

    Complete the attached worksheet.

    Print out the worksheet and complete the assignment in the space provided. You may use additional paper if needed. Alternately, you may type the proof into a word processing document, convert it to an .rtf file. The proof must be a formal two-column proof. The constructions must be done by hand with a compass and straight edge in the space provided.

    Once you have completed the assignment, scan it into the computer and convert it to an image file such as .pdf or .jpg. You may need to practice scanning pencil drawing so that you produce a clear, easily readable image. Finally, upload the image using the assignment submission window.

    Question 1 is worth 10 points. Questions 2 and 3 are worth 17 points each. Question 4 is worth 16 points for a total of 60 points for the assignment.

    Complete this assignment after reading Lesson 1.



    08.01.09 - Using Vectors: Some Trigonometry (Physics)

    With the realization that the following information should in no way be misconstrued as a course in trigonometry, consider the following.

    All studies of trig begin with a circle. If I take the circle and draw a radius, I can measure the angle that radius makes with the x-axis. (Does this sound like a vector?) I can also draw a right triangle with the radius as the hypotenuse.




    We can now determine the trig functions of this angle. Let's call it θ, which is the Greek letter theta.



    Some of these values are known exactly, and are called special angles. These angles are 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees. (The remainder of the trig functions are estimated by an infinite sum, which is something covered in most 3rd semester calculus classes.)

    When you plot these functions with respect to the angle, you get something like this.




    You probably recognize the cosine from the first quarter. While you do not need to memorize these plots, it is useful to have some idea what the behavior of these functions are.

    Notice that the tangent does something weird. We will discuss this more later.



    08.01.09 Journal entry: story stuff (English 12)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 60 minutes

    Every writer knows that in order to have a good plot, you need to have conflict. Perhaps we can reverse this statement to say if you have conflict, you have the makings of a good plot. And since the very essence of any controversy is conflict, based on your work in this unit so far, you've already got the makings of a good plot within your grasp.

    But a good short story has more than just a plot. It has character development, a setting, and a theme. (To learn more about the elements of a short story, check out the web site entitled "What Makes a Good Short Story" created by the Annenberg/CPB Project.)

    For this journal entry, you will start sketching out ideas for the formal short story assignment that follows. Start out by developing characters to represent the viewpoints represented in earlier journal entries and assignments from this unit. Give each character a name, describe their physical characteristics, occupation, speech, mannerisms, etc. Next, figure out a setting or location where these characters can confront each other, and then envision the dynamics and logistics of that interaction. Contemplate how the conflict will begin, what will the the climactic point, and how it will be resolved. Finally, speculate about what thematic statement(s) might be advanced as a result of your story.

    Evaluation:
    Journal entries are an opportunity to explore ideas and develop fluency with language in an informal context. You will be assessed a point value from 1 to 15 points, based on the effort and thoughtfulness demonstrated in your response.

    08.01.09 Journal entry: story stuff links (English 12)

    08.01.10 - Using Vectors: Vector Components (Physics)

    I can treat any vector, V, like it is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. The magnitude is the length of the hypotenuse, (|V| or just V), and the angle with respect to the x-axis is θ. The components are then



    I can also recombine these by using the Pythagorean theorem.



    And the angle measured from the x-axis is



    So to find the magnitude, take the square root, and to find the angle, take the inverse tangent.




    08.01.10 Controversial issue short story (English 12)

    computer-scored 30 points possible 180 minutes

    As a result of this assignment, the student will:


    • create a short story based on conflict inherent in a controversial issue
    • demonstrate familiarity with the basic elements of a short story

    The writer Katherine Anne Porter once said "I have never written a story in my life that didn't have a very firm foundation in actual human experience." 08.1.10 Katherine Anne Porter08.1.10 Katherine Anne PorterThis assignment presents you with an opportunity to take an issue grounded in genuine human experience, and use it as the basis for a short story.

    You've already got all the ingredients--now pull it all together, and compose a fictional narrative that concentrates on developing a central conflict between two well developed and interesting characters in a realistic setting. Draw on what you've learned about the dynamics of your issue to make the story seem realistic. Make sure to include dialogue and plenty of good showing detail. (Remember what Mark Twain said, "Don't say the old lady screamed . . . bring her on and let her scream.")

    Evaluation:
    This short story will be assessed using the Six-Trait evaluation rubric, developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. It is based on the idea that each piece of writing may be evaluated in six distinct areas: ideas/content, organization, sentence fluency, word choice, voice, and conventions. Each of these components are ranked on a scale of 1-5 (1 representing poor and 5 excellent). The sum of the values of the six components could represent a maximum score of 30 points.

    08.01.11 - Using Vectors: Finding Vector Components (Physics)

    So, let's do a couple of examples:

    Example 1:

    Vector U that has a magnitude of |U| = 7.0 and makes an angle of θ = 25 degrees from the x axis.

    What is the x component, Ux?



    So plug this into your calculator.




    What is the y component, Uy?



    So plug this into your calculator.



    We can check our math by plugging our answers back into the equations for |U| and θ. So...



    What is the magnitude of U, |U|?

    Using Pythagorean's theorem,



    Which is what we expect. (Note: you need to keep extra sig figs for intermediate steps.)



    Next, what is the angle with respect to the x-axis, θ?



    Which is what we started with, so we did this right! Yeah!

    Example 2:

    Vector W = -2.9 i + 7.4 j. What is the magnitude of W, |W|?

    Use Pythagorean's Theorem




    What is the angle with respect to the x-axis, θ?



    Is this reasonable? Actually no. Since Wx is negative, and Wy is positive, this vector should lie in Quadrant II. The angle θ = -69° is in Quadrant IV. Why didn't it work? It worked the last time!

    The problem is with the arctan function. This function is only defined from -90° to 90°. So, if your vector lies in Quadrant II or III, the arctan will tell you the angle that is 180° away. So, you found the correct angle for -W. To find the angle for W, call it θ', we need to add 180° to the number we found. So



    (By the way, this is the correct number of significant digits, and since 180 is exact, we don't need to drop any digits when we add it.)

    And finally, let's check our math by finding Wx and Wy.



    Which are the numbers we started with. So we did do it right!

    (By the way, if we had used θ = -68.6 degrees we would have found the same numbers, but the signs would have been wrong.)

    Hint: The arctan might also be called the tan-1 and is usually accessed by pushing [2nd][tan] or [shift][tan]. Each calculator is different. Make sure you can use yours.

    Hint: Calculators can be in one of three trig function forms: degrees, radians, and gradients. In physics we usually use radians, however, we will be using degrees in this course, unless otherwise noted. Make sure your calculator is set to degrees.



    08.01.12 - Vector Algebra -- With Components (Physics)

    Once you have determined the components of a vector, you can add, subtract, mulitply or divide this vector in the same way you would an ordinary algebraic expression. (Well, almost. Multiplication and division are limited to multiplication by a scalar and division by a scalar. We will do the dot product later, and this class actually never uses the cross product.) So, consider the following:

    Addition

    Say I have 2 vectors:



    I can add these 2 vectors, the same way I would add 2 expressions in an algebra class. Example:



    Multiplication

    Consider the 2 vectors from before. I can multiply these by a scalar, the same way I would multiply an expression by a number in an algebra class. It is important to note, that I can multiply a vector by a negative 1.

    So, for example:



    Subtraction

    In the same way that I was able to subtract vectors graphically by multiplying by a negative 1 and adding, I can subtract vectors in component form. This is the same way I would subtract one expression from another in an algebra class.

    Example:



    Division

    In the same way that I was able to divide vectors graphically by multiplying by a fraction, I can divide vectors in component form. This is the same way I would divide an expression by a number in an algebra class.

    For example:



    So, are you ready to try this?



    08.01.13 - Using Vectors (Physics)

    computer-scored 45 points possible 60 minutes

    Complete

    Unit 08 Using Vectors

    In this assignment you will prove that you can work with vectors, both graphically and with components.

    Work on this quiz/assignment at the link below this lesson. The assignment is computer graded, which should make it easier to do the assignment and provides immediate feedback.

    You should only attempt this assignment after studying Unit 08.



    08.02 Technology and the Future of Business Communication

    Technology has not only changed our personal lives, but it has also revolutionized the way businesses operate. The availability of wireless internet, smart phones, tablets, etc. has allowed people to work from almost anywhere. It has also allowed people to use work time for personal endeavors. This lesson will focus on how technology has changed business communication, and how it will continue to change.

    08.02 - The Center of a Triangle, part 2 (Geometry)

    In this lesson we will continue looking for triangle "centers" and the lines we use to create them. This lesson is about medians, centriods, altitudes, and orthocenters.

    The content of the lesson follows or you can read the attached pdf file.



    08.02 Alcohol and Drug Use (DriverEd)

    Arrest by police: By Riemann, Public domain, from Wikimedia CommonsArrest by police: By Riemann, Public domain, from Wikimedia Commons

    THE DRINKING DRIVER / DRUG USE
    Too many people are killed in alcohol-related crashes each year in Utah, and many more are seriously or permanently injured. To help keep the drinking driver off the road, various laws have been enacted. These laws provide severe penalties for the intoxicated driver. A driver is considered to be intoxicated if his/her blood or breath alcohol concentration is .08 or higher (the level is .04 for commercial motor vehicle operators--refer to the CDL manual for details regarding CDL disqualifications

    If you are convicted of, plead guilty to, or forfeit bail for driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle or a motorboat while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, your punishment may be as much as six (6) months in jail and a fine.

    Your license will be suspended for 120 days or until you reach the age of 21, whichever is longer, on the first conviction. Second and subsequent convictions will result in a two-year revocation or until you reach the age of 21, whichever is longer. A mandatory jail sentence or requirement to perform community service will be ordered upon conviction of driving under the influence. You must also participate in an assessment and educational series at a state-approved alcohol or drug dependency rehabilitation facility before you will again be allowed driving privileges.

    A plea of “guilty” or “no contest” for a criminal charge of DUI that is held in abeyance by the court will not appear on the Motor Vehicle Report unless you hold a CDL license or were operating a commercial motor vehicle at the time you were cited. Although a plea held in abeyance for the DUI violation will not result in suspension or revocation of your regular operator privilege, it will result in the disqualification of your CDL privilege. In addition, the abeyance will be considered a “first offense” for the purposes of enhancement of penalties imposed by the court or the Driver License Division, including expungement. This law applies to the following offenses: driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, reckless driving, and automobile homicide.

    In addition to the criminal penalties, for a first arrest, Utah’s Drunk Driving law also allows a peace officer to confiscate your Utah driver license for driving under the influence and allows the Division to suspend your license for 120 days or until you reach the age of 21, whichever is longer. For a second subsequent arrest, your license can be suspended for two years or until you reach the age of 21, whichever is longer, beginning on the 30th day after the date of arrest.

    You may receive similar fines and jail sentences for any additional convictions for drunk driving or driving under the influence of drugs. A repeat offender may also be found to be a habitual user of alcohol or drugs and be refused a driver license indefinitely or for life.

    08.02 Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations (U.S. History)

    08.02 Breeding (Horse Mgt)

    Breeding horses

    Long before people began breeding horses, the horses were of course reproducing successfully on their own. Usually a stallion, after managing to fight off or bluff challenging stallions, lived with a herd of 2-8 mares and a few yearlings and two year olds. When a mare came into heat, the stallion knew by her scent and behavior that she was ready to be bred, and he might breed her twice a day for the several days that she would accept him. This system is still used by a few breeders, who turn out a stallion with a few mares for the spring and summer, and it is an effective way of getting a few mares pregnant, but not efficient for a well-known stallion whose owners may want him to breed a hundred or more mares each year.

    Most breeding now is done one mare at a time, naturally (by "live cover", but with both animals restrained by handlers, and separated as soon as the breeding is accomplished) or by artificial insemination, which is becoming more popular. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Breeding by live cover does not usually require the help of a veterinarian, which makes it cheaper, but either horse runs a small risk of injury. Also, of course, the mare must usually be transported to wherever the stallion is, which in practice limits most such breeding to horses who live within a few hundred miles of each other.

    During the breeding season (usually from about March or April till August, though some mares come "in heat" year round), most mares ovulate about once every three weeks. A mare begins to come in heat (meaning that she will show interest in a stallion, and may allow him to breed her) a few days before she is going to ovulate, and usually goes back out of heat within two to three days after ovulation. When breeding by live cover, if not using a vet to determine ovulation, most stallion owners will have the stallion "cover" (breed) the mare on the third day she is in heat, and then again every other day till she goes out. If the mare gets pregnant, she usually doesn't come into heat again. If she is NOT pregnant, she will usually be out of heat for about two weeks, and then come back in to start the next cycle.

    Breeding a horse is a major commitment, since even if the mare does get pregnant, she may lose the foal sometime during her 11 month, 10 day (give or take 2-3 weeks) gestation period. If the foal is born healthy, there is still another two to three year wait before it will be ready to be ridden or bred, and usually more years yet before the breeder finds out whether it will be an outstanding individual. All this waiting is expensive as well as time-consuming, since the horse needs feeding, worming, training and veterinary and farrier care during those years. People who raise a foal because they think it is cheaper than buying a horse would usually have been money ahead to buy a full-grown horse.

    All of that said, if you have the facilities, knowledge, money and patience to raise a foal yourself, it can be a wonderful experience. Picking out a good stallion, with the qualities to improve your mare, gives you a chance to dream about what kind of horse you would most like, and there is nothing more fun to watch than a long-legged new foal playing in a pasture. You must be willing to accept the responsibility of teaching the young horse the manners and basic skills that will enable him (and the humans who handle him) to be safe in the world of people.

    Although there are people who regard breeding strictly as a business, for most people it is more about the dream of producing the perfect horse - the fastest racehorse, the best cutting, reining, or dressage horse, the highest jumper, the most beautiful halter or pleasure horse. Most people are unreasonably optimistic about the success of horse breeding. If you measure success by the number of live foals produced from mares bred the previous season, the success rate is roughly 65-80%. The other mares either never conceived, or miscarried, or had foals born dead. If you measure success by the number of foals who turn out to be better than either sire or dam, there will only be about 20-40% of foals who are an improvement over their parents. If you take both factors into consideration, of all the mares whose owners go to the trouble and expense of breeding them this year, only 13-32% of the mares bred will actually produce a foal better than its parents!
    08.2 Like mother, like daughter: (Ellen Walker image)08.2 Like mother, like daughter: (Ellen Walker image)
    In today's market, there are many unwanted horses (and horses whose owners can no longer afford to take care of them). Since there are no longer public auctions for horses in many areas, and most equine slaughter facilities have been shut down, unwanted horses are often left to starve. Paying a vet to put a horse down is quite expensive. These factors are making it even more important for horse owners to make good decisions about breeding. It is irresponsible to breed a mare unless:
    1) the mare and stallion both have good conformation, good temperment, and soundness, and
    2) you, the breeder, are going to have the money and time to keep, care for, and train the resulting foal on a long term basis (you can't depend on selling it, or even giving it away), whether or not it turns out as nice as you expected.

    See also :
    4-H Horse Science pp. 22-26

    Equine Science pp. 254-280

    UC Davis Book of Horses pp. 97-125

    Caring for a stallion
    Most people are not prepared to properly manage a stallion. Unless you have lots of space and money, and want to turn the stallion out on a large acreage with a band of mares, the stallion must usually be kept separated from most other horses (certainly from most mares!). Living permanently in a stall or small run without other horses to socialize with is an unnatural situation, and many stallions become neurotic or difficult to handle either because of their unnatural lifestyle or because they have not been properly trained or handled.

    Even a stallion who is very well-behaved when being ridden or handled may get into trouble in a horse trailer, barn or pasture as he tries to get closer to mares.

    Sometimes a stallion may be happy living with a gelding, or a single bred mare, to keep him company. If at all possible, a stallion should have a large turnout area to move around in, and get regular training and exercise under saddle.

    A breeding stallion may sound like an easy way to make money off horses, but that rarely turns out to be true. Even if you have a very well-bred stallion, few mare owners will be interested in breeding to him unless he has competed successfully. Taking a horse to shows, races or other competitions is expensive, and there is no certainty that you will win! Even if you do win some big competitions, you will need to advertise and publicize your stallion, which also costs money. With shipped semen from national and international champions available, not many mare owners opt to breed to a local stallion.

    A stallion may be bred to just a very few (maybe 2-3) mares as a two year old, and a few more as a three year old. Young stallions who are bred too much at an early age sometimes decide they aren't interested anymore, and may refuse to have anything to do with breeding later. If you plan to breed many mares, or to breed mares from out of your area, you must train the stallion so that you can collect semen using a "dummy" and artificial vagina. The semen must be handled properly, mixed with an extender, and shipped at the proper temperature. Some people hire a vet to deal with this, and others attend training to learn how to do it themselves.

    Stallions may also develop fertility problems for various reasons. Most mare owners will want to know that a stallion is EVA negative, which requires testing and vaccination; many mare owners will want to know that the stallion does not carry genetic diseases like HYPP (more testing). For most horse owners, a mare or gelding is a much better choice than a stallion!

    Breeding technologies
    Vet performing artificial insemination in a mare (the mare's tail is wrapped in white and held up out of the way): (WMC, CC, Haras national suisse image)Vet performing artificial insemination in a mare (the mare's tail is wrapped in white and held up out of the way): (WMC, CC, Haras national suisse image)
    The techniques of modern biotechnology are now being applied to horse breeding. Artificial insemination was actually invented long ago, but the technology to transport and/or freeze semen have made AI far more successful, practical and affordable than it once was. Artificial insemination may be performed by a trained technician, or by a vet.

    Artificial insemination is now accepted by most breed registries. AI may be used even if both horses are together on the premises, but one of the advantages of artificial insemination is that the two horses to be bred may be on opposite sides of the world. Semen is usually shipped fresh, by overnight delivery services, and must be used within a day or two, so a vet must judge carefully - using ultrasound and palpation (feeling the ovaries) - when the mare is about to ovulate. The technology to freeze semen has been trickier for horses than for some other livestock, but is becoming another good alternative - some stallion owners will ship frozen semen, which has the advantage that it can be kept till the mare ovulates. However, equine semen is apparently quite fragile, and some stallions' semen does not freeze well. Most frozen semen is weaker than fresh, and so the vet must time the inseminations even more carefully.

    Embryo transfer is much more recent. If a valuable mare is not able to carry a foal herself (either because her uterus has problems, or because she is actively showing and competing), she may be inseminated and then, after enough time has elapsed for an egg to be fertilized, a vet "flushes" out her uterus. The vet then tries to locate the tiny embryo, and puts the embryo into a recipient mare who is at the same point in her heat cycle as the donor mare. If all goes well, the recipient mare then gets pregnant with the donor mare's baby. Embryo transfer is expensive ($6000 and up just to try), and each attempt has only about a 50% success rate even if the vet is experienced in the technique.

    An even newer (and more expensive) breeding technology is oocyte transfer. If a valuable mare has such serious issues in her uterus that an embryo would not be likely to survive even long enough for embryo transfer, a suction tube may be inserted into the mare's uterus and up a Fallopian tube to collect an egg (or eggs, if hormone therapy stimulates more than one egg to ripen). The egg is then put into a recipient mare, who is inseminated with semen from the chosen stallion. Again, if all goes well, the recipient mare carries the foal to term and mothers it.

    Cloning is also now possible in equines. Both mules and horses have been successfully cloned. Basically, cloning involves putting the DNA of one horse into an emptied egg cell, and tricking the egg into thinking it has been fertilized so it will develop into an embryo, implant in a recipient mare, and then eventually grow into a new foal with exactly the same DNA as the donor horse. Cloning is REALLY expensive, and has a lower success rate than any of the breeding technologies. Most of the clones produced so far were in experimental settings. If a person wanted to clone a favorite horse, s/he could expect to pay over $50,000!

    Body condition and breeding success

    Does your horse need more feed, or less?
    Mares are often more difficult to get in foal if they are too thin or too fat. A horse who is too thin needs more feed (or at least, more calories); a horse who is too fat needs fewer calories (and more exercise) - but how do you decide how thin is too thin, or how fat is too fat? One simple explanation often used is that you should be able to feel your horse's ribs, but not see them. Many vets use a system called "body condition scoring" to be more specific. This explanation of body condition scoring comes from Dr. Paul Siciliano of Colorado State University:

    1 (Poor) - Animal extremely emaciated, no fatty tissue can be felt, ribs projecting prominently, bone structure easily noticeable

    2 (Very thin) - Animal emaciated, ribs prominent, faintly noticeable bone structure, vertebrae prominent

    3 (thin) - Slight fat cover over ribs, ribs easily discernible

    4 (moderately thin) - Faint outline of ribs, negative crease along back, neck, shoulder & withers are not obviously thin. (Note: "negative crease" means the horse's midline, along the back and rump, still sticks up above the flesh.)

    5 (moderate) - Ribs cannot be visually distinguished but can be easily felt, fat around tailhead beginning to feel spongy, back is level over loin, shoulder blends smoothly into body, withers rounded

    6 (moderately fleshy) - Fat beginning to be deposited, fat over ribs and tailhead feels spongy, may have slight positive crease down back over loin.

    7 (fleshy) - Individual ribs can be felt, but noticeable filling between ribs with fat, positive crease down back over loin, fat deposited along neck, withers, tailhead, and area behind shoulders

    8 (fat) - Fat deposited along inner buttocks, difficult to feel ribs, thickening of neck, fat withers, tailhead and area behind shoulders, positive crease down back over loin.

    9 (obese) - Bulging fat, patchy fat appearing over ribs, obvious positive crease down back, fat along inner buttocks may rub together, flank filled in flush.

    You should normally keep your horses at a four, five or six body condition score. A mare you want to get in foal should be in at least a body condition five, but no more than a seven.
    Very thin mare (body condition score about 1) and foal: (WMC, CC, Peter Abrahamsen image)Very thin mare (body condition score about 1) and foal: (WMC, CC, Peter Abrahamsen image)
    This terribly thin mare has what appears to be a healthy foal a few weeks old. Mares need lots of high-quality extra feed during the first four months after a foal is born, and will lose weight rather than ceasing to make milk for the foal.

    Foaling

    In the wild, a mare will go off by herself, away from the herd, to foal. During the time she is foaling, she and the foal will be vulnerable to predators, so she needs to foal quickly. Horses give birth faster than most other animals. Because the foal's head is long and narrow, a foal is much less likely than a baby human or calf to get 'stuck' in the birth canal. However, in the rare cases where the foal is not properly positioned, those long legs can pose major problems, and either the foal or the mare, or both, may die.

    For domestic horses, usually the owner will separate the mare from other horses starting a couple weeks before she is expected to foal. In reasonable weather, there is nothing wrong with a mare foaling in a large, clean pasture, but many people prefer to have the mare foal in a large stall. A foaling stall should be bedded with straw, not shavings. Shavings are a problem both because they will stick to the umbilical cord and because they are more likely to harbor infectious organisms. It is a challenge for the owner to be present for the actual birth of the foal - first, because horses do not really have 'due dates' - there is about a forty-day window when the gestation length would be considered 'normal'; second, because the mare may not not give much warning before foaling; and third, because mares seem to prefer foaling during the night.

    A normal foaling process would go something like this:

    Somewhere around ten months after being bred, the mare will begin to 'make a bag' - her udder will increase in size as it begins to make milk (or colostrum - the first 'milk' the foal needs to help boost his immunity to disease since the baby immune system won't really start to work for a few weeks). Sometime between 320 and 360 days after the foal was conceived, it will get into position to be born - the head between the two front legs, with the front legs together and extended into the birth canal, as if the foal was going to dive. The mare may begin dripping milk, and you may notice that the muscles in her rump have relaxed and dropped down a little. Once the foal is positioned and labor begins, things go very quickly.

    As strong contractions begin, the mare is likely to be restless and have symptoms similar to colic - pacing, pawing, lying down and getting back up, switching her tail or looking around at her belly. Within half an hour, often less, the foal's two front hooves, one slightly ahead of the other, will appear and the mare's water will break. Once that happens, the foal is usually born within 15 to 30 minutes. If the foal hasn't appeared within 45 minutes (or if only one hoof, or the back legs appear first), call the vet immediately. This is now an emergency. The mare will lie down flat on her side and deliver the whole foal with just a few strong contractions. If the membrane around the foal doesn't break, it should be torn open so the foal can breath. The foal will be wet, so if the weather is cold, you can use towels or straw to help dry the foal's coat (provided the mare is calm about having you there - some mares can be very protective of their new foal, so be careful!).

    Within a few minutes after the foal is born, the mare may stand up and the umbilical cord will break if it hasn't already. The stump of the cord should be dunked in betadine several times to help prevent infection from entering the foal's system. Before it is an hour old, the foal should stand up and begin to wobble around (usually falling back down several times before it succeeds in staying up on all four!); before it is two hours old, a normal foal should have nursed to get its first meal, and the mare should have passed the placenta. A foal that can't stand and nurse in the first two hours, or a mare who hasn't passed the whole placenta, are reasons to call the vet.

    Within just a few hours after being born, the foal should be able to trot and canter after the mare. In the wild, they would re-join the herd for safety, and might have to gallop away from danger. Unlike puppies or kittens, the foal is born with its eyes open and will begin looking around immediately.

    The mare will try to keep other horses (and maybe people) away from the new baby for at least the first few days. One possible problem with letting a mare foal in a pasture with other horses is that sometimes another mare will try to steal the baby from its mother. The newborn baby doesn't know, yet, who mom is, and may begin following the other mare (who, of course, has no milk). At least one of the horses is likely to be injured in the confusion.

    For the first few days, mare and foal should be watched carefully to make sure they are healthy and normal. If all is well, soon they can be back out on pasture where the foal can run, play and grow.
    The vet dries off a foal born five minutes earlier: (Ellen Walker image)The vet dries off a foal born five minutes earlier: (Ellen Walker image)

    08.02 Childhood Health Care(ChildDev2)

    Go to the website section of the class to view "Car Seat Safety," then click on Child Care Provider Guidelines and click on each of the following phrases and read the information presented.

    • How do I choose the right kind of seat for my child?
    • Are used care seats safe?
    • Is my child's safety seat on recall?
    • How long should children ride facing the back of the car?
    • How can you tell if a child is ready to wear just a safety belt?
    • Why should children ride in the back seat?
    • How can I keep my child from getting out of his safety seat?

    Utah state law requires that all children under age 8 ride in an appropriate car seat or booster seat that is used according to manufacturer directions. Children who are not yet 8 years old but are taller than 57 inches do not have to use a booster seat but must wear a properly adjusted seatbelt.

    Information for this website accessed from the USOE website. (citihealth.com/preventing#preventing)

    The risk of an injury happening is directly related to the physical environment and children’s behaviors, and how these are managed. Injuries can be divided into two categories--unintentional and intentional. Unintentional injuries may result from choking, falls, burns, drowning, swallowing toxic or other materials (poisoning), cuts from sharp objects, exposure to environmental hazards such as chemicals, radon, or lead, or animal bites, or other “accidents.” Intentional injuries are usually due to bites, fights, or abuse.

    Preventing Injuries

    You can prevent most injuries that occur in the child care setting by:

    • Supervising children carefully.
    • Checking the child care and play areas for, and getting rid of, hazards.
    • Using safety equipment for children, such as car seats and seat belts, bicycle helmets, and padding, such as for the knees and elbows.
    • Understanding what children can do at different stages of development. Children learn by testing their abilities. They should be allowed to participate in activities appropriate for their development even though these activities may result in some minor injuries, such as scrapes and bruises. However, children should be prevented from taking part in activities or using equipment that is beyond their abilities and that may result in major injuries such as broken bones.
    • Teaching children how to use playground equipment safely (e.g., going down the slide feet first).

    Preparing for Injuries

    Injuries require immediate action. You will need to assess the injury to determine what type of medical attention, if any, is required. Everyone working with children should have up-to-date training in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). At a minimum, one person with this training must be present at the child care site at all times.

    Unintentional Injuries

    Children are often injured unintentionally during the normal course of a day. Many of these injuries, such as scrapes and bruises, are minor and only need simple first aid. Other injuries can be serious and require medical attention beyond first aid. Call 911 or your local emergency number if an injured child has any of the following conditions:

    • severe neck or head injury
    • choking
    • severe bleeding
    • shock
    • chemicals in eyes, on skin, or ingested in the mouth, or
    • near-drowning.

    See the first aid chart in the next chapter for what actions to take for some common injuries.

    Hazards in the Facility

    Children in child care have many opportunities for coming in contact with substances that can hurt them. Child care providers can help reduce children's exposure to these hazards by taking preventive measures. Chapter III, on Maintaining a Safe and Healthy Facility, gives information on preventing children’s exposure to such harmful substances as chemicals, lead, air pollution, and radon in the child care setting.

    Intentional Injuries

    Aggressive Behavior and Bites

    Children show aggression (hostile, injurious, or destructive behavior) either verbally (what they say) or physically (how they act). Verbal aggression by other children or adults, such as belittling, ridiculing, or taunting a child, can injure a child's self-esteem. Physical aggression, such as biting, hitting, scratching, and kicking, may result in physical injuries. Parents have become greatly concerned about physical injuries that cause bleeding to their child, especially being bitten by another child, because they fear this may expose their child to a risk of infection from HIV, which causes AIDS, or hepatitis B virus, which can cause liver damage.

    To deter aggressive behavior you should:

    • Set clear limits for children's behavior. Explain those limits to both children and their parents.
    • Explain to a child who is showing aggressive behavior how the aggressive actions affect the victim.
    • Redirect a child's aggressive behavior by, for example, engaging the child in a sport or activity that interests the child.
    • Teach and reinforce coping skills.
    • Encourage children to express feelings verbally, in a healthy way.
    • Provide acceptable opportunities for children to release anger. Running outside, kicking balls, punching bags, and other physical play allows children to let off steam.

    If a child is bitten by another child:

    • Administer first aid.
    • Ask the parents of the injured child to seek medical care if the bite causes bleeding.
    • Notify the parents of both children if the bite causes bleeding. Testing the children for HIV or hepatitis B may be considered and should be discussed with the health care providers of both children involved.
    • A child who is known to be positive for HIV or hepatitis B AND who bites, even after efforts to change the behavior, should be taken out of the child care setting until the biting ceases.

    Go to the 2 First Aid links for this lesson and read the information on first aid for

    • burns
    • convulsions/seizures
    • bleeding
    • bee stings
    • insect bites
    • poisoning
    First Aid #1 (Go to the website section of the class to view this site)
    First Aid #2 (Go to the website section of the class to view this site)

    (Once you have read through all of the materials presented, go to the assignment area and complete the assignment that corresponds with this lesson.)

    08.02 Community Health Resources (Health II)

    As long as we are fit and healthy, we tend to take health for granted. It's when we, or people we love or depend on, get sick, that we realize that health is one of the most important aspects of our life, enabling us to work, play, take care of others, and enjoy ourselves. When wild animals are sick or injured, they often die because they are helpless to feed themselves or escape from predators. The same could be true for us if we did not help each other. One of the responsibilities of belonging to a community is to help take care of others who may not be able to take of themselves.

    Historically, people have banded together as neighbors, tribe members, families, or religious groups to help the sick or injured. When a farmer had a broken leg, the neighbors might pitch in to harvest the crops. When the Plague struck in Europe, often monks and nuns tried to nurse the sick. Many hospitals were originally built by churches or religious groups. In modern times, there are still hospitals supported by religious groups. Wealthy benefactors may donate money to hospitals or clinics (for instance, the Huntsman Cancer Institute in Utah). Corporations that run hospitals or clinics are sometimes expected to provide some care even to patients who can't afford to pay. Clubs like the Lions or the Rotary Club raise money for projects like the prevention of polio or blindness.

    Because health is so important to the strength and success of a country and economy, and because some factors affecting health are beyond the control of individuals, governments have taken important roles, especially in preventing infectious diseases. Laws require everyone in most wealthy countries (which includes the United States) to have their houses hooked up to a septic tank, sewer system or some kind of waste treatment option. Why can't I just dump my sewage into the river or out on the ground? Because my sewage could contaminate my neighbors' water supplies, making them sick. As a democracy, we have decided that one person's freedom to do whatever they want with their sewage is not as important as everyone's chance to have clean, disease-free water. For similar reasons, there are laws about how dead bodies may be disposed of, what chemicals must be controlled, how food is handled and stored, mosquito control, and many other aspects of life you may not immediately associate with health. Free or low-cost vaccinations are offered by government agencies to help prevent epidemics of diseases like measles, tetanus, and whooping cough.

    You may not be aware of all the community resources available in your area. Public health nurses are often available through your school district or county government. You probably know where the nearest hospital is. What about doctor's offices, clinics, dentists, optometrists, chiropractors, gyms, water testing, mental health clinics, physical therapy, counseling, support groups, home health services, hospice care, nursing homes, assisted living, services for the deaf or blind, and classes for pre-natal care or diabetes?

    These are supplemental links for your information.

    08.02 Community Health Resources assignment (Health II)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 90 minutes

    For this assignment, you will create a Google Earth Tour for one of the options listed below. Follow these instructions, and refer to the links below and the attachment. You will need to download Google Earth if you don't already have it on your computer. (See link below for the download.) See "Sample Horse History Tour" in the attachment below. Click on the attachment to download. Launch/Open Google Earth, then open the sample KMZ Tour called Horse History Three Events-PatLambrose. Use this sample KMZ Tour as an example when you build your Google Earth Tour. Geospatial Assignment: (For ideas about why these skills are important, view the Geospatial Revolution Episode 1 Video in links list below.) Choose one of the following options:

    a. Locate at least six health-related resources in your community: hospitals, clinics, gyms, parks, recreation facilities, etc. Write a paragraph in each placemark explaining why you chose these resources and how they can promote health.

    b. Choose one chronic or infectious disease, and locate six states in the US, or counties in Utah, or countries in the world that have a high incidence of that disease. Write a paragraph in each placemark explaining why the disease may be a particular problem in that area.

    c. Choose one chronic or infectious disease, and locate six places that have been significant in the origin, spread, cure, or prevention of the disease, or have been in the news because of the disease. Write a paragraph in each placemark explaining why that place is significant for the disease.

    HOW TO CREATE THE GOOGLE EARTH TOUR:

    1-Launch/Open Google Earth

    2-How do I locate each event? Use the Search box in the top left to type in each place's name, address, state, or country. Zoom into each search result and create your own Placemarks. Do not use the placemarks that are returned from your Search.

    3-How do I add my own placemarks? Locate the yellow push pin on the top menu bar. Click it to Add Placemark. You will create six placemarks in this tour.

    4-In each Placemark pop-up form, you need to include the following information:

    1-Change Untitled Placemark to the name of the event or resource. 2-In the Description section add the following:

    a-Include an image about the resource or event for at least two of the Placemarks. (See the link “Using Placemarks with Google Earth-How to Add Images.” You may use Wikimedia Commons for your images, or take your own pictures.) b-Give credit for each image by adding the following text below each image: (Wikimedia Commons, public domain) - or your name if they are your images. c-Write the paragraph in each placemark (as described above, in the three options).

    5-Next you need to add a Folder. Go to the top menu bar and select Add. Next select Folder. Name this folder the following: CommunityHealth-YourFirstName YourLastname. In the Description section add your name as the creator, such as:by Pat Lambrose.

    6-Drag your six placemarks into this new CommunityHealth(FirstLast) folder.

    7-Highlight this CommunityHealth(FirstLast) folder, right click on it and choose Save Place As

    8-Save this .KMZ file somewhere on your hard drive where you will REMEMBER!

    9-Submit your saved Google Earth .KMZ file of your Community Health tour, to your teacher as an assignment. Note: The saved file name is the name of your folder so DO NOT CHANGE the file name. Refer to the links below for additional tutorial help on how to add Placemarks and create Google Earth Tours.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 8 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Descriptive phrases and clauses (English 9)

    Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

    Chestnut race horse, Japan: Chabata_k, Wikimedia Commons, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 UnportedChestnut race horse, Japan: Chabata_k, Wikimedia Commons, CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

    Another common function of phrases and clauses is to add description to a sentence.

    Noun modifiers (answering questions like which one? what size? what color? and describing other qualities of a person, place or thing) are called adjectives (if they are single words) and adjective phrases or clauses (if they are multiple words working together).

    Verb modifiers (answering questions like when? where? how? how much? or why? and describing other qualities of an action, another adverb, or an adjective) are called adverbs (if they are single words) and adverb phrases or clauses (if they are multiple words working together).

    Let's look at examples.


    Adjectives and adjective phrases and clauses


    The chestnut horse was the crowd favorite. "Chestnut" is an adjective--it describes (modifies) 'horse', a noun, by answering the question 'which one' (or 'what color').
    The horse, the color of a newly minted penny, was the crowd favorite."The color of a newly minted penny" is an adjective phrase--it describes (modifies) 'horse', a noun. See how the phrase acts like an adjective to describe the horse?
    The horse, who was the color of a newly minted penny, was the crowd favorite."who was the color of a newly minted penny" is an adjective clause--it describes (modifies) 'horse,' a noun.

    Note: In English, most of our adjectives come before the nouns they describe. However, most adjective phrases or clauses come immediately after the noun they describe, and in most cases are set off between commas. An adjective phrase too far from the noun it is supposed to modify can create confusion: "The body in the bed, which had been there for three years, was identified as the missing man." (Was it the body or the bed that had been there for three years? We can't be sure from this sentence.)

    My younger sister is Sarah. "Younger" is an adjective--it describes (modifies) 'sister,' a noun.
    My sister, in the yellow raincoat, is younger. "In the yellow raincoat" is an adjective phrase; it describes sister.
    My sister who is younger is Sarah."Who is younger" is an adjective clause--it describes (modifies) 'sister,' a noun. See how the clause acts like an adjective to describe Sarah?

    This brings up a punctuation issue (and yet another way to classify clauses!). If you have at least two sisters, the clause "who is younger" is necessary to identify WHICH sister you are talking about. In that case, no commas are used around the clause (technically, this is called a restrictive clause). However, if you had only one sister, the clause "who is younger" is no longer necessary to identify which sister you mean--it is just extra information. In that case, there should be commas around the clause (technically, this is called a nonrestrictive clause).

    More examples of sentences with restrictive clauses:
    The car that is following us is blue. [Implies that there are multiple cars around, but that the one following us is blue.]
    The fish that is chasing the others is the dominant male.
    My cousins who live in California are coming to visit. [You have other cousins, but it is the ones from California who are coming.]

    More examples of sentences with nonrestrictive clauses:
    My car, which has a flat tire, has just been sitting in the driveway all week. [You've only got one car, so saying that it has a flat tire isn't necessary to identify which car you're talking about.]
    My parents, who can sometimes be a real pain, have been great lately.
    The big spruce tree, which had been there before the town was founded, blew down in the wind storm.

    Adverbs and adverb phrases and clauses

    We will arrive early. "Early" is an adverb. It modifies the verb (will arrive) by telling WHEN we will arrive.
    We will arrive before the sun comes up over the mountains. "Before the sun comes up over the mountains" is an adverb clause. See how it serves the same purpose in the sentence--telling WHEN we will arrive--as the single adverb, early?

    Note: In English, many adverbs can be moved to various places in the sentence without changing the meaning. The same is true of adverb phrases or clauses (unlike adjective phrases or clauses). You can sometimes use this as a test of whether a particular phrase or clause is acting as an adverb: if you can move it around in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence, it probably IS an adverb (or adverb phrase/clause).

    There, I found my missing glove. "There" is an adverb telling WHERE you found the glove. Notice you could equally well say "I found my missing glove there."
    Under the bed, I found my missing glove. "Under the bed" is an adverb phrase telling WHERE you found the glove. "I found my missing glove under the bed" means the same thing.

    Punctuation note: Remember that an introductory phrase or clause generally requires a comma between it and the main clause of the sentence. If you put that same phrase or clause at the end of the sentence, it usually doesn't require a comma.

    Margaret finished the book quickly. "Quickly" is an adverb telling HOW she finished the book. Notice you could equally well say "Quickly, Margaret finished the book" or "Margaret quickly finished the book."

    Margaret finished the book by staying up all night reading. "By staying up all night reading" is an adverb phrase telling HOW she finished the book. Notice you could equally well say "By staying up all night reading, Margaret finished the book" or "Margaret, by staying up all night reading, finished the book."

    In the section on cause and effect, we looked at many examples of adverb phrases or clauses that answered the question WHY? Here is one more:

    Because of the many pot holes in the freeway, it was closed for repair overnight. The adverb phrase could be moved:

    The freeway was closed for repair overnight because of the many pot holes.
    OR
    The freeway, because of the many pot holes, was closed for repair overnight.

    08.02 Distance Formula (Math Level 1)

    Organize, display and analyze data in histograms.

    Something to Ponder

    How would you explain the distance formula and how to use it?

    Mathematics Vocabulary

    Distance Formula: the distance between any two points \fn_jvn (x1,y1) and \fn_jvn (x2,y2) can be found by \fn_jvn d= \sqrt{ (x2 - x1)^{2} + (y2 - y1)^{2}} 

    Learning these concepts

    Click the mathematician image to launch the video to help you better understand this "mathematical language."

    08.02 Distance Formula - Explanation Video (Math Level 1)

    See video


    Preparation
    Sample items to consider while viewing the videos and before beginning the worksheet.

    Example 1: 

    Find the distance between \fn_jvn R(-2,6) and \fn_jvn S(6,-2) to the nearest tenth

    Quick Check 1a:

    \fn_jvn AB has the endpoints \fn_jvn A(1,-2) and \fn_jvn B(-4,4). Find AB to the nearest tenth.

    Quick Check 1b:

    Find the length of the line segment \fn_jvn XY with endpoints \fn_jvn X(0,0) and \fn_jvn Y(-5,-2) 

    Optionally: use the link above to view the explanatory math video.

    08.02 Distance Formula - Extra Video (Math Level 1)

    I highly recommend that you click on the links above and watch the video and work through the material before continuing.

    08.02 Distance Formula - Worksheet (Math Level 1)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 20 minutes

    Activity for this lesson

    1. Print the worksheet. Work all the problems showing ALL your steps.
    2. Digitize (scan or take digital photo) and upload your worksheet activity.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Electrical Rate(PrinTech2)

    The definition of electrical current
    Electrical current is defined as the amount of electrical charge that flows through a conductor in a certain amount of time. For the electrical charge to move or flow there needs to be a voltage difference so that the electrons will move from one place to another. This is the formula that shows electrical current.

    Electrical Current = Charge Transferred / Elapsed Time

    I = q / t

    I = electrical current in amperes
    q = quantity of charge in coulombs
    t = elapsed time in seconds

    The following equation summarizes the relationship between charge and current.

    1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb per Second = 6.25 x 10 electrons per sec.

    What is the difference between (AC) current and (DC) current? In AC current the electrical flow will go from a positive zone to a negative zone. See example below.

    Between the red arrows would be called one cycle and if you notice that the current goes forward on the conductor and then backwards on the conductor or alternate back and forth on the line. This alternating back and forth is called cycles and in the north American continent current alternates back and forth 60 times a second.

    In DC current the current moves in the same direction from negative to positive. See diagram below .

    Connecting voltmeters and ammeter to circuits
    There are different devices to check or show the voltage and the current in a circuit and they are called voltmeters and ammeters. A voltmeter shows the voltage in the circuit and the ammeter shows the amperes in the circuit. One must know how to connect these meters so that the right readings are shown and so that the meters are not damaged.

    When connecting a voltmeter to a circuit you need to connect it across the circuit. It is not part of the circuit. See the diagram below and look at the meter called V. When connecting the ammeter to the circuit the meter becomes part of the circuit.

    See figure below.

    If you ever hear the term VOMs this refers to volt- ohm-milliampere meter. This meter has a volt meter and an ohm meter and an ampere meter all in one unit.

    What is the difference between Frequency and Period?

    Frequency is described by the number of identical cycles there are in one second.
    Period is described as the amount of time that it takes for one cycle to happen.
    For example if there is 20 cycles in one second the period for one cycle would be 1/20 second.

    Now that you have covered the information go to the assignment section and complete the worksheet and activity that corresponds with this lesson.

    Once you have completed the worksheet and activity go to the course materials section and click on the next lesson.

    08.02 Ethics in Journalism questions (Journalism)

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

    Complete both parts of this assignment before saving the file for grading.

    A. List 10 facts you learned from the introductory, Media Wise, article about ethics and the general ethical expectations of the public towards journalists.

    B. Summarize 10 of your favorite points made in the New York Times code of ethics PDF and URL found in the above section.

    08.02 Film making and scene analysis (English 9)

    Films - movies, videos, DVDs, documentaries, TV shows - are a huge part of our culture. Most people today spend far more time watching films than reading books. You may not have given much thought to how all this footage is created, but film-making is an art form, and film production is big business. Someone must come up with the concept for a new movie or show; someone must write the script; someone must decide where to place and focus the camera, and which shots to use in the finished film - just to name a few of the jobs involved.
    To analyze an entire movie is beyond the scope of this class, but you will be choosing a movie, and then analyzing a single short scene from that movie, to help you begin thinking about the art of film-making.

    08.02 Graphing practice (PreAlgebra)

    teacher-scored 40 points possible 90 minutes

    Click on one of the assignment links and download. Print the assignment and complete the work. You can submit the assignment two ways: First, you can mail it to me. Second, the fastest way is to submit the answers on the answer form to my e-mail.

    08.02 Graphing practice links (PreAlgebra)

    08.02 How to Reduce File Sizes in Photoshop (Basic Photography)

    Before you submit assignments, you need to know how to reduce your picture's file size. View the video below. This will also be useful if you want to e-mail pictures to friends, or post them on the web.
    If you are printing a picture, you will usually want a large file size (this makes the print better quality), but if you are using it over the internet, smaller file sizes usually look nearly as good, and are MUCH quicker to upload or download.

    08.02 How to reduce the size of a file in PhotoShop Review (Basic Photography)

    08.02 Japan and Korea (World Geography)

    Japan and Korea

    08.02 Katakana Symbols 2 (Japanese I)

    teacher-scored 15 points possible 60 minutes

    Write the next fifteen katakana symbols (TA, CHI, TSU, TE, TO, NA, NI, NU, NE, NO, HA, HI, HU, HE, HO). Write the sound (for example-KI) and then the katakana symbol.

    You will use the paint program on your computer, download the free Open Office program to use the drawing program, or create a Google account and use its drawing program.

    In the paint program on your computer you will need to save the document and create the symbols then email it to the teacher at japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

    Open Office Instructions
    Use the link below download the Open Office program.
    In the Open Office program you will select the drawing program and then on the buttom select the pencil and select the freeform line to draw your symbols. You will save the document and email it to japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

    Google Drawing Instructions
    Click on the link below and create an gmail account.
    Click on documents and click on create then select drawing. Click on insert then select the scribble option you can now draw the symbols. Once you have completed the assignment then you will click on the untitled drawing and give the document a title. Then you click on file and select Share which will bring up a window and in the add people box enter the teachers email address japanese.Q4.jb@ehs.uen.org.

    08.02 Lesson 3: FUTURE HEROES

    For this activity, you have two options.

    08.02 Lesson 8B: ¡¡ Home, Sweet Home !! (Spanish I)

     

    Lesson 8B
    ¡¡ Home, Sweet Home !!

    [A copy of this lesson is available in a PDF file!! If you prefer to use this type of document, just click on the following link to complete this lesson: SpI_Lesson8B]

     

               One of the first questions I remember wanting to learn in Spanish was “Where is the bathroom?” We spend a lot of our time with our families in our homes, so it is important to be able to share these stories and experiences with our Spanish friends. In this Unit, we will be looking at vocabulary that is all around us in our homes, like the names of rooms, furniture, appliances, and other household objects. In this lesson, we will begin by learning vocabulary for the outside of the house, rooms in a house, along with basic features found inside a home. Hopefully, some of these words will be familiar as they have been used in sentences or videos in other lessons.

               Outside of the House – Afuera de la casa: Let's begin by looking at parts of the house that are located outside of the house, around the back, and also in front of the house.

               Inside of the House – Adentro de la casa: Now let's look at some of the built in objects that are located inside most homes.

               Rooms of the House – Los cuartos de la casa: A house is divided into individual rooms. Let's take a look at the Spanish vocabulary for these rooms.

               Two Video Clip from Señor Jordan: He just keeps adding wonderful new videos!! The first clip below gives an overview of this vocabulary. In the second clip, he uses many of these vocabulary words with the verb ... "vivir - to live". It is a great review so ENJOY!!

               Video #1:

    See video

     

               Video #2:

    See video

     

               Internet Links: Here are some great link where you can hear and practice the vocabulary!!

               Summary of Lesson: In this lesson, you should have learned the Spanish vocabulary to talk about many different things outside of your house and inside of your house with your Spanish friend.

               Practice Exercises: Using the links below, review your knowledge of different things outside and inside of the house!!

    08.02 Middle Ages Reading Challenge (WorldCiv2)

    Remember, you must log in to Pioneer Library before using these WorldBook Online links.

    From the Pioneer Library page, open the WorldBook Online in a new window or a new tab. Close the new World Book tab, but DO NOT close the original Pioneer Library tab, or you will NOT be able to access the readings.
    The Pioneer Library log-in name and password are available from your EHS teacher or your local school librarian.

    08.02 Middle Ages Reading Challenge (WorldCiv2)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 40 minutes

    08.02 Middle Ages Reading Challenge

    To submit this assignment:
    1. Create the assignment in a word processing document--copy and paste in the questions between the two lines of asterisks, below.
    2. When you have finished, click “next” at the bottom of the screen. On the following screen you will find a submit this assignment tab.
    3. Copy and paste the assignment into the text box and click [Save changes].
    ---
    Assignment instructions:

    Respond to each item below using the "Required Readings."

    Instructions for Required Reading Access

    The "Required Readings" for the course are provided by World Book Encyclopedia and are aligned to the Utah State Core Curriculum for Social Studies. The readings are written by college professors, historians, museum curators, and institute directors recognized world-wide as experts in their fields of study.

    Accessing the readings is a bit tricky but it is possible. To access the readings you must do the following:

    1) Open "a new Tab" on your internet browser and paste the web address for Pioneer Library Online found at the bottom of the assignment page.

    The log-in page will appear. The user name and password is available from your local school librarian or from your EHS teacher.

    The Pioneer Online Library page will appear. Click on the link in the first column titled: World Book Encyclopedia. The page will open in a new window or a new tab. You can close the new World Book window/tab but DO NOT close the original Pioneer Library tab or you will NOT be able to access the readings, as this exits you from the Pioneer Library.
    Now you are ready to access the readings.

    2) Links to the Required Readings topic titles are colored blue and are listed below. You can either copy and paste the link into your browser, or just click on it and it should open up to the location needed for the current assignment. Read all "Required Readings" designated for each chapter INCLUDING all links to second pages found in the "Required Readings" articles (such links may include pictures, charts, graphs, maps, audio and video clips, other articles, etc.). Once you have read or viewed the information in the original articles and the links you are finished. You DO NOT need to read or view links to information.

    3) In many cases you will not be reading entire articles. The subsection/subsections of each article to be read is/are indicated below the name of the "Required Reading." Read only the subsections indicated. If there is no indication you should read the entire article.

    4) If you have any further questions, feel free to contact your instructor by email.

    Each question is worth 2 points. Partial credit can be given.
    *****************************************************************************************************

    Medieval monastery, Germany, 1493: Wikimedia Commons, Michel Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, public domainMedieval monastery, Germany, 1493: Wikimedia Commons, Michel Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, public domain
    Required Reading: The Middle Ages:

     

    1. How did the Germanic invasions of the A.D. 400's change European life?

     

    2. Which two institutions of the Christian church preserved learning during the early Middle Ages?

     

    3. What were Charlemagne's accomplishments?

     

    4. What was feudalism? What did it accomplish for Europe?

     

    5. What were the three classes of medieval society during feudal times?

     

    6. Why did towns develop during the high Middle Ages?

     

    7. What was a fief? a manor? a vassal? a guild? the Black Death?

     

    8. Why did economic and social progress come to a halt in the late medieval period?

     

    9. What forces weakened the church in the late Middle Ages?

     

    10. What was humanism? How did it affect medieval society?

     

     

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Name Program

    You will now create your first program. You will write a program based on your first name. See the Name Rubric for all the parts you need to include. You can see an example by uploading name.sb from Files-->Scratch in the learning system. Then you will upload it to your scratch account.

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    From the File menu in Scratch, choose Download to your computer. Save the file as NameProject**. Put your first and last initial in place of the asterisks. Then upload the file.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 3 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Online Reading/Chapter Summary & Google Earth links (Advertising)

    08.02 Online Reading/Chapter Summary questions/Google Earth Tour (Advertising)

    teacher-scored 45 points possible 135 minutes

    Chapter 8: Project / Assignment

    Take a look at the three projects below. Answer the questions, create a Google Earth tour, then upload the files to your teacher.

    I. A ChapStick for Every Pair of Lips

    Whitehall-Robins has a line of lip-balm products designed to provide all-season protection against dried or cracked lips. Adding a new dimension to a booming market of beauty and skin products, ChapStick LipSations makes taking care of the "old kisser" fun and flavorful all throughout the year.

    (Copy and paste everything in between the asterisks.)
    ******************************************************************

    1. Explain the unique selling proposition (USP) as it relates to this line of ChapStick products.
    2. How does this message-strategy method help with brand name recall and develop the product beyond
      basic lip care?
    3. How does the concept of "geotargeting" relate to the marketing of this product?

    ******************************************************************
    II. Go to the each site below and answer the two questions below for each of them.

      (Copy and paste everything in between the asterisks.)
      ******************************************************************
    1. What do you think the a) Reach: of the ads are for this company, in other words, how many people see this ad... is it local, regional, or national b) Frequency: how often will the ad run... is it running hourly, daily, monthly... according to what you know about this company and its advertising efforts.
    2. According to the text, tell us which message strategy is each of these companies attempting to use to sell their products?
    3. a) Brand Recall... using repetition using slogans, etc
      b) Sex Appeal... using sex to sell
      c) Humor Ad... using funny humor to sell
      d) Fear Appeal... trying to highlight the risk of harm, scare people into buying the product
      e) Slice-of-Life... if you use this product you can be like the people in the ad using the product.
      f) Testimonial... A recognizable person appears to "testify" of the product

    ******************************************************************
    III. Geotargeting Google Earth Tour

    Open the Geotargeting_GE_Tour_ASSIGNMENT_PART3.pdf for the instructions on how to create a Google Earth tour of 5 places/cities/towns in the United States. You will list 2-3 recreational activities at each place. Refer to the above Example_Geotargeting-PatLambrose.kmz file as a guide to help you with this part of the assignment.
    Geotargeting – Placed advertisements in geographic regions where higher purchase tendencies are evident (taken from the teacher’s PowerPoint)
    How does geotargeting influence the marketing of the recreational activities for these 5 places? Review the geotargeting links provided above.

    08.02 Past-tense of -re verbs (FrenchII)

    Le lien dans l'URL vous portera à la leçon.

    08.02 Past-tense of -re verbs links (FrenchII)

    08.02 Practice with descriptive phrases and clauses (English 9)

    teacher-scored 30 points possible 30 minutes

     

    Copy and paste the section between the lines of asterisks into a word processing document on your computer. Complete your work, and save a copy for yourself. Then submit your work by pasting it in to the assignment submission window for this assignment.

    ***********************************************************

    Part A:

    Each of the sentences below includes descriptive (adverb or adjective) phrases and/or clauses, along with noun phrases or clauses. In each case, look at the italicized phrase or clause, and write only that part of the sentence in your own words, keeping the same basic meaning. [The information in square brackets, identifying the kind of phrase or clause, is mainly there to help you with examples for part B.  You probably don't need it for part A.]

    Example:

    They spent that day in gladness, but Sir Gawain must well bethink him of the heavy venture to which he had set his hand.  
    Notice that the italicized phrase is "to which he had set his hand." 
    Think:  what does that mean, and how else could I say it? 
    Here are possible answers (you only need to supply one when you do it):
    ... that he had started on.
    ... on which he had begun.
    ... to which he was committed.

    1. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere (Martin Luther King, Jr.) [adjective phrase modifying "threat"]
    2. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. [Adjective clause modifying "community"]
    3. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. [Adjective clause modifying "action]
    4. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. [adjective clauses modifying "time"]
    5. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. [adjective clause modifying "fact"]
    6. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judaeo-Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. [ adjective clause modifying "wells"]
    7. Then was there great gazing to behold that chief, for each man marveled what it might mean that a knight and his steed should have even such a hue as the green grass. (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight) [adjective phrase modifying "hue"]
    8. For except that ye are mine uncle naught is there in me to praise, no virtue is there in my body except your blood, and since this challenge is such folly that it beseems ye not to take it, and I have asked it from ye first, let it fall to me, and if I bear myself ungallantly then let all this court blame me. [Adjective clause modifying "folly"]
    9. Thus in peril and pain, and many a hardship, the knight rode alone till Christmas Eve, and in that tide he made his prayer to the Blessed Virgin that she would guide his steps and lead him to some dwelling. [adjective clause modifying "prayer]
    10. Then before the hearth-place, whereon the fire burned, they made ready a chair for Gawain, hung about with cloth and fair cushions; and there they cast around him a mantle of brown samite, richly embroidered and furred within with costly skins of ermine, with a hood of the same, and he seated himself in that rich seat, and warmed himself at the fire, and was cheered at heart. [Notice there are two adjective phrases marked in this sentence.] 
      a. 
      b.
    11. On her head she wore no golden circlet, but a network of precious stones, that gleamed and shone through her tresses in clusters of twenty together. [adjective clause modifying "stones"]
    12. Gawain abode the stroke, and flinched in no limb, but stood still as a stone or the stump of a tree that is fast rooted in the rocky ground with a hundred roots.[Adverb phrase modifying "still", and containing an adjective clause that modifies "tree"]
    13. With one phrase he had turned happy picnickers into a sulky, tense, murmuring crowd, being slowly hypnotized by gavel taps lessening in intensity until the only sound in the courtroom was a dim pink-pinkpink: the judge might have been rapping the bench with a pencil. [adjective phrase modifying "crowd", and containing an adverb clause and then, after the colon, an independent clause!]
    14. In the frosty December dusk, their cabins looked neat and snug with pale blue smoke rising from the chimneys and doorways glowing amber from the fires inside. [adjective phrase]
    15. With his infinite capacity for calming turbulent seas, he could make a rape case as dry as a sermon. [Notice there are two adjective phrases marked in this sentence.]
      a.
      b.

     

    Part B: Write original sentences meeting the following criteria. (See examples in lesson 08.02 and in 1-15 above to help you with these.)

     

    Adjective phrases

     

    16.  Write a sentence about yourself that includes an adjective phrase.

    17.  Write a sentence about Scout that includes an adjective phrase.

     

    Adjective clauses

     

    18.  Write a sentence about yourself that includes an adjective clause.

    19.  Write a sentence about equality that includes an adjective clause.

     

    Adverb phrases

     

    20.  Write a sentence about yourself that includes an adverb phrase.

    21.  Re-write your sentence, moving the adverb phrase to another location in the sentence.

    22.  Write a sentence about Sir Gawain that includes an adverb phrase.

     

    Adverb clauses

     

    23.  Write a sentence about yourself that includes an adverb clause.

    24.  Re-write your sentence, moving the adverb clause to another location in the sentence.

    25.  Write a sentence about Boo Radley that includes an adverb clause.

     

    Restrictive clauses

     

    26.  Write a sentence about taking online classes that includes a restrictive clause.

    27.  Write a sentence about your neighborhood that includes a restrictive clause.

     

    Non-restrictive clauses

     

    28.  Write a sentence about an animal that includes a non-restrictive clause.

    29.  Write a sentence about civil rights that includes a non-restrictive clause.

     

     

     

     

    ********************************************************************

     

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 7 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Problem Solving with Proportions (Geometry)

    teacher-scored 26 points possible 40 minutes

    Read Section 8.2
    Vocabulary
    1. geometric mean

    pgs. 468-471 (1, 2-30 even, 33, 39, 42, 52)

    Journal Entry
    Give an example illustrating each of the two properties of proportions given in this lesson.

    08.02 Relationship between the Sine and Cosine of Complementary Angles (Math Level 2)

    The material for this lesson is from:

    Licensed under CK-12 Foundation is licensed under Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0)Terms of UseAttribution
     

    Recall that the sine and cosine of angles are ratios of pairs of sides in right triangles. 

    • The sine of an angle in a right triangle is the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse.
    • The cosine of an angle in a right triangle is the ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the hypotenuse .

    In the examples, you will explore how the sine and cosine of the angles in a right triangle are related.

    Example A

    Consider the right triangle below. Find the sine and cosine of angles A and B in terms of a, b, and c. What do you notice?

     

    Solution: sin A = \frac{a}{c}, sin B = \frac{b}{c}, cos A = \frac{b}{c}, cos B = \frac{a}{c}.  Note that sin A = cos B and sin B = cos A.

    Example B

    Consider the triangle from Example A. How is \angleA related to \angleB?

    Solution: The sum of the measures of the three angles in a triangle is 180^{\circ}. This means that m\angleA + m\angleB + m\angleC = 180^{\circ}. \angleC  is a right angle so m\angleC = 90^{\circ}. Therefore, m\angleA + m\angleB = 90^{\circ}. Angles A and B are complementary angles because their sum is 90^{\circ}.

    In Example A you saw that sin A = cos B and sin B = cos A. This means that the sine and cosine of complementary angles are equal.

    Example C

    Find sin 80^{\circ} and cos 10^{\circ}. Explain the result.

    Solution: sin 80^{\circ}\approx 0.985 and cos 10^{\circ}\approx 0.985. sin 80^{\circ} = cos 10^{\circ} because 80^{\circ}  and 10^{\circ} are complementary angle measures. sin 80^{\circ} and cos 10^{\circ} are the ratios of the same sides of a right triangle, as shown below.

    Concept Problem Revisited

    \bigtriangleupABC is a right triangle with  m\angleC = 90^{\circ} and sin A = k. What is cos B?

    \angleA and \angleB are complementary because they are the two non-right angles of a right triangle. This means that sin A = cos B and sin B = cos A. If sin A = k, then cos B = k as well.

    Click on the link below to watch the video.

    If after completing this topic you can state without hesitation that...

    • I can \explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles.

    …you are ready for the assignment.  Otherwise, go back and review the material before moving on.

    08.02 Relationship between the Sine and Cosine of Complementary Angles - Worksheet (Math Level 2)

    teacher-scored 40 points possible 60 minutes
    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 1 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Relaxation exercises for stress management (Fitness for Life)

    08.02 Shape Determines Molecular Polarity(Chemistry3)

    Electronegativity and the geometry of a molecule determine how the molecule behaves.

    Shape Determines Molecular Polarity

    (Select the links to "Electronegativity" and "Molecular Polarity")

    Use the information you have learned to answer the questions on the Shape Determines Molecular Polarity powerpoint presentation.

    Use the information you have learned to answer the questions on the Shape Determines Molecular Polarity powerpoint presentation.

    08.02 Social Darwinism vs. Social Gospel

    08.02 Sports vocabulary (FrenchI)

    The link in the URL's will take you to this lesson.

    08.02 Sports vocabulary links (FrenchI)

    08.02 Stress Inventory and Relaxation exercises (Fitness for Life)

    Introduction:

    STRESS INVENTORY: It is helpful to know what factors are causing you stress in order to effectively deal with stress. Many times, events in your life can cause you stress. Most of the time you are aware that these events are stressful, while other times you may be unaware that several events together may be quite stressful. The questionnaire for this assignment asks that you think about several life events that may be causing you stress.

    STRESS RELEAXATION: One of the most effective ways to deal with stress is to perform relaxation exercises. This assignment is designed to help you not only identify stress but to help you develop relaxation skills that will enable you to deal with stress more effectively. Go to the first stress management/relaxation exercises link below. Page down to “Progressive Muscle Exercises”. You may click on either MP3 or text versions:

    • Head to toe MP3 • Head to toe (Script text) • Toe to Head MP3 • Toe to Head (Script text)

    Go to the second, relaxation exercises for stress management, link below. Download and read the PDF. Alternatively, if you have the optional textbook, you may read pages 300-301

    08.02 Study Guide 1 and PowerPoint

    08.02 Study Guide 1 and PowerPoint--S1

    teacher-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

    View this presentation while answering Spreadsheet Basics questions. Save the file. This assignment will be submitted after you have completed S4.

    Pacing: complete this by the end of Week 2 of your enrollment date for this class.


    08.02 Study Guide 1 and PowerPoint--S1 (CompTech 2007)

    teacher-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

    View this presentation while answering Spreadsheet Basics questions. Save the file. This assignment will be submitted after you have completed S4.

    08.02 Study Guide 1 and PowerPoint--S1 (CompTech)

    teacher-scored 5 points possible 20 minutes

    View this presentation while answering Spreadsheet Basics questions. Save the file. This assignment will be submitted after you have completed S4.

    08.02 Study Sheet 2: Die Laender und Sprachen Europas(German1)

    Lernziel 08.02 Study Sheet: Die Länder und Sprachen Europas


    Die Länder Europas
    Das Land Die Hauptstadt Die Sprache
    Deutschland Berlin Deutsch
    Österreich Wien Deutsch
    Die Schweiz Bern Deutsch, Italienisch, Franzözisch
    Liechtenstein Vaduz Deutsch
    England (Großbritannien) London Englisch
    Frankreich Paris Franzözisch
    Italien Rom Italienisch
    Spanien Madrid Spanisch
    Norwegen Oslo Norwegisch
    Schweden Stockholm Schwedisch
    Finnland Helsinki Finnisch
    Polen Warschau Polisch
    Die Tchechische Republik Prag Tschechisch
    Die Niederlände/Holland Amsterdam Holländisch
    Dänemark Kopenhagen Dänisch


    To print out a copy of this to study click on the link for the pdf at the top.

    08.02 Technology and the Future of Business Communication

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 30 minutes

    Businesses require complex webs of communication--internally, between/among workers and leaders; externally, with suppliers, customers, clients, potential customers or clients, government agencies at different levels, and advisors or contract service providers. After reading/viewing the material from at least three of the links below, choose FIVE of the following means of communication and write a paragraph for each to explain how you think they will change in the business world over the next thirty years:

    • Face-to-face meetings
    • Telephone
    • Letters/mailed advertising or orders
    • Email
    • Texting
    • Teleconference/video conference
    • Social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace, etc)
    • Catalogs
    • Twitter
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Blogs
    • Web pages
    • Fax

    *??* - what do you think will change communication that hasn't been invented yet?

    08.02 The Makeup of the Legislative Branch (NavajoGovt)

    Following the Title II Amendment, the legislative branch of the Navajo government became much more defined. With representation based on population it mirrors the legislatures of the states as well as the federal government.

    Use the web sources below and/or your own research to develop an understanding of today's legislative branch and its makeup.

    Once you have completed your research and feel confident in your knowledge, please take the test.

    08.02 The Makeup of the Legislative Branch links (NavajoGovt)

    08.02 Understanding Poetry using SOAPSTone (English 11)

    Students will learn how to read and understand poetry using the SOAPSTone method.

    2nd century Greek poem by Sappho: Public domain via Wikimedia commons2nd century Greek poem by Sappho: Public domain via Wikimedia commons

    Understanding Poetry

    Students often struggle with poems because they seem to think there is a 'secret' meaning that can only be understood by few people. Here is a method that will help you go through some steps to get a better understanding of a poem's meaning.  Most poems are relatively short, making every count.  It is even more important to practice "close reading" with poems than with longer forms.

    Read through the attachment "Understanding Poetry" to start. *If you cannot open the file, let me know and I can send it in a different format.

    The slides will outline a method of understanding poetry using the acronym SOAPSTone. After viewing the presentation, take the quiz. You can then get a good understanding of the types of responses you need when you practice on your own.

    You will then choose three of the poems in the following assignments for practice. Each will be submitted as a different assignment, but you will be answering the same questions for each. The last section of this unit will require you to write a poem of your own.

    Terms you will need to understand for this unit (in addition to the literary devices in the previous lesson), as used in the assignments based on the SOAPSTone method:

    Speaker:  who is doing the talking in the poem?  This is similar to the idea of "narrator" in fiction.  Don't say "the author" unless you have evidence to support the idea that the poet meant this as personal.  You will rarely know the speaker's name, but try to identify what sort of person is speaking in the poem.

    Occasion:  what is going on here?  Give a short, simple summary of the situation the speaker finds him/herself in - when, what, where, why?

    Audience:  who is the speaker talking to?  In some cases, the speaker will address "you" or "thee", or speak in the imperative, which implies "you" (remember, the imperative is a sentence like "Come home as soon as you're finished", in which the subject of the sentence is understood to be "You").  In that case, you will need to try to infer what sort of person is being addressed, or what the relationship between the author and the audience seems to be - is the audience the speaker's wife, girlfriend, boyfriend, son, daughter, friend, enemy, God, student? In other poems, there is no indication of a particular audience, or the subject matter or language of the poem may suggest an audience of a certain age, gender, or interests.

    Purpose:  why did the poet write this poem?  What is the point?  What main idea or truth does the poem imply or state?  This is related to the idea of "theme," and you may need to infer this either from what the poem says, or from how it is said.

    Subject:  what is the poem about?  what is the general topic?  What search terms might you use if you were looking for more about the same subject?

    Tone:  what mood or feeling does the poem create?  What is the poet's or speaker's attitude toward the subject?  Most often, this will NOT be explicitly stated.  Describe tone with adjectives - words like sad, angry, nostalgic, wistful, longing, joyful, anguished, objective, sarcastic, ironic, reverent, spooky, humorous ...  You will usually be asked to identify what particular words or phrases in the poem help create that tone.

    08.02 Understanding Poetry using SOAPSTone: Another Example (English 11)

    Students will learn how to read and understand poetry using the SOAPSTone method.

    Let's look at this poem by William Wordsworth, apply the SOAPStone method and then look for literary devices:

    By the Sea

    It is a beauteous evening, calm and free;
    The holy time is quiet as a nun
    Breathless with adoration; the broad sun
    Is sinking down in its tranquillity;

    The gentleness of heaven is on the sea:
    Listen! the mighty Being is awake,
    And doth with his eternal motion make
    A sound like thunder -everlastingly.

    Dear child! dear girl! that walkest with me here,
    If thou appear untouched by solemn thought
    Thy nature is not therefore less divine:

    Thou liest in Abraham's bosom all the year,
    And worshipp'st at the Temple's inner shrine,
    God being with thee when we know it not.

    Speaker?
    In the first two stanzas, it could be almost anyone, but in the third stanza, we see that the point of view is first person.  By the end of the poem, it is clear that the speaker is an adult - possibly a parent or grandparent of the girl in the poem - who believes in God.

    Occasion?
    A person is walking along an ocean beach with a little girl.

    Audience?
     The speaker is addressing the little girl.

    Purpose?
     One possibility is "The beauty of nature is an expression of God's presence with us." The first two stanzas support this - "holy time", "gentleness of heaven is on the sea", "the mighty Being is awake".
     Another, which may be better, is "Innocent young children have a divine nature even before they can or do think rationally about God."  The last two stanzas support this - with pretty much every line and word.

    Subject?
    On a concrete level, this poem is about the ocean, and enjoying the beauty of the natural world.  On a more abstract level, it is about humankind's divine nature.

    Tone?
     Worshipful and calm.  Words or phrases from the poem that help create this tone include calm, holy, quiet, nun, tranquillity, gentleness, liest in Abraham's bosom, worshipp'st at the Temple, God being with thee.

    What literary devices can we notice?

    • "The holy time is quiet as a nun" - simile
    • "sun/is sinking down in its tranquillity" - personification (tranquillity is an emotion felt by people and maybe animals, but not by an inanimate object like the sun)
    • "...with his eternal motion make/ a sound like thunder" - OK, we see "like" but what is the comparison being made?  Thunder is, literally, a sound, so "a sound like thunder" isn't a simile.  You could argue, though, that in the context of the poem, the sound is the sound of the waves breaking on the beach.  "Waves breaking on the beach are like thunder" could be a simile.
    • "... gentleness of heaven..." is an example of assonance (the repetition of the same vowel sound) - the "short e" sound is repeated four times.
    • "... liest in Abraham's bosom" and "worshipp'st at the Temple's inner shrine" are also literary devices.  They certainly aren't literally true (Abraham having been many centuries dead, and the Temple destroyed, long before Wordsworth's day.  Also, the Temple's inner shrine could only be entered by the high priest, and never by a child or female).  We might think of them as metaphors for the girl being in the presence of God.

    08.02. Analyze the organization and operation of the United Nations (U.S. History)

    The founding of the United Nations
    Hopes for world peace were high at the end of WWII. This was most visibly symbolized in the founding of the United Nations. On April 25, 1945, the representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish this new peacekeeping body. After two months of debate, on June 26, 1945, the delegates signed the charter establishing the United Nations.

    United Nations' organization and operations
    Please read this summary to learn about how the United Nations is organized and what type of operations it does.

    United Nations
    This is the current United Nations' website. Explore what this organization does today in the world and how it tries to maintain peace for the global community. Do you think that there is still a need for such an organization today?

    08.02. Art Terms - Mediums- Other Cultures (Art History and Art Criticism)

    Art Terms

    The world or art has spanned over many centuries, over many counties and continents. You have only touched a small percent of them during this course. Learn the following art terms then finish the course with an modern artist who understands how the imagination is used to create art.

    Apprentice – someone who works closely with an experienced artist in order to learn the techniques of that person’s trade.

    Art of Africa – The huge continent of Africa has a population of millions, but is divided into one thousand culture groups. There are hundreds of ancient Neolithic rock paintings that depict humans, animal and nonobjective symbolic design. However, most of the African art you see in museums today has been made within the last century. The older wooden or fabric pieces have been destroyed by the damp climate and insects. The arts of Africa were and still are interwoven into the religious and everyday live of the African people. Sculpture is regarded as one of Africa’s greatest contributions to the world’s culture heritage. It inspired the development of Cubism in Europe. ( Art Talk, Regan, pg 57)

    Art Historian – the people who assemble accounts of how, why and when people around the world have created art.

    Art of Native Americans – Any culture before the Europeans arrived is considered Pre-Colombian (prior to Columbus). Each had its unique language, traditions, ritual and art forms.

    Art theory – attempts to explain why certain objects or events are called art; attempts to identify important features or characteristics shared by a work of art.

    Curator - a caretaker of a portion of a museum collection.

    Fluxus Movement - art movement in which the artist presented live events involving music, literary reading and spontaneous art- main artist Nam June Piak.

    Folk Art - artistic work by individuals who have not been trained as artists.

    Formal Academies - a group of learned members that establishes very strict rules about what the subject of a work of art may be and how it may be created.

    Graffiti Art - art that consists of images and words applied to subway walls and trains, buildings and public fixtures.

    Installation Art - a work of art that is built temporarily or permanently into a museum or gallery space; main artists are Lucus Samara and Sandy Skoglund.

    Kinetic Art - a type of sculpture that moves; main artists were George Warren Rickey and Len Lye.

    Photo-realism - an art movement in which the artist painted with such precision and detail that their work resembled photography of the image. – Main artist Chuck Close.

    Radiocarbon dating - a scientific process used to determine the age of an object by the object’s radio carbon content.

    Social Realists - a group of artists who dealt with themes such as poverty, oppression and social injustice.

    Super-realism - an artist style with the intent to produce works so realistic that the viewer is unable to distinguish between illusion and reality.

    Watch the following video on Imagination and Installation Art.

    08.02.00

    In this lesson, I’m going to ask you to take a look at problem solution writing from a couple of different angles. 

    A.  The first is a traditional article found in the Salt Lake City newspaper, The Deseret News.  Read the article and answer the questions below.

    **********************

    1.  What is the author’s claim—what is the main issue or problem?

    2.  Organization--What does she do to show you the significance of the problem?

    3.  What solutions does she offer?

    4.  Did you find the article interesting?

    ************************

    B. I realize the focus of this quarter has been expository writing, but for a second example examining problems and solutions, we’re going to drift into the world of fiction.  The relationship between scientific discovery and fiction is an interesting one. Some might say that scientific innovations inspire fiction writers to project current trends into the distant future. Others could rightfully claim that, in many cases, scientific discovery is an outgrowth of fiction speculation.

    The French writer Jules Verne, author of classic science fiction works like Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Around the World in Eighty Days, and A journey to the Center of the Earth, was one of the first to consciously intertwine fact with fantasy. His scientific adventure stories proved to be not only universally popular, but also almost unbelievably prophetic. Indeed, the realization of many of Verne's imaginative creations provides insight into the relationship between science and science fiction even today.

    In any case, science fiction is a great way to get people thinking about the future of mankind. It is a forum where readers can envision possible futures, extrapolate trends, and voice concerns, all in a spirit of adventure. Additionally, science fiction gives us a sense of perspective, by reminding us that it's a big universe we're in but a small planet we're on.

    For this second part of this assignment, please read the science fiction short story entitled "Harrison Bergeron" written by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.  Then respond to the following questions:

    *******************

    1. What do you think about this author’s view of the future? Is he really proposing that as a possibility?
    2. What are the “real-life” issues in our society the author is addressing? Think about the purpose of the handicaps in this fictional society.
    3. The author is using a type of hyperbole, an exaggeration, to make a point. What would you say his point is?
    4. What are some of the details in the story which show the point the author is trying to make?
    5. What do you think the author is inferring as a “solution” to the problem he is discussing

    **********************

    08.02.00 - Solving Problems with Exponential Equations (Math I)

    At the end of the previous lesson, we solved a couple problems with exponential functions. Now we will consider a few more ways to solve exponential problems.

    You can download the attached file, or you can read the same content below.

    08.02.00 Chapter 8 Example 1 - In/out Names (C++)

    After studying the example below, do the Chapter 8 Assignment 1 - In/out Phone Numbers assignment below and submit it under topic 3.

    Example Instructions: Write a C++ program using an input file and an output file that will read 10 names from the input file and output the 10 names to the output file and the display screen.

    Example:
    In / Out Names Program

    Ben
    Jan
    Alice
    Will
    Kevin
    Linda
    Lance
    Elizabeth
    Bernice
    Brenda

    Names are also stored in C:\\InOutNames.out

    Type in the data below using the editor and save to a selected directory. The example below assumes that the file is stored in the root directory of C: .
    Note: If you use notepad to enter the names, be sure to select All Files as the save as type, not Text Documents (txt).

    InOutNames.dat
    Ben
    Jan
    Alice
    Will
    Kevin
    Linda
    Lance
    Elizabeth
    Bernice
    Brenda

    C++ Code:

    /* In/Out Names Program */
    #include <iostream> // needed for cin and cout
    #include <fstream> // needed for files

    using namespace std;
    int main( )
      {
        int cnt;
        string name;
        ifstream fileIn ("C:\\InOutNames.dat" ); // open the input file using the path and name
        ofstream fileOut ("C:\\InOutNames.out"); // open the output file using the path and name
        cout << "In / Out Names Program\n " << endl; // display program title
        fileOut << "In / Out Names Program\n " << endl; // display program title in output file
        for (cnt = 1; cnt <= 10; cnt++)
          {
            fileIn >> name; // read from input file
            fileOut << name << endl; // output to out file
            cout << name << endl; // output to display
          }
        cout << "\nNames are also stored in C:\\InOutNames.out\n" << endl;
        fileIn.close( ); // close files
        fileOut.close( );
        system("Pause");
        return(0);
      }

    08.02.00 Lesson Two: Measures of Center (Sec Dev Math)

    Mean, median, and mode are important tools in the statistician’s toolbox. These measures of center all use data points to approximate and understand a “middle value” or “average” of a given data set. Two more measures of interest are the range and midrange, which use the greatest and least values of the data set to help describe the spread of the data.




    So why would you need to find out the middle of a data set? And why do you need three measures instead of just one? In this lesson we will look closely at these measures of center and learn how they can help us understand sets of data.

    IF you feel confident you have mastered these skills, skip to Quiz 22. Otherwise, work through the three topics that follow.



    08.02.00 Review of Properties of Functions (PreCalc)

    You should be somewhat familiar with the properties listed here. These properties are used to describe many functions. You will need to use these to describe trigonometric functions.

    You can download the attached file or read the same content below.



    08.02.00 Solving Problems with Exponential Equations (Math I)

    Common Core Standards: F-IF.7e, F-LE.1.c; Standards for Math Practice: 1-8

    At the end of the previous lesson, we solved a couple problems with exponential functions. Now we will consider a few more ways to solve exponential problems.

    You can download the attached file, or read the same content below.



    08.02.01

    08.02.01 - Gene Replication - Revisited (Math I)

    Earlier we considered a problem involving replicating genes using a chemical process. We modeled this process using data tables, graphs and eventually by writing an equation. Of course, one of the reasons we wish to model a process is so that we can solve problems with this model.

    As we noted at the end of lesson 1, one of the simplest problems we can solve with our mathematical model is to use the equation to find the number of genes (or bacteria or rabbits, or whatever) after a certain amount of time, so let's solve a few problems of this nature.

    First, recall the details of the problem. We are using a chemical process to replicate a single gene. First we raise the temperature to the point where the gene unzips, then we bring it down to a working temperature where activated enzymes will attach strands of DNA bases to the unzipped gene. In our problem, this process takes about 3 minutes each time. We then reheat the mixture, unzip it again, bring it back down to the working temperature to activate the enzymes which will attach the base strands, etc.

    We determined that this process could be modeled with an equation like the following one

    (eq. 1)

    where y is the dependent variable, is the initial conditions, b is called the base, x is the independent variable, and c is a constant relating to the rate. For our problem, the dependent variable is the number of genes. We initially had 75 genes, so the constant is 75 genes. The number of genes doubles every 3 minutes, so the base is 2, and the constant c is 3 min. Finally, the independent variable is the time, in minutes. Putting all these together we find that

    (eq. 2)

    Now, one thing that we may wish to do with this equation is determine how many genes we have after a certain number of minutes. We do this by substituting the number of minutes into the value for t, and evaluating this expression. This is a situation where function notation would be useful, so let's go ahead and rewrite equation 2 such that is a function of t,

    (eq. 2a)

    Now, we can evaluate this at any value of t we wish. Consider the following problem.

    How many genes will we have after 25 minutes?

    To solve this, we simply substitute 25 minutes for t and evaluate the expression.

    (eq. 3)


    (eq. )


    (25 min) = (75 genes)(322.5397888…) (eq. 3c)


    (25 min) = 24190.48416… genes (eq. 3d)

    Now, as we discussed earlier, this is not an appropriate level of precision to report this answer. We started with 75 genes. We did not gain precision by performing these calculations. Therefore, a more reasonable answer would be

    (25 min) = 24200 genes (eq. 3e)

    Good enough. We should do another example. How many genes will we have after 1 hour?

    The first thing we need to do is convert hours to minutes. Why? Because t is in minutes, not in hours or days or seconds or any other units of time. The units must align. There are 60 minutes in an hour, so t = 60 min. Now we can enter this into equation 2.

    (eq. 4)

    I have been going through the arithmetic one operation at a time. This is how you do arithmetic. However, you have a calculator. You can actually use your calculator to perform this in one step. You do need to be careful how you enter it. Most modern calculators use logical order input, meaning you enter the numbers into the calculator in the same way you would write them on the page. Then, to calculate the number of genes at 60 minutes, we would want to enter 75 and multiply that by 2 raised to the 60 divided by 3. You would want to enter this in the following way

    75 [×] 2 [^] [ ( ] 60 [÷] 3 [ ) ] [ENTER]

    where [^] is the “raised to” button, and it means “take whatever was before this and raise it to whatever comes next. Your calculator may have a button that looks like [x y] instead. It does the same thing. Anyway, you should get the answer 78643200. Therefore

    (60 min) = 78 643 200 genes (eq. 4a)

    Reporting this to a more reasonable precision, we might instead write

    (60 min) = 78 600 000 genes (eq. 4b)

    Okay, let's take a second and discuss what we did when we entered this in your calculator. We did not need put the factor in parenthesis. This is because the order of operations informs us that we first raise 2 to the exponent before multiplying that value by 75. We did need to put the exponent in parenthesis. The logical order input of your calculator would interpret

    75 [×] 2 [^] 60 [÷] 3

    to mean

    This is not what we want. To make sure that the calculator first divides 60 by 3, and then raises 2 to that power, we need to enter parenthesis around 60 ÷ 3. When written in the form , the fact that the full exponent, is a superscript lets you know that you need to perform this operation first. Your calculator doesn't have any visual clues like that, so you need to explicitly tell it what to do. By the way, occasionally in this class and other math classes, you may be forced to deal with ASCII notation. That is what we math geeks call the “using regular characters and fonts to represent all of the complicated stuff that normally occurs in an equation” notation. In ASCII notation we use a carat, ^, to mean “raised to the,” just like your calculator. We use parenthesis, (), or asterisks, *, to denote multiplication. We use a slash, /, for division. Therefore, in ASCII notation

    would be written

    75*2^(60/3)

    or something like that. Notice that in ASCII notation, just like with your calculator, we need to group the 60 and the 3 together with parenthesis. If I wrote

    75*2^60/3

    you would be correct to assume that I mean

    Hopefully, you will not have to decipher ASCII notation too often, but if you e-mail your teacher questions about the math, your teacher may reply with the ASCII notation, so you should try to familiarize yourself with it. If all else fails, you can write out on paper what the ASCII notation says, just like you were trying to translate a note from your Spanish teacher.

    All right, just to make sure that you have this one step calculator thing figured out--

    How many genes will we have after 10 minutes?

    The expression we wish to evaluate is

    (eq. 5)

    Take a second and find the answer to this.

    Now, did you find

    (10 min) = 760 genes? (eq. 5a)

    Yes? Excellent! No? Okay, did you at least find 755.9526299 genes. Yeah, that is way too precise an answer. You do not know this value to the ten millionth place. How about 755 genes? That would also be an acceptable value to report. 756 genes? Yes, I know that 9 rounds up, but you really do not know this to the gene, and reporting a 6 implies that you do. So, 755 genes is a little bit better. 760 genes actually violates the rule of reporting a bit better than you think you should. In this case, 755 genes may be the best answer.

    All right, so you didn't find 755.9526299 genes?

    Did you find 25600 genes? You need to use parenthesis when entering the numbers into your calculator.

    Did you find 17932363.35? Okay, that is an order of operations error that either you are making, or your calculator is making. If it is you, remember, exponents come before multiplication. You need to raise 2 to the 10/3 before you multiply by 75. If the calculator is making the error, it is probably too cheap of a calculator to meet your needs for math for the next 3-10 years. Invest in a better calculator. You can download calculator emulators for your computer. You can download calculator emulators for your smart phone. But honestly, an investment in a good calculator is worth it. In the meantime, use parenthesis in your calculations.

    Did you find 1.922167969E21? That is computer scientific notation for 1.922167969 × 1021, aka 1,922,167,969,000,000,000,000. Again, this is an order of operations issue. Buy a better calculator. Use parenthesis until then.

    08.02.01 - Medians and the Centroid (Geometry)

    The next important line is the median. You may be familiar with the term median as a word that means "middle." (The median of a set of data is the middle value, once the data has been listed in numerical order.) A median of a triangle is the line connecting one vertex with the midpoint of the opposite side, so, in a way, it is the middle of the triangle.

    Since we already constructed the midpoints, constructing the medians should be straightforward.

    Again, consider ΔTLM from lesson 1. In this image, we have the lines and arcs we needed to find the midpoints of each side. All we need to do is construct the lines connecting the vertices and the midpoints.




    Okay, be honest, were you expecting that? You are getting more and more suspicious of the 'unspecialness' of this triangle aren't you?

    Okay, how about ΔBNH also from lesson 1? The gray lines are the perpendicular bisectors, and the magenta lines are the medians.

    Do you think this triangle is special also?




    What will convince you? A proof? Good, sounds like a homework problem :)

    The medians in any triangle will always intersect at one point. This point is called the centroid of the triangle. It is yet another point that can claim to be the center. In fact, this point is the point that is most like a center, both visually and physically. It turns out that if you take a flat, triangle shaped object, it will balance on its centroid.

    You should really do this! Take a piece of wood, cardboard or something. Cut out a triangle. Find the centroid. Place the centroid on the tip of your index finger. You ought to be able to get the thing to balance. Now, this is only true if the density of the wood/cardboard/plexiglass is uniform, so if you have a board that is thicker at one end than the other, or has nails or holes or something that makes it non-uniform, this trick will not work.



    08.02.01 Advantages and Disadvantages of unicameral body of representatives (NavajoGovt)

    teacher-scored 25 points possible 45 minutes

    Assignment 23
    Most states have a bicameral legislature -- that is they have both a House of Representatives and a Senate. Nebraska and the Navajo Nation Council are unicameral - there is only one body of representatives.

    Your assignment is to make a chart which shows the advantages and disadvantages of both systems.

    When you have finished, please submit your assignment.

    08.02.01 Basic Properties of Functions (PreCalc)

    You should recognize these terms from your previous math classes.

    Domain:
    The domain is the set of all real numbers the independent variable x can take on. All functions have a domain. Many functions have domains of (−∞,∞), but there are also functions with limited domains.


    Range:
    The range is the set of all real numbers the function ƒ(x) takes on for allowed values of x. This can also be considered as the set of all real numbers the dependent variable y can take on. All functions have a range.



    Consider the following functions and their graphs.


    • The function ƒ(x) = x2 has a domain of (−∞,∞). The domain can also be written as −∞ < x < ∞.
    • The function ƒ(x) = x2 has the more limited range of [ 0,∞ ). The square bracket indicates that the end point is included in the range. In this case, the point y = 0 is included. The range can also be written as 0 ≤ ƒ (x) < ∞.
    • The function h(x) = 1x is undefined at x = 0, so its domain is (−∞,0)∪(0,∞).
    • The function h(x) = 1x has an asymptote at y = 0, so its range is also limited to (−∞,0)∪(0,∞).


    x-intercept:
    The x-intercepts are the points where the graph crosses the x-axis. This occurs when ƒ(x) = 0. Functions with ƒ(x) = 0 in the range will have an x-intercept. Functions without ƒ(x) = 0 in the range will not have an x-intercept. The x-intercepts are also called the zeros of the function. So, the zeros of ƒ(x) are the values x = such that ƒ() = 0. A function can have several x-intercepts.

    y-intercept:
    The y-intercept is the point where the graph crosses the y-axis. This is the calculated by finding ƒ(x) when x = 0, or ƒ(0). Functions with x = 0 in the domain will have a y-intercept. Functions without x = 0 in the domain will not have a y-intercept. A function can only have one y-intercept.



    Consider the following functions and their graphs.


    • The function ;ƒ(x) = x2 just touches the x-axis at x = 0, which is in the range,
    • ◦ therefore the x-intercept is x = 0.
    • The function ƒ(x) = x2 also crosses the y-axis at the origin,
    • ◦ so the y-intercept is at y = 0.
    • The function h(x) = 1x never crosses either the x- or the y-axis, so it has no x- or y-intercepts.


    Slope:
    The slope of a graph is the rate of change. The average slope, , (average rate of change) is found by the equation



    The instantaneous rate of change can be found by drawing a tangent line at a point and calculating the slope of the tangent line using this equation



    For a linear function, the average rate of change and the instantaneous rate of change are the same. For any other function, these are NOT equal.

    However, without actually calculating the slope, you should be able to determine the following:

    • If the slope is positive the function is increasing.

    • A negative slope means the function is decreasing.

    • If the slope is zero, the function is neither increasing or decreasing.

    It is only possible to determine a slope for points that are within the domain of the function. There may also exist points within the domain that do not have a defined slope.


    Consider the following functions and their graphs.


    • The slope of the function ƒ(x) = x2 is negative from (−∞ , 0). It has a slope of zero at [ 0, 0 ] and the slope is positive from (0,∞). This can also be denoted with an inequality.

    • Therefore the function is decreasing for −∞ < x < 0 , is neither increasing nor decreasing at x = 0, and is increasing for 0 < x < ∞ . This can also be denoted with an interval.

    • The slope of the function h(x) = 1x is negative from (−∞,0)∪(0,∞). Alternately you could say that the slope is negative for −∞ < x < 0 , and 0 < x < ∞ . Technically there is no slope at x = 0 because it is not in the domain. However, you may describe the limit of the slope as x approaches 0.

    • Therefore the function is decreasing for −∞ < x < 0 and 0 < x < ∞ . Or you could also say that the function is decreasing for (−∞,0)∪(0,∞).


    Asymptotes:
    An asymptote is a line that the function approaches, but never reaches. If a function ƒ(x) has a vertical asymptote at x = , then is NOT in the domain of ƒ(x). If a function ƒ(x) has a horizontal asymptote at y = b, then b is NOT in the range of ƒ(x). A slant asymptote (a line with an equation y = m x + b, where m≠0 ) does not limit the domain or range per se.



    Consider the functions below.


    • The function ƒ(x) = x2 does not have any asymptotes.

    • The function h(x) = 1x has a vertical asymptote at x = 0, and a horizontal asymptote at y = 0.


    One-to-one:
    If a function is one-to-one, then for every value of x there is a unique value of y.



    Consider the following functions and their graphs.


    • The function ƒ(x) = x2 is not a one-to-one function, because for every value of x (other than x = 0), there are 2 values of y.

    • The function h(x) = 1x is a one-to-one function, because for every value of x in the domain (other than x = 0), there is only one value of y.




    08.02.01 Breeding Methods (Horse Mgt)

    teacher-scored 10 points possible 30 minutes

    Define each of the following, and list two advantages and disadvantages of each:
    1. Pasture breeding
    2. Hand-breeding, live cover
    3. Artificial insemination, fresh cooled semen
    4. Artificial insemination, frozen semen

    08.02.01 Chapter 8 Assignment 1 - In/Out Phone Numbers (C++)

    teacher-scored 20 points possible 60 minutes

    Do this assignment and submit it under Topic 3.

    Write a C++ program using an input file and an output file that will read 10 names and phone numbers from the input file and output the 10 names and numbers to the output file and the display screen.

    Example:
    In / Out Phone Numbers Program

    Brenda 999-3737
    Joey 999-2774
    Fred 888-7333
    Kevin 888-8766
    Breanne 888-0098
    Devin 999-2762
    Alan 999-8765
    Debbie 999-2919
    Wendle 999-9923
    Shawn 999-3887

    The names and phone numbers are also stored on a file called Phone.out

    Type in the data below using the editor and save to a selected directory. The example below assumes that the file is stored in the root directory of C: . Note: If you use notepad to enter the names, be sure to select All Files as the save as type, not Text Documents (txt).

    Phone.dat
    Brenda
    999-3737
    Joey
    999-2774
    Fred
    888-7333
    Kevin
    888-8766
    Breanne
    888-0098
    Devin
    999-2762
    Alan
    999-8765
    Debbie
    999-2919
    Wendle
    999-9923
    Shawn
    999-3887

    08.02.01 Electrical Rate Assignment(PrinTech2)

    teacher-scored 0 points possible

    There are two options to submit this assignment:

    Option 1: Read the instructions and submit your work to me through the postal service using the following address:

    Attn: Keven Kendall
    Logan Academy
    760 No. 200 We.
    Logan, Ut 84321

    Option 2: Read the information below and submit it by email at kkendall21@yahoo.com

    Worksheet 2.7: Electrical Rate

    Name: ________________________________

    1. The unit of frequency for one cycle/sec is called? _____________________.

    2. One Coulomb per second is a unit of _____________________?
    a. Electrical charge
    b. Electrical voltage
    c. Electrical current
    d. Electrical resistance
    e. Both b and c

    3. What is a ammeter is used to measure ________________(voltage, current).

    4. What is a Coulomb per sec equal to? __________________________.

    5. An electrical generator that produces 600 cycles in 10 seconds has a frequency of _____________.

    6. Find the charge in coulombs that flows through an electric curling iron in 10 seconds if the iron is
    rated at 6 amperes. (I = q/t )
    a. 60 electrons
    b. 1.67 coulombs
    c. 60 coulombs
    d. 60 amperes

    7. If you have a frequency of 10 cycles/sec, what is its period? _______________.

    8. Using the diagram above and If point A is the starting point at what point does the cycle start over? ______________

    9. In the above graph how many cycles are shown? _______________

    08.02.01 Emergency Care(ChildDev2)

    teacher-scored 40 points possible 60 minutes

    For this assignment, use the information presented in the course materials to answer the following questions:

    (Copy and paste everything between the asterisks.)
    ******************************************************************
    C.P.R.

    1. What does C.P.R. mean?
    2. Do you perform C.P.R. the same on a child as you would on an adult? Why?
    3. What signs tell you if a child needs C.P.R.?